Which cement is used in Construction of DAM? A dam is a physical barrier that restricts the streams of water. The construction of the dam generally happens across for the reason to control floods, provide water for irrigation and generate electricity.
The dam is usually a giant structure, difficult to cast in a single pour. Also, the other technical disability to single continuous pour is the release of heat in the exothermic reaction between the Lime present in the Cement to Water. Now, coming to cement, there are more than 13 types of cement practically available in the market with different USP and purpose of the use.
Let’s understand which cement is beneficial for the case of DAM. The concreting of DAM is a Mass concreting, and the amount of exothermic heat which generates because of the same is tremendous, so the cement shall have low exothermic heat. At the same time, the DAM is a once in a lifetime kind of structure and is heavy on investment and risk (subjected if failed) so the reinforcement shall not corroded because of the alkalis present in the cement so it needs to be free from alkalis,
Being the Mass structure, the factor of shrinkage/creep has to be considered, (even shrinkage of 1% of total height of 20meter structure would lend to more than 7″ which is high for such structure); so the cement shall have an exclusion to development of shrinkage cracks. Last but not the least the Concrete Design mix also plays the important role in the performance of cement and the relevant type of cement is procured.
Also, the cement shall have minimal water absorption once cured, water generally gets absorbed in the small capillary formed during the curing or process results in poor water retention on the surface. The structures are generally segmented in two parts, namely:
- Substructure ~ a supporting or underlying structure below the ground level.
- Superstructure ~ an upward extension of an existing structure above ground level.
The substructure part of the dam is poured using of hydrophobic cement & Portland Slag Cement; whereas the individual or combination of Portland blast furnace with OPC to gain the strength to the construction of the dam, retaining wall & other structures in the periphery. Hope this adds to the understanding & resolves the query.
: Which cement is used in Construction of DAM?
- 0.1 Where is dado used?
- 0.2 What is Type 2 cement used for?
- 1 Why is dado used?
- 2 What does the name dado mean?
- 3 Which of the following are known as basic gates Mcq?
Which cement is used for construction?
1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) – Ordinary Portland Cement also known as OPC is a type of cement that is manufactured and used worldwide. It is widely used for all purposes including:
Concrete : When OPC is mixed with aggregates and water, it makes concrete, which is widely used in the construction of buildings Mortar: For joining masonry Plaster: To give a perfect finish to the walls
Cement companies in Malaysia offer OPC in three different grades, namely grades 33, 43, and 53. Besides the aforementioned purposes, Ordinary Portland cement is also used to manufacture grout, wall putty, solid concrete blocks, AAC blocks, and different types of cement.
What is the dado in construction?
Dado, in Classical architecture, the plain portion between the base and cornice of the pedestal of a column and, in later architecture, the paneled, painted, or otherwise decorated lower part of a wall, up to 2 or 3 feet (60 to 90 cm) above the floor.
Where is dado used?
The dado joint is one of the strongest woodworking joints you can make. A dado joint is made from a three-sided channel cut across the grain of one work piece. A second, mating work piece fits into the slot. Dado joints are often used to build cabinets and bookshelves. Dado joints are easy to make using a table saw or router.
What is dado construction Mcq?
|Balaji said: (Jun 14, 2014)|
|DADO means tiles surface, that prevent the water to the wall.|
What is Type 1 cement used for?
Classes: 325, 425 and 525 This type of cement, that is known as ordinary Portland cement, is used for general purposes where no particular cement characteristics are required. This type of cement is used to build sidewalks, pave the roads, build reinforced concrete bridges, railroads, reservoirs, water pipes and produce mixed mortar to economize. This type of cement, that is known as ordinary Portland cement, is used for general purposes where no particular cement characteristics are required. This type of cement is used to build sidewalks, pave the roads, build reinforced concrete bridges, railroads, reservoirs, water pipes and produce mixed mortar to economize.
What is Type 2 cement used for?
TYPES OF CEMENT AND WHAT THEY DO – Portland Cement is a type of cement, not a brand name. Many cement manufacturers make Portland Cement. It is a basic ingredient of concrete, made using a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and small amounts of other ingredients to which gypsum is added in the final grinding process to regulate the setting time of the concrete.
The Portland Cement Association’s How cement is made provides detailed information of the process. To find out more about what concrete is made of, concrete mix designs, admixtures, and water to cement ratios, read our section ” What Is Concrete ?” Type 1 – Normal portland cement. Type 1 is a general use cement.
Type 2 – Is used for structures in water or soil containing moderate amounts of sulfate, or when heat build-up is a concern. Type 3 – High early strength. Used when high strength are desired at very early periods. Type 4 – Low heat portland cement. Used where the amount and rate of heat generation must be kept to a minimum.
- Type 5 – Sulfate resistant portland cement.
- Used where the water or soil is high in alkali.
- Types IA, IIA and IIIA are cements used to make air-entrained concrete.
- They have the same properties as types I, II, and III, except that they have small quantities of air-entrained materials combined with them.
Types IL, IS, IP and It are blended hydraulic cements that offer a variety of special performance properties. A cement factory (Juan Enrique del Barrio / Shutterstock). These are very short descriptions of the basic types of cement. There are other types for various purposes such as architectural concrete and masonry cements, just to name two examples. Your ready mix company will know what the requirements are for your area and for your particular use.
What is concrete dado?
A dado wall is when the lower section of the wall is different to the top section. – This is usually concrete dado (lower) panel and iron upper section. Dado walls are commonly used for security reasons, however they are also used for storage requirements e.g. bulk storage buildings – Grain, Fertiliser etc. REQUEST A QUOTE
Why is dado used?
Decorative treatment – This area is given a decorative treatment different from that for the upper part of the wall; for example, or, The purpose of the dado treatment to a wall is both aesthetic and functional. Historically, the panelling below the was installed to cover the lower part of the wall which was subject to stains associated with rising damp; additionally it provided protection from furniture and passing traffic.
Why dado tiles are used?
Tiles have proved themselves to be indispensable in modern home decor due to their beauty and functionality. While available in a variety of materials, ceramic and vitrified tiles deserve special mention here, with the materials proving to be durable, waterproof, easy to clean, versatile, and easy to maintain, Dado tiles, commonly referred to as backsplash tiles, are a type of wall tiles that are laid in kitchens and bathrooms. They are located between the upper cabinets and the lower cabinets. These tiles fulfil the protective purpose of shielding the walls against water or food splashes.
- These tiles can be layered behind sinks to protect the wall from water damage due to the frequent water splashing that occurs.
- They possess the quality of keeping walls safe from pests, and insects too.
- Besides being a protective tile, their designs, if chosen correctly, can also add to the aesthetic of the space.
As mentioned before, durable materials such as ceramic, and vitrified material are used to manufacture Dado tiles. Tiles make for a better choice compared to natural stones, since the latter have significant porosity that fails to serve as a protective layer. Floral patterns instantly bring an element of nature to your kitchen space. Infusing happiness into the space, floral tiles are timeless and can elevate the look of your space completely, When used in small spaces, such as the backsplash area, the tile design does not overwhelm the look of the space, but still has the ability to transform the look of the space. Geometric Panache Geometric designs have always been popular in modern house-making. They exude uniformity, precision, sharpness, and help with an overall smooth flow of the design, Geometric patterns have dynamic energy, movement, and iconic shapes – allowing you to make a grand statement in the smallest of spaces. Simple pastel colours look refreshing and calming as kitchen tiles. As they reflect light well, they tend to add an airy essence to the environment, Pastel colours such as light blue or baby pink can be paired with light or wood based cabinets and can enliven your cooking experience. Grey is widely known for oozing balance and refinement – no wonder grey is the primary hue that defines contemporary modern decor! A light grey tile looks great with both darker and lighter furniture, it has an innate ability to bring out popping colours and acts as a perfect background for natural designs like wood, marble, sandstone, etc,
Dado Tiles require a rough vertical surface, proper plumbing, and cross walls at a right angle with each other, As it is with any tile or wall design, it is important to complete plumbing and electrical designs before installing Dado tiles. Once installed, it will be difficult to remove them without breaking them. Soak the tiles in water at least 2 hours before starting the installation process, Consider the positions of taps, cupboards, cabinets, light fixtures, etc., while laying Dado tiles and cut the tiles accordingly. Needless to say, surfaces desired to be laid with Dado tiles should be completely dry before installing them, Check the tiles for similarity in design, pattern, and layout with your desired outcome.
Avoid using heavy tiles or heavy natural stones, as they might be difficult to fix on the wall. Metal hammers should be avoided while tapping tiles as they can crack the tile surface, Instead of leaving overflowed grouting material on the tile surface, clean it immediately with a wet sponge.
Dado tiles can not only protect your walls, but can also help a touch of drama to your space. Gone are the days when plain subway tiles were used as backsplash material, with the advancement of technology, more and more designer tiles are available for the purpose.
What does the name dado mean?
Italian and Swiss Italian: from a personal name of ancient Germanic origin based on the root dad- ‘work’. Slovak (also Ďaďo): variant of Dedo ‘grandfather old man’.
What is the full form of dado?
C. Department of Agriculture development office.
What is construction partition Mcq?
Building Construction Questions and Answers – Types of Partitions – 1 This set of Building Construction Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Types of Partitions – 1”.1. Which of the following is not a type of partition wall? a) Brick partitions b) Glass partitions c) Gum partitions d) Concrete partitions View Answer Answer: c Explanation: A partition wall is a type of wall which is used to divide the space within the building.
- It is of the following types – brick partitions, glass partitions, concrete partitions, metal lath partitions, plaster slab partitions, timber partitions, etc.2.
- Which of the following is an important requirement in the design of internal walls? a) Thermal insulation b) Sound insulation c) Weather exclusion d) Heat View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Sound insulation is an important requirement in the design of internal walls.
An internal wall is a load-bearing partition wall. Strength is also an important factor in the design of internal walls.3. Partition walls are load-bearing walls. a) True b) False View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Partition walls can be either load-bearing or non-load bearing.
- Partition walls are generally non-load bearing walls.
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- A partition wall should be _ a) Heavy and thick b) Light and thick c) Light and thin d) Light and thick View Answer Answer: c Explanation: A partition wall should be as light and as thin as possible.
- Lighter the partitions, the lighter will be the structural elements.
This will result in a better economy of the building.5. Which of the following is a requirement which must be filled by partition walls? a) A partition wall should be heavy b) A partition wall should be fire resistant c) A partition wall should be thick d) A partition wall may not act as a sound barrier View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Some of the requirements that must be filled by partition walls are they should be light and thin.
They must act as a sound barrier. They should be fire resistant and strong enough to carry their own load.6. Hollow clay blocks used for clay block partition walls are not _ a) Good insulator of heat b) Good conductor of heat c) Good insulator of sound d) Fire-resistant View Answer Answer: b Explanation: For the construction of clay block partition walls, hollow clay blocks may be used.
They are good insulators of heat and sound. They are also fire-resistant.7. In hollow clay blocks used for clay block partition walls _ serve as a key to plaster. a) Grooves b) Frog c) Arris d) Kick View Answer Answer: a Explanation: In hollow clay blocks used for clay block partition walls, grooves serve as a key to plaster.
Grooves are provided on the top, bottom and sides of the blocks. A frog is an indentation in the brick for holding the mortar. An arris is an edge of a brick. A kick is another term used for a frog.8. In concrete partitions, concrete mix adopted for precast slab units is _ a) M 10 b) M 15 c) M 20 d) M 25 View Answer Answer: b Explanation: In concrete partitions, concrete mix adopted for precast slab units is usually M 15.
In M 15, M denotes Mix and 15 is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete cube at 28 days in N/mm 2,9. The thickness of cast-in-situ concrete partitions is generally _ a) 80-100 mm b) 80-100 cm c) 40-60 mm d) 40-60 cm View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The thickness of cast-in-situ concrete partitions is generally 80-100 mm.
They are rigid and stable. However, they require large costs for their construction.10. The thickness of precast concrete partitions is generally _ a) 10-15 mm b) 25-40 mm c) 50-80 mm d) 45-60 mm View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Concrete partitions consist of slabs which may be either precast or cast-in-situ.
The thickness of precast concrete partitions is generally 25-40 mm. They are lighter than the cast-in-situ partitions.11. In precast concrete partitions _ is used for jointing. a) Mud mortar b) Lime mortar c) Cement mortar (1:3) d) Cement mortar (1:2) View Answer Answer: c Explanation: In precast concrete partitions, generally, cement mortar (1:3) is used for jointing.
Precast T-shaped or L-shaped units are used for concrete partitions and a lightweight partition is obtained.12. In metal lath partitions, vertically placed channels are called as _ a) Piers b) Piles c) Studs d) Grooves View Answer Answer: c Explanation: In metal lath partitions, channels are placed vertically which are called studs.
They can be 2 cm or 2.5 cm in length. Metal lath is fixed to it on one of its sides.13. What is the distance between the channels placed in metal lath partitions? a) 15-30 cm b) 5-10 cm c) 10-15 cm d) 40-50 cm View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The distance between the channels placed in metal lath partitions is usually 15-30 cm.
The thickness of the partition generally varies between 5 and 7.5 cm.14. In metal lath partitions _ wire is used for tying metal lath to channels. a) Silver b) Copper c) Galvanized iron d) Aluminium View Answer Answer: c Explanation: In metal lath partitions, a galvanized iron wire is used for tying metal lath to channels.
Metal lath partitions are strong and thin. They have high durability and are fire resistant.15. In the figure given below, A represents _ a) Metal lath b) Channel c) Plaster d) Concrete View Answer Answer: b Explanation: The given figure represents a metal lath partition for a solid wall.
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Is used to construct counter Mcq?
Digital Circuits Questions and Answers – Counters
- This set of Digital Electronics/Circuits Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Counters”.
- 1. In digital logic, a counter is a device which _ a) Counts the number of outputs b) Stores the number of times a particular event or process has occurred c) Stores the number of times a clock pulse rises and falls d) Counts the number of inputs
- View Answer
Answer: b Explanation: In digital logic and computing, a counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal.
- 2. A counter circuit is usually constructed of _ a) A number of latches connected in cascade form b) A number of NAND gates connected in cascade form c) A number of flip-flops connected in cascade d) A number of NOR gates connected in cascade form
- View Answer
Answer: c Explanation: A counter circuit is usually constructed of a number of flip-flops connected in cascade. Preferably, JK Flip-flops are used to construct counters and registers.3. What is the maximum possible range of bit-count specifically in n-bit binary counter consisting of ‘n’ number of flip-flops? a) 0 to 2 n b) 0 to 2 n + 1 c) 0 to 2 n – 1 d) 0 to 2 n+1/2 View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The maximum possible range of bit-count specifically in n-bit binary counter consisting of ‘n’ number of flip-flops is 0 to 2 n -1.
- For say, there is a 2-bit counter, then it will count till 2 2 -1 = 3.
- Thus, it will count from 0 to 3.4.
- How many types of the counter are there? a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) 5 View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Counters are of 3 types, namely, (i)asynchronous/synchronous, (ii)single and multi-mode & (iii)modulus counter.
These further can be subdivided into Ring Counter, Johnson Counter, Cascade Counter, Up/Down Counter and such like.5. A decimal counter has _ states. a) 5 b) 10 c) 15 d) 20 View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Decimal counter is also known as 10 stage counter.
- So, it has 10 states.
- It is also known as Decade Counter counting from 0 to 9.6.
- Ripple counters are also called _ a) SSI counters b) Asynchronous counters c) Synchronous counters d) VLSI counters View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Ripple counters are also called asynchronous counter.
- In Asynchronous counters, only the first flip-flop is connected to an external clock while the rest of the flip-flops have their preceding flip-flop output as clock to them.7.
Synchronous counter is a type of _ a) SSI counters b) LSI counters c) MSI counters d) VLSI counters View Answer Answer: c Explanation: Synchronous Counter is a Medium Scale Integrated (MSI). In Synchronous Counters, the clock pulse is supplied to all the flip-flops simultaneously.8.
- Three decade counter would have _ a) 2 BCD counters b) 3 BCD counters c) 4 BCD counters d) 5 BCD counters View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Three decade counter has 30 states and a BCD counter has 10 states.
- So, it would require 3 BCD counters.
- Thus, a three decade counter will count from 0 to 29.9.
- BCD counter is also known as _ a) Parallel counter b) Decade counter c) Synchronous counter d) VLSI counter View Answer Answer: b Explanation: BCD counter is also known as decade counter because both have the same number of stages and both count from 0 to 9.10.
The parallel outputs of a counter circuit represent the _ a) Parallel data word b) Clock frequency c) Counter modulus d) Clock count View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The parallel outputs of a counter circuit represent the clock count. A counter counts the number of times an event takes place in accordance to the clock pulse.
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Which of the following are known as basic gates Mcq?
This article lists 100+ Logic Gates MCQs for engineering students. All the Logic Gates Questions & Answers given below includes solution and link wherever possible to the relevant topic. A logic gate is a device it performs logical operations on one or more than one logical input and produces a single output.
- The inputs for logic gates will be a digital signal and these logic gates perform mathematical operations.
- The XNOR, XOR, NOT, NAND, AND, OR, and NOR gates are the basic logic gates.
- The logic gates can be made from discrete components such as transistors, resistors, and diodes.
- The RTL, DTL, IIL, TTL, ECL, MOS, and CMOS are seven types of logic families.
The logical gates are categorized into three groups they are basic gates, universal gates, and arithmetic gates. NOT, AND, & OR are basic gates, NAND & NOR are universal gates, X-OR & X-NOR are athematic gates. The features of the emitter-coupled logic family are it is the fastest logic family, used in very high-frequency applications, and it has a very large fan-out.
Fan-in explains how many inputs can be there with a given logical gate whereas Fan-out explains how many similar gates can be driven by a given logical gate.1). The logical gates are categorized into _ One group Two groups Three groups Four groups Hint 2). _ are basic gates NOT NAND AND NOT, AND, & OR Hint 3).
_ are universal gates NOT NAND & NOR AND NOT, AND, & OR Hint 4). _ are arithmetic gates NOT NAND & NOR X-OR & X-NOR NOT, AND, & OR Hint 5). _ are the common forms of complex logic gates OR-AND-Invert (OAI) AND-OR-Invert (AOI) Both OAI and AOI None of the above Hint 6).
What is the standard form of DCDVS logic? Differential Cascade Voltage Switch Differential Cascade Voltage Static Differential Complex Voltage Switch None of the above Hint 7). What are the advantages of static complementary gates? Reliable Not easy to use Not reliable Reliable and easy to use Hint 8).
Who invented Boolean algebra? Bardeen Claude Shannon George Boole None of the above Hint 9). How many terminals do MOS transistors have? One b) c) d) Two Three Four Hint 10). _ are the alternative form of canonical form Sum of products Product of sums Both a and b None of the above Hint 11).
- The sum of products canonical forms also known as _ Minterm expansion Disjunctive normal form Both a and b None of the above Hint 12).
- The product of sums canonical forms also known as _ Maxterm expansion Conjunctive normal form Both a and b None of the above Hint 13).
- Is an example of identity law a+0=0+a=a 1+a=a+1=1 ab=ba a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c Hint 14).
_ is an example of dominance law a+0=0+a=a 1+a=a+1=1 ab=ba a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c Hint 15). _ is an example of commutativity law a+0=0+a=a 1+a=a+1=1 ab=ba a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c Hint 16). _ is an example of associativity law a+0=0+a=a 1+a=a+1=1 ab=ba a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c Hint 17).
- Is an example of distributive law a+0=0+a=a 1+a=a+1=1 a+bc=(a+b)(a+c) a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c Hint 18).
- Combinational logic is used to _ Compute outputs Compute new states Both a and b None of the above Hint 19).
- The sequential logic contains _ Memory elements Memory is provided by feedback Both a and b None of the above Hint 20).
_ are the methods used to represent negative integer numbers 1’s compliment Sign magnitude 2’s compliment All of the above Hint 21). How many types of number systems are there? Hint 22). The base is 16 for _ number system Binary Hexadecimal Decimal Octal Hint 23).
The American standard code for information interchange has _ characters 64 25 128 None of the above Hint 24). What is the standard form of ECDIC? Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code Extended Binary Coded hexadecimal Interchange Code Extended Binary Coded Decimal Information Code None of the above Hint 25).
How many types of parities are there? Hint
What is Type 3 cement used for?
TDS. TCC.100722 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Portland Cement Type III is a low-alkali, special purpose hydraulic cement used to make concrete for a variety of building construction, repairs, grouts, or mortar applications where higher early strength than Type I-II Portland is needed.
What is Type 1 and Type 2 cement?
Type I is a general purpose portland cement suitable for most uses. Type II is used for structures in water or soil containing moderate amounts of sulfate. Type II(MH) is a moderately sulfate resistant cement that also generates moderate heat during curing.
Where is Type V cement used?
A Closer Look: Cement Types I Through V Editor’s Note: This is the second article in a year-long series explaining common raw materials used in precast. By Kayla Hanson, P.E. E vidence of cementitious material use dates back to the beginning of recorded history.
Egyptians used a blend of cementitious materials as a mortar to secure each 2.5-ton quarried stone block of the Great Pyramid more than 4,500 years ago. Romans employed a pozzolanic cementitious blend to construct aqueducts and other engineering marvels including the Pantheon, whose roof is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world.
Europeans in the Middle Ages used hydraulic cement to construct canals and fortresses, some of which still stand today. Today, we primarily use portland cement in our concrete. Ingredients in modern portland cements are carefully selected, manufactured, tested, and regulated for quality and consistency.
Portland cement specifications ASTM C150, “Standard Specification for Portland Cement,” outlines 10 cement types, five of which are generally regarded as the primary types of cement used in precast plants: Type I – Normal/General Purpose Type II – Moderate Sulfate Resistance Type III – High Early Strength Type IV – Low Heat of Hydration Type V – High Sulfate Resistance Type I Type I cement is considered a general, all-purpose cement and is used when the special properties of the other cement types are not required. Type II
Type II cement is specified in scenarios where the concrete product is required to exhibit increased resistance to sulfates. Concrete made with Type II cement can be useful for underground structures in areas where soil and groundwater contain moderate levels of sulfates, as well as in roadways, transportation products, and more.
Type III Type III cement offers expedited early-age strength development. Because colder ambient temperatures can cause cement to hydrate slower, Type III cement is often used in cold weather concreting applications to expedite strength development in the early stages of cement hydration. Type III cement is also beneficial when precasters cast the same form twice in one day.
Type IV Type IV cement generates less heat during hydration and curing than ordinary Type I portland cement. When conducting mass pours or casting large-volume concrete products, Type IV cement is often used to lessen the amount of heat generated and reduce the risk of flash setting or thermal shock.
- Type IV cement’s ability to generate less heat during hydration is also beneficial in hot weather concreting applications where fresh concrete may cure at an expedited rate due to high ambient temperatures.
- Type V Type V cement is used in concrete products where extreme sulfate resistance is necessary.
Coastal structures, piers, underwater tunnels, submerged structures, foundations, roadways and transportation products are all common applications for Type V cement.
What is Type S and Type N cement?
A guide to selecting the right mortar for the materials, process, product – By Mortar selection impacts both the construction process and the quality of the finished masonry product. Unfortunately, mortar selection is not always given proper consideration in planning for a masonry construction project.
facilitate the placement of units, contribute to the serviceability of masonry, provide required structural performance, and exhibit the desired appearance.
Consideration to each of these areas of performance needs to be given in the selection of mortar type and mortar materials. Different members of the design and construction team have different perspectives on the relative importance of these areas of performance.
The engineer focuses on the structural implications of mortar selection, the architect looks at appearance, and the mason contractor expects a workable product to facilitate productivity. The owner/builder wants a completed project, delivered on time and within budget, which will serve his needs. The relative influence different team members have on mortar selection varies from project to project.
However, a balanced perspective is needed in the selection process. Basic principles to remember are:
No one mortar type is best for all applications No one mortar type will rate the highest in all areas of performance No single mortar property defines mortar quality
Mortar Types ASTM Standard Specifications provide a means for specifiers to identify acceptable materials and products without limiting those items to specific brands or manufacturers. Project specifications should reference ASTM C 270, the Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry.
Mason contractors and specifiers need to understand the provisions of that specification and available options. ASTM C 270 defines four different types of mortars intended to address the variety of needs stemming from different masonry applications. Type N mortar is a general-purpose mortar that provides good workability and serviceability.
It is commonly used in interior walls, above-grade exterior walls under normal loading conditions, and in veneers. Type S mortar is used in structural load-bearing applications and for exterior applications at or below grade. It also provides increased resistance to freeze-thaw deterioration.
- Type M is a high-strength mortar that may be considered for load bearing or demanding freeze-thaw applications.
- Type O is a low-strength mortar that is sometimes used for interior masonry or repointing.
- ASTM C 270 provides two alternatives for specifying mortars: proportion specifications and property specifications.
Under the proportion specifications, mortar ingredients must meet indicated product standards and be volumetrically proportioned within limits. No physical requirements are placed on the mortar itself. Under the property specifications, in addition to meeting the individual product standards, mortar materials mixed in the laboratory using job site proportions must meet certain property requirements.
- Either the proportion specifications or the property specifications should be selected, not both.
- If project specifications do not indicate which has been selected, the proportion specifications govern, unless data qualifying the mortar under the property specification are presented to and accepted by the specifier.
It should be understood that the property requirements of ASTM C 270 are for laboratory specimens and are not for field quality control. The ASTM standard presumes that the proportions developed in the laboratory to meet the property requirements will result in satisfactory performance in the field.
- Field testing is not required, and if field testing of compressive strength is conducted, results are not required or expected to meet the minimum compressive strength requirements of the property specifications.
- Mortar Materials ASTM C 270 places requirements on component mortar materials (water, sand, cementitious materials, and possibly admixtures).
For example, sand must meet the requirements of ASTM C 144, masonry cement must conform to ASTM C 91, mortar cement to ASTM C 1329, portland cement to ASTM C 150, and hydrated lime to ASTM C 207. It is important to understand the contribution of each component material to the performance of mortar.
- Water acts as a lubricant in the plastic mortar and is required for hydration of the cement.
- Strength gain of mortar is not related to evaporation of water but to the chemical combination of water with cement compounds in the mortar.
- Since some mixing water is lost to absorptive units and evaporation, the maximum amount of water consistent with optimum workability should be added to mortar.
Masonry sand provides the basic “framework” for mortar. Sand particles are coated and lubricated by the mortar paste to provide body and flowability required in the plastic mortar and are bonded together as the paste hardens to provide required structural properties.
Sand quality affects both workability characteristics of plastic mortar and properties of hardened mortar such as compressive strength, bond strength, and drying shrinkage. Masonry cement is a hydraulic cement, that is, it hardens by chemically reacting with water and will do so under water. It consists of portland or blended cement and inorganic plasticizing materials (such as pulverized limestone, hydrated or hydraulic lime) together with other agents introduced to optimize workability, board life and water retention, contribute to improved durability; and reduce drying shrinkage and water absorption of mortar.
Mortar cement is a relatively new product designed for use in demanding structural masonry applications. Mortar cement, like masonry cement, is a hydraulic cement, primarily used to produce masonry mortar. However, mortar cement must meet lower maximum air content limits than masonry cement and is the only mortar material or system that has minimum bond strength requirements.
Whether present as an integral part of masonry cement or as a separate ingredient added at the mixer with hydrated lime, portland cement acts as the glue, which holds the mortar and, ultimately, the masonry, together. Compressive strength and bond strength are related to the portland cement content of mortar.
Hydrated lime may be batched with portland cement, sand, and water at the job site. In this system, lime functions as a plasticizer contributing to workability, board life, and water retention of the mortar. Either air-entrained portland cement or air-entrained hydrated lime may be used to improve the workability and durability of the portland cement-hydrated lime mortar.
However, air-entrained cement and air-entrained lime should not be combined in the same mix. Selection Once the design loads, type of structure, and masonry units have been determined, the mortar type can be selected. It should be remembered that stronger is not necessarily better when selecting mortar for unit masonry.
For example, it is not typically necessary to use Type M mortar for high-strength masonry. Type S will provide comparable strength of masonry, and in fact the Masonry Standards Joint Committee’s design standard ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 does not distinguish between the structural properties of masonry constructed using Type S mortar from that constructed using Type M mortar.
- Moreover, Type S and Type N generally have better workability, board life, and water retention.
- As a rule of thumb, the specifier should not require use of a mortar of higher compressive strength than necessary to meet structural design criteria.
- Unless otherwise indicated, either a masonry cement or cement-lime mortar may be used.
Masonry cement mortars, generally offering improved convenience, workability, durability, and uniformity, are used in a majority of masonry construction. For structural masonry, the designer may require Type S cement- lime mortar or mortar cement mortar if the allowable tensile flexural stress values associated with these mortars have been used in the design of the masonry.
- Codes may also require the use of Type S cement-lime or mortar cement mortars for structural masonry in high seismic performance categories.
- In addition to structural requirements, the properties of units and expected environmental conditions should be considered.
- For example, more workable, water retentive mortars are better suited for use with high absorption units than a high-strength, low water retentive mortar.
Conversely, with a low absorption unit under cold weather construction conditions, a less water retentive, faster setting mortar is desirable. Special attention to mortar selection should be given when severe exposure conditions are expected. Type O mortar should not be used in saturated freezing conditions.
- For severe frost action such as horizontal paving applications, Type M mortar should be considered.
- Air-entrainment should be used to improve freeze-thaw durability.
- Summary As can be seen from this discussion, selection of mortar though appearing to be a simple matter, involves some rather complex issues related to materials, design, and construction.
Ideally, input from the engineer, architect, mason contractor,and owner would be considered along with influencing factors such as weather conditions to optimize the selection of mortar on a project. In reality, the design-bid-build process used for most masonry construction precludes that level of interaction.
Which is better Type 1 or Type 1P cement?
Abstract – Deterioration of 20th century reinforced concrete structures has become a major issue in recent years, the problem is associated with the corrosion of reinforcement steel due to carbonation and chloride attack. Type 1 and Type 1P cement are usually used in construction in the Philippines.
- Performance of Type 1P concrete is explored since it is gaining popularity today.
- Type 1P is cheaper than Type 1 cement thus, their performance in different curing periods is compared.
- In this study, the corrosion performance of Type 1 and Type 1P concrete was tested using Impressed Voltage Test (IVT).
Both concrete specimens have a water-to-cement ratio of 0.55.Results indicated that longer curing period in both Type 1 and 1P cement concrete increase the resistivity and reduce the permeability of concrete. Also, Type 1P concrete has better performance in both curing periods than Type 1 concrete but their difference is not significant.
Which cement grade is best for construction?
1.Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC): – There are three grades of OPC available:33 grade,43 grade and 53-grade cement. Cement grade is based on the compression strength (Mpa) of the concrete that will attain after 28 days of setting. Grade 33 refers to the cement attaining compression strength of 33 Mpa in 28 days of setting.
This is same for 43 and 53 grades of cement. Grade 33 and 43 were used for construction in the past. As per IS standard code Grade 53 grade of cement is recommended for house construction.53-grade cement can be partially replaced with 20% of fly ash by the weight of cement in the construction site and can be used.
Partial replacement of cement by fly ash not only saves cost but also improves the durability properties of cement due to the pore refinement (achieved by adding fly ash). This also increases workability and increases strength. OPC cement is used for structural elements like beams, columns etc.
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Which cement is best for construction OPC or PPC?
Portland Pozzolana Cements Features –
It has less initial setting strength but hardens over time Manufacturing process is difficult It can resist sulphate attacks Has better durability and workability Cost is less compared to OPC
Features of Best Cement For House Construction If you are looking for high durability and workability, then we would recommend PPC as the best cement for you. However, if you are looking for a less initial setting then we suggest you use OPC as the best cement for house construction.