Download Article Download Article Man-hours are a crucial element in submitting a winning project bid as well as charging for work completed. Because labor constitutes such a large portion of any contract work, estimating and reporting hours accurately is crucial to having a successful business.
- 1 Divide your project into components. The first part of calculating the man-hours you will need to do a job is to split up the project into smaller components. Then estimate the amount of hours needed to complete each component. These components should be designated according to the type of labor involved. If you are building an apartment complex, you will need excavation, construction, electrical, plumbing, and so on. Make sure that every component of your project is included in the estimate.
- 2 Determine the type of workers you need. This largely depends on the complexity of the tasks that need to be accomplished. You don’t need a foreman to do every job. Some simpler tasks can be done by assistants or apprentices. Figuring this out is harder for larger jobs that require a mix of labor to do tasks that range from simple to complex. Advertisement
- 3 Estimate the time needed to complete each component. Once you have determined your components and the types of labor each requires, estimate the total number of man-hours it would take your workers to complete a step from start to finish. Do not include breaks. This number should be the hours of dedicated labor it will take to finish a step.
- If you are familiar with the type of work required in a step, you can draw from past projects to get time estimates. For example, if you know it took one worker ten hours to install four new windows, or 2.5 hours per window, your current project will likely be similar.
- If a step in your project includes a type of labor you’re not familiar with, you should do some research in preparing your estimate. Depending on the project, you may be able to get valuable information online or from another contractor. You can also hire a consultant familiar with the type of labor you need. This person can help you estimate the hours required in a certain step.
- Factor in things like job difficulty when making your estimate. If the windows on your upcoming project are on the seventh story of a building, and your old project’s windows were on the first story, increase your hours-per-window rate to reflect this difference.
- Include estimates for time spent on administrative tasks that may be required by the contract.
- 4 Include hours for supervisors. You may also include project hours for a foreman or manager, who will lead the team of workers and manage reporting details and timeline compliance. Some projects may require more than one supervisor or foreman, managing different components of the project. Other projects may require different levels of supervision. You may have foreman managing workers in different components of the project and an overall supervisor who manages all of the foremen.
- 5 Use your estimates to prepare a project timeline. Your client will likely specify a time for completion of the project. Perhaps he will ask you to indicate in your bid how soon you can complete your work. You can use the steps and hours you have calculated to develop a project timeline.
Determine which components can be completed simultaneously and which must be completed sequentially, where the input of one process depends upon the output of the previous process. If you know when each step of the project needs to be completed, you can divide the number of hours needed to complete a step by the number of eight-hour workdays in the time period.
You may be able to extend or shorten the project timeline by adding or removing laborers. The more laborers you have, the faster you can complete a step.
- Some projects may require more than 8 hour days or 40 hours week to meet schedule. They will require overtime which should be charged to the job
- For example, if you have one month to lay the foundation of a new home, and you know the foundation requires 1000 hours of labor, divide 1000 by the number of eight-hour workdays in the month to calculate the number of laborers you need to hire to complete that step on time. (1000 project hours / 20 work days in the month = 50 hours per day; 50 hours per day / 8 hours per worker = 6.25 laborers needed.) Round the number of laborers up or down to a whole number, and adjust accordingly the number of workdays required.
- Be realistic about the number of workers you can hire in a given time period. If you need seven electricians to complete wiring in a week, this may be unrealistic, depending on the availability of electricians in your area. You may need to extend your timeline to accommodate the availability of labor for your project.
- If you plan to complete multiple steps at the same time, you’ll need separate laborers to work on each step.
- 6 Prepare and submit your bid. Add the hours for each type of labor you need, so you have a total for each type. If you require just one type of labor, you can combine all of the project hours into one number. If you need multiple types of labor, your bid should specify the total hours for each type.
- As an example, imagine you have been hired to install a new kitchen in a medium-sized home. You have divided your project into steps, each requiring plumbing, electrical, and general construction work. Your bid should reflect the total electrician man-hours, plumber man-hours, and general-laborer man-hours, as well as the pay rates for each type of labor.
- 7 Adjust your man-hour estimates as the work progresses. Because time estimates are really just guesses, you will need to update your estimates as your project goes along. You will probably bill your client based on the actual hours your team works, so you should provide your client updated hourly estimates as time passes.
- Include a “fudge factor,” which is an increase in estimated time due to unknown causes. The amount of fudge factor depends upon the complexity of the job, availability of labor, dependence upon outside agents, and the relationship of one process to another.
- Most contractors make it clear that their bid is only an estimate, that actual hours will vary, and that clients will pay for actual hours worked as the job progresses. However, it is possible a client will want to pay you a lump sum based on your estimate and not pay for actual hours worked. Pay close attention to any contract language that would signal this kind of arrangement, as this requires very careful estimation on the part of the contractor.
- If your client will pay you based on actual hours worked, remember that your bid served as an estimate, and that you should not charge for significantly more hours than you planned unless you can cite reasonable justification. If you run into problems and know you are going to go over your time estimates, keep the client informed in order to prevent miscommunication.
- Have a written agreement that defines contingencies and out-of-scope work. Include the process for identifying and approving these changes, such as necessary approvals and documentation.
- 1 Collect information on your workers. Maintain accurate employee files for everyone working on your project. That will include payroll records and all legally required documents. If you are using engineers, electricians, plumbers, or other licensed workers, you will need to keep on file proof of their active certifications.
- You may pay people who are not your employees to do work on your project. These “subcontractors” work for you, the contractor, and you bill your client for their labor. Even though subcontractors are not actually your employees, you should gather their certification information and keep it on file. As the contractor, you are responsible for ensuring that anyone you hire to work on a project is qualified, unless otherwise specified in their contract.
- Government contracts generally require additional employee and subcontractor information indicating compliance with federal law. This may include reporting on employees’ ethnicity and pay rates to ensure there is no discrimination taking place on the jobsite. If you have a government contract, read it carefully and follow all of the instructions for hiring and reporting in order to prevent difficulty in getting paid.
- 2 Track your workers’ time. To submit accurate reports to your client, you need a reliable method of tracking how many hours your workers are on the job. You can use a time clock or a written time sheet, but these records should be verified to ensure they are accurate.
- One way to ensure the accuracy of time reporting is to establish supervisors over each employee or employee group. At the end of the week when an employee submits his or her timecard, the supervisor can review and sign the card, certifying the information is correct. This will prevent employees from submitting time cards for hours they did not work.
- You may also consider using an electronic timecard system to track your employees’ work on the job. Be sure the system is controlled to prevent abuse. You’ll want to be able to prove that’s the case if your hourly reporting comes under question.
- Government clients are required by law to gather all of this information before paying their contractors, because they are using taxpayer money to pay for the work. You can expect a heightened level of scrutiny when reporting time on government jobs. Carefully follow all reporting instructions detailed in your agreement.
- 3 Send your client payroll reports at regular intervals. Your contract should specify how often you are to report man-hours to your client in order to receive payment. When you submit these reports, you will likely transfer information from your payroll and timekeeping documents to a dedicated report for your client comparing a number of hours you are charging to the estimates you submitted during bidding. If there are large variances between your actual hours and your estimates, you will need to provide explanations of these variances to your client.
- 4 Use your records to prepare future estimates. At the end of a project, your time-tracking information will be extremely valuable, as it gives you details about how long it took to complete specific jobs. You can use this data to create hourly estimates, such as the number of hours per square foot of laid tile or the down time after laying fresh cement. Use this information to improve your future bids and keep your business profitable.
Ask a Question 200 characters left Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Submit Advertisement Article Summary X To calculate man-hours, start by dividing your project into separate components, like excavation, construction, and plumbing.
Then, estimate how many hours of labor it will take to complete each component. Next, divide the number of hours by the number of 8-hour workdays within the amount of time you have to complete the project. Finally, divide that number by 8 hours to find out how many workers you would need to finish the project.
To learn how to report hours for a contract job, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 347,193 times.
- 1 How do you calculate the manpower requirement of a finishing section?
- 2 What is a manpower requirement?
- 3 Why do we need manpower requirements?
- 4 What is manpower ratio?
- 5 What is labour cost formula?
How do you calculate manpower requirements?
Manpower Calculation by Industry – Productivity can be defined as the amount of output that is generated with a given amount of input. Depending on the industry, the output may be goods, services or sales; the manpower productivity formula is essentially the same.
How are Mandays calculated?
Man-days available for a year, of a single resource, may be determined easily: 365 days minus non-working weekend days (104 days), minus annual national holidays (10 days), and deduct planned vacation days (say 20 days).
How do you calculate the manpower requirement of a finishing section?
How to Calculate Manpower Requirement of Finishing Section? Question: How to calculate manpower strength required in garment finishing? Please advice how to apply Industrial Engineering methods to improve finishing efficiency?, asked by Raju To determine manpower requirement in finishing section follow the below steps 1.
Define what all works/tasks that you perform in finishing section like checking, thread cutting, pressing, measurement, folding etc.2. Time study of each work with your current workers OR do capacity study of your finishing room workers for each types of work. For example, as per your capacity study a worker can check 10 pieces/ hour, a folder can fold 25 pieces/hour.
Or 80 pieces per day and 200 pieces per day respectively.3. Now find the figure of Daily Production Target for finishing section. (Suppose finishing target 800 pieces daily) 4. So, manpower required in a finishing process = (Target quantity/ capacity per worker per day).
How do you calculate manpower hours?
Productivity is the amount of output a firm generates compared to a certain input. Production pieces are units your business generates as an output. A man-hour is a type of input that is equal to one hour of work an employee performs in making production pieces.
You can calculate your firm’s productivity by determining the number of production pieces you make per man-hour. Producing a greater number of pieces per man-hour represents a higher level of productivity, which may help your firm lower costs and increase profits. Step 1 Determine the number of pieces or units your business produces in a certain period of time, such as one month.
For example, assume your business produces 50,000 pieces in one month. Step 2 Determine the number of workers you employed during the same time period and the number of hours each employee worked. In this example, assume you employed 10 workers who each worked 160 hours during the month.
- Step 3 Multiply the number of workers by the number of hours each one worked to calculate the number of man-hours your business used during that time period.
- In this example, multiply 10 workers by 160 hours per worker to get 1,600 man-hours.
- This means that you produced 50,000 pieces using 1,600 man-hours.
Step 4 Divide the number of pieces produced by the number of man-hours to calculate the pieces produced per man-hour. Continuing with the example, divide 50,000 pieces produced by 1,600 man-hours to get 31.3 pieces produced per man-hour.
What is a manpower requirement?
Manpower Requirements and Operations in a Business Proposal By Melinda Hill Sineriz Updated December 27, 2018 Writing a winning business proposal can be a critical part of expanding your business. An informal meeting with a potential new client sets the stage, but a thoughtful, personalized business proposal can help you seal the deal.
- As you craft your business proposal, two important areas to consider are the manpower requirements of the project and the operational requirements of the project.
- These areas will help inform the project deliverables, milestones and overall budget.
- The purpose of a business proposal is to win new business, so it should be written with sales in mind.
Some industries have a specific template that’s commonly used, so if you’re uncertain of the correct format, connect with peers in your network to find out proposal specifics. In particular, federal and state governments bids may have specific requirements that you need to meet.
- In general, business proposals have five to six sections.
- These include an introduction, an executive summary, details about the project, deliverables and project milestones, a breakdown of the budget for the project and the conclusion.
- In the introduction, you can provide a brief overview of your business and why it’s well-suited for this particular project.
In the executive summary, you can provide an overview of the project itself. Next, give more details about the project, including your operational and manpower planning. Your deliverables and project milestones can be spelled out in the simple table. Your budget breakdown can also be delivered in a table and should include your manpower proposal for the project.
- Overall, business proposals tend to be relatively short and easy-to-read.
- Before you write your business proposal, consider the manpower you’ll need for this project.
- Your manpower requirements definition may include managers, front-line employees and employees with special skill sets required for this project.
Define the roles of each member of your proposed team and how they will interact with each other. Estimate how long it will take for each team member to complete their portion of the project. Use that estimate to determine your manpower costs, keeping in mind their salary, their employee benefits, payroll taxes and other costs associated with their employment.
When you address manpower requirements in your business proposal, you may not need to include this level of detail. This level of planning can help you develop an accurate budget, though. Be sure to include a cushion for unexpected costs such as overtime. Your operational plan will influence several areas of your business proposal.
For example, it will play a large role in the section where you spell out the details of your project. You may want to include a brief description of how your product is made, as well as your supply chain. You should also describe the quality control measures you have in place to ensure a high-quality product or service.
As you develop your project budget, keep in mind operational requirements such as the type of physical space you’ll need, any special equipment you will need to purchase, any special materials you’ll need to obtain, storage costs and delivery costs. You may not need to go into this level of detail in your proposed budget, but using a high level of detail for planning ensures a higher level of accuracy, which can help prevent cost overruns.
: Manpower Requirements and Operations in a Business Proposal
How is manpower rate calculated?
How do you calculate labor rate? Add the full cost of what it takes an employee to create a product or complete a service. This includes their wages, taxes, and benefits. Then divide that total by the number of hours an employee works.
How are mandays and man hours calculated?
How to calculate the man days if total no of working days are 153 with 417 labour? ALL DISCUSSIONS (LIST) kkdas1959 7 Please explain how to calculate the man days if total no of working days are 153 days and maximum number of contract labour employed any day 417.2nd January 2017 From India, Kolkata Mobile-first hire to retire HR and Payroll software that automates all HR operations and works as a catalysts for your organisational growth. amit aishwary choudhary 137 -When planning for a major business project or establishing annual goals, looking at the costs of labor is essential to determining whether you will be able to meet your financial goals. Looking at man hours in terms of standard labor costs and overtime wages helps managers keep budgets accurate and on track.
- Calculating man hours is often used in preparation for a contract bid, common in the construction industry.
- For an annual budget, remove all non-working days from the work year.
- Do the same for a project planned to be completed over a shorter period of time.
- Assume you have a 12-week project with employees working a 10-hour day, five days a week.
There are two national holidays in the time period when your employees will not work. There are five employees on the job. -Multiply the five-day work week by 12 weeks: 12 * 5 = 60. Subtract the two holidays for 58 days. Multiply the number of work days by 10 hours per day: 58 * 10 = 580 (these are the project hours per employee).
What is 1 man day?
Noun – man – day ( plural man-days )
One person’s working time for a day, or the equivalent, used as a measure of how much work or labor is required or consumed to perform some task,
How do you calculate required work?
Work can be calculated with this equation: Work = Force x Distance. The SI unit for work is the Newton meter (N m). One joule equals the amount of work that is done when 1 N of force moves an object over a distance of 1 m.
How is 7.6 hours calculated?
What does the 38 hour week actually mean? Hi Bare Bones Consulting, I’m not sure how to explain the 7.6 hour day to my employees and how this relates to their knock-off times each day under the 38 hour week in their Award. I don’t want to provide the wrong info or fall into the overtime payment trap can you assist? Good question and the relationship between 7.6 hours per day and 38 hour week thing is source of confusion for many employers and employees.
- Interestingly, much of the confusion rests with how long you give your employees to eat their sandwiches (or, if you’re in certain hipster areas, their poke bowls).
- Although I’m tempted to sign off on that cryptic note, let’s take a walk through Australian Industrial Relations history to check out how 38 hours came about and go from there.
In 1927, the Arbitration Court decided to reduce ordinary weekly working hours from 48 to 44. The 40 hour working week was adopted in 1947 and, in 1983, the Australian Conciliation and Arbitration Commission introduced the 38 hour week. Most of us in full time employment are used to working a 5-day week, Monday to Friday.
- Dividing 38 hours by 5 days gives us 7.6 hours each day.7.6 hours equates to 7 hours 36 minutes.
- Nowhere’s where the sandwiches come in.
- Unless otherwise specified, a reference to a meal break in a Modern Award usually means the break is unpaid.
- An unpaid lunch break would therefore not form part of the employee’s ordinary hours of work.
Assuming your employees commence at the same time each day, their finishing times will depend on how long they take for lunch.
If taking a 30-minute meal break, an employee commencing work at 9.00am would formally complete ordinary hours at 5.06pm. Any time after this would be considered overtime. If taking a 60-minute meal break, an employee commencing work at 9.00am would formally complete ordinary hours at 5.36pm. Any time after this would be considered overtime.
I know very few businesses still offering one hour for lunch. Most Monday-Friday employees are generally in the habit of finishing work at 5.00pm each day, hence the move to the shorter 30 minute lunch break and earlier finish. Modern Awards will provide clarification on minimum meal and rest breaks within your particular industry.
- All good? Think of the delicious poke you can afford now that your 38 hour week queries are solved! Bare Bones Consulting can help with answers to simple employment queries or to your more complex workplace challenges.
- We specialise in plain English explanations and solutions that work in your real worldat value for money prices.
Any consulting fees are an expense but we prefer to think of our fees as an investment in your business. And a smart investment. Call us now for a chat on how we can help you. : What does the 38 hour week actually mean?
What are the 4 steps of manpower planning?
Steps to Human Resource Planning – There are four general, broad steps involved in the human resource planning process. Each step needs to be taken in sequence in order to arrive at the end goal, which is to develop a strategy that enables the company to successfully find and retain enough qualified employees to meet the company’s needs.
Why do we need manpower requirements?
Impact on Productivity – The link between manpower and company projects is fairly simple: Manpower is proportional to productivity. The more people are available to work, the faster projects can be completed or the more projects a company can take on.
What is manpower ratio?
Manpower Planning The process of determining manpower requirements of an organization. It assesses current manpower and forecast the future manpower required. It helps in moving from the current manpower position to the desired manpower position. That is planning to have the right number and right kind of people at right place and right time to do work which result in both the organization and the individual receiving maximum long range benefit.
- To recruit and retain the human resources of required quality and quantity.
- To foresee employee turnover.
- To foresee the impact of technology and needs.
- To improve standard,knowledge,skill of existing employees.
- To assess surplus or shortage of manpower.
- To effectively use the existing manpower.
Steps in Manpower Planning Analyze the Corporate And Department Strategies Manpower planning is dependent on the company’s corporate strategy. For e.g : Expansion,Diversification,Acquisitions,Merger may demand additional manpower. Strategies like divestment, closure, turnaround will ask for a reduction in manpower.
The company level strategy is then divided into individual department strategy. Demand forecasting It is not merely finding out how many employees. One needs the right kind of employees also. Hence the existing job design and analysis should be reviewed keeping in mind the future capabilities, knowledge and skill.
Methods of Demand Forecasting Managerial Judgment: Here a manager decide the number of employees required for future operations based on their past experience. Statistical Techniques : Ratio Analysis and regression models. Under ratio trend analysis, ratios are calculated for the past data and these ratios are used for the estimation of the future manpower requirements.
Under ratio trend analysis, ratios are calculated for the past data and these ratios are used for the estimation of the future manpower requirements Ratio Analysis Ratio establishes a relation between two things. In terms of manpower planning ratios establish a relationship between a particular factor such as past staffing levels or future sales revenue predictions and employee staffing requirements.
The factor setting the comparison standard is the first number in the ratio, and the staffing requirement is the second number. Two different ratio methods are used in human resource forecasting: staffing ratios and productivity ratios. Staffing Ratio : 10 Assistants for every 40 Managers.
- Example – a ratio of 200:1 based on sales revenues
- It can mean that for every Rs 200000 in sales revenues, HR estimates the department will need one employee.
- If sales revenue predictions for the coming year are set at Rs 200,0000 the department will need to maintain a staff equivalent to 10 employees.
- Linear Regression may also be used to estimate the manpower necessary at a future point in time, based upon such factors as sales, output or services rendered.
- Delphi Technique
The Delphi Technique is a method of human resources forecasting that uses input from a group to analyze staffing history / planning. A group of senior managers, business consultants or a combination of related business people familiar with the organization’s staffing history answers questions about staffing, and their answers are compiled and used for the group to review individually.
- The group doesn’t get together physically, but is coordinated by a facilitator who distributes the questionnaires, compiles answers and returns the information to the panel participants for further review until there is a refinement of the staffing forecasting needs.
- The experts are kept anonymous from each other to prevent bias and group-think and get information that is as objective and accurate as possible.
- Supply Forecasting
- Obtain information about existing manpower. We need to determine the number of employees across departments, designation, job family, demography)
- Net Human Resource Requirements
- Potential Additions: Transfers, Promotion, Demotion, New Hires
- Potential Losses: Resignation, Retirement, Death, VRS, Transfer Out
- Action Plan (Surplus and Deficit)
Based on the net manpower requirements we can ascertain whether we have a surplus or a deficit in manpower. Necessary Steps should be taken for each.
- Monitor and Control
- To implement and supervise the entire Manpower planning Process and ensure changes based on the feedback received.
: Manpower Planning
What is labour cost formula?
3. Calculate the labor cost per unit – The labor cost per unit is obtained by multiplying the direct labor hourly rate by the time required to complete one unit of a product. For example, if the hourly rate is $16.75, and it takes 0.1 hours to manufacture one unit of a product, the direct labor cost per unit equals $1.68 ($16.75 x 0.1).
How does HR determine the need for manpower?
Demand Forecasting – Basically, demand forecasting is the process by which the human resources department estimates the future quality and number of people required. It should be based on the long-term corporate plan and on the annual budget, which will then be translated into activity levels, for the different functions and departments.
- There are many factors that should be considered in demand forecasting.
- The external ones include changes in social and technological factors as well as the economic climate both locally and internationally.
- Internal factors include the production levels of the organizations, the organization’s own budget constraints, the organizational structure, and the separation of employees.
The benefits of demand forecasting include, among others, the following: The organization will be able to quantify the number of jobs needed to produce the organization’s goods. It will help the organization prevent a shortage of skill, when and where it is needed most.
The organization will be able to determine which mix of staff is most desirable in the future. The organization will be able to monitor its own compliance with legal requirements, as far as the reservation of jobs is concerned. The organization will be able to assess the appropriate staffing levels that are needed in different parts of the organization and will avoid unnecessary costs.
Supply Forecasting Supply forecasting is the process by which the organization measures how many people will be available both internally and externally in the future, after making allowances for such things as changes in hours and work conditions, promotions and internal movements, and absenteeism.
- A good supply forecast is needed in order to quantify how many people and positions will be expected in the near future, clarify the mix of staff, prevent a shortage of people, and assess the current staffing levels in different parts of the organization.
- In order for supply forecasting to be done effectively, a supply analysis needs to be done, involving the existing human resources, the internal sources of supply, and the external sources of supply.
The Various Large Scale Approaches to Manpower Planning There are six approaches to manpower planning: The Social Demand Approach This approach relied on the organization’s ability to assess the society’s requirement for education. It is a mixture of the demand for education by the individual but with respect to every individual in that society.
It isn’t always easy, or even possible, especially when dealing with large organizations. It therefore mostly relies on the projection of past demographic trends into the future. This approach is capable of showing how many students are preparing for a given profession and may even give a target date for the completion of their education based on past experience.
These projections are constrained by: – The directs costs associated with education – The demographic characteristics of the society, such as mortality and fertility – The preferences and tastes for education by the average household – The income obtained by educated people – The existence and extent of student grants – The existing standards used by various schools to admit new students These constraints are only some of the difficulties faced by the social demand approach and, as such, it should be approached with caution.
- The Rate-of-Return Approach This approach looks at education more as a way to contribute to productivity and so it sees education as an investment decision.
- The student will look at the benefit provided by further education from a point and make their decision based on the estimated rate of return.
- As a result, a school will only expand educational facilities after it has assessed the investment yield for various types of education and the yield of education to various sectors of the economy.
The Manpower Requirement Approach Basically, this approach asserts that there is a link between education and the economic growth of a population, and that the lack of skilled labor in sufficient quantity will impede economic growth. Therefore, it is critical to attempt to forecast future requirements of skilled manpower, so as to achieve a target gross national product or level of industrial production.
- Based on these forecasts, policy makers and planners would then develop the education sector in the right way.
- The Quantitative Approach This approach is more local to an organization, and it is about top-level management preparing a draft for human resource planning.
- The Human Resource Management Information System and the human resources inventory levels are analyzed, and on the basis of that information, the future demand for manpower is forecasted, with the help of quantitative tools.
This approach focuses on forecasting surpluses and shortages in human resources, and is done mainly by top management. The Qualitative Approach This approach is more bottom-up than the quantitative approach, and it focuses on individual concerns of the employees, such as their training, development, and creativity.
- Other concerns include motivation, promotion, welfare, safety, incentives, and compensation.
- This is primarily achieved done by lower-level employees.
- The Mixed Approach This approach combines qualitative and quantitative approaches, and seeks to strike a balance.
- It tends to produce the best results, and promotes equal participation among management and employees.
Conclusion With the growing complexity of the contemporary business scene, manpower planning is critical to an organization and the economy. It helps the organization or nation foresee its future needs and to plan well in advance. If done well, it can put you ahead of your competitors.