Sulphur In Cement Is Present In What Amount?

Sulphur In Cement Is Present In What Amount
8. Alkalis – Alkalis like soda and potash are present in the cement which normally ranges from 0.1 to 1%. During manufacturing process of cement most of the alkalis are carried away by the flue gases at the time of heating. Hence cement contains very small quantities of alkalis in it. Sulphur In Cement Is Present In What Amount Fig 9: Efflorescence Due to Excess Alkali
1-2.5% Sulphur in cement is present in what amount? Explanation: The presence of ingredients is expressed in percentage. Iron oxide is present in 0.5-6% and sulphur 1-2.5%.

Does sound cement have sulphur in it?

Functions of cement ingredients – The ingredients of ordinary cement, as mentioned above, perform the following functions: Lime (CaO): This is the important ingredient of cement and its proportion is to be carefully maintained. The lime in excess makes the cement unsound and causes the cement to expand and disintegrate.

  • On the other hand, if lime is in deficiency, the strength of cement is decreased and it causes cement to set quickly.
  • Silica (SiO 2 ): This is also an important ingredient of cement and it gives or imparts strength to the cement due to the formation of dicalcium and tricalcium silicates.
  • If silica is present in excess quantity, the strength of cement increases but at the same time, its setting time is prolonged.
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Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ): This ingredient imparts quick setting property to the cement. It acts as a flux and it lowers the clinkering temperature. However, the high temperature is essential for the formation of a suitable type of cement and hence the alumina should not be present in excess amount as it weakens the cement.

Calcium Sulphate (CaSO 4 ): This ingredient is in the form of gypsum and its function is to increase the initial setting time of cement. Iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ): This ingredient imparts color, hardness and strength to the cement. Magnesia (MgO): This ingredient, if present in small amount imparts hardness and color to the cement.

A high content of magnesia makes the cement unsound. Sulphur (S): A very small amount of sulphur is useful in making sound cement. If it is in excess, it causes cement to become unsound. Alkalies: The most of the alkalies present in raw materials are carried away by the flue gases during heating and the cement contains only a small amount of alkalies.

What is the concentration of sulfur in cement?

Results and Conclusions – The analysis of sulfide and sulfate in cement samples for quality control can be realized on a daily routine based on WDXRF. The S8 TIGER with the high resolution setup, applying the fine collimator and the curved crystal XS-Ge-C allows the accurate and reproducible analysis of neighboring peaks.

  • The differences between the reference values and the measured concentrations are in the very low ppm range while the total concentrations of sulfur in the cement are in the range of 3 to 5%.
  • This report demonstrates that WDXRF can completely replace time consuming wet chemical procedures in the cement laboratory.
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This report illustrates the growing trend in the cement industry where more and more applications are done utilising analytical instruments instead of wet chemistry. The perfect example of this trend is the automated analysis of raw materials, clinker and cement mineral phases using X-ray diffraction techniques.

Bruker recently introduced a new updated version of its ENDEAVOR series – the D8 ENDEAVOR. With its ready push-button solutions, the D8 ENDEAVOR is easy to use and provides fully automated analysis without further user interaction. Together with the new 1D detector LYNXEYE XE-T, the D8 ENDEAVOR completely analyzes all cement constituents in less than 5 minutes per sample.

The D8 ENDEAVOR, as well as the S8 TIGER X-ray spectrometer, can be easily integrated into any existing or future automation environments. Read the article online at: https://www.worldcement.com/special-reports/06102016/the-determination-of-sulfur-species-sulfide-sulfate-in-cement-by-wdxrf/ : The Determination of Sulfur Species (Sulfide – Sulfate) in Cement by WDXRF

What is the difference between sulfide and sulfate in cement?

Chemical speciation with XRF – The outer electrons of lighter elements up to the atomic number 18 are present in the atomic shells, which are important for the emission of X-ray fluorescence lines. Sulfur has 6 valence electrons in the M-Shell. Any change in the oxidation state and therefore in the number of electrons in this shell will affect the Kß line of sulfur.

The X-ray line shifts (chemical shift) Both the Ka and Kß lines show a shift of the line position. The physical reason is a shift of the energy levels caused by the chemical bonding influence. Additional X-ray lines appear (Satellite lines) There is a significant difference concerning the presence of an additional line on the low energy side of the Kß line of sulfate, but not for sulfide. Changes in the ratio between Ka and Kß The sulfide/sulfate ratio can be calculated based in the Ka/Kß ratio with respect to the total sulfur concentration.

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What factors affect the Kß line of sulfur in cement?

Chemical speciation with XRF – The outer electrons of lighter elements up to the atomic number 18 are present in the atomic shells, which are important for the emission of X-ray fluorescence lines. Sulfur has 6 valence electrons in the M-Shell. Any change in the oxidation state and therefore in the number of electrons in this shell will affect the Kß line of sulfur.

The X-ray line shifts (chemical shift) Both the Ka and Kß lines show a shift of the line position. The physical reason is a shift of the energy levels caused by the chemical bonding influence. Additional X-ray lines appear (Satellite lines) There is a significant difference concerning the presence of an additional line on the low energy side of the Kß line of sulfate, but not for sulfide. Changes in the ratio between Ka and Kß The sulfide/sulfate ratio can be calculated based in the Ka/Kß ratio with respect to the total sulfur concentration.