What Are The Methods Of Curriculum Construction?

Process Of Curriculum Development – The curriculum development process consists of the following six stages.

Stage 1: Assessing the educational needs Stage 2: Formulating objectives and learning goals Stage 3: Careful selection of learning experiences to accomplish these objectives Stage 4: The selecting the rich and valuable content through which teachers can offer the learning experiences. Stage 5: Organizing and integrating learning experiences with relevant content keeping in mind the teaching-learning process Stage 6: Timely and accurate evaluation of all the above phases.

What are the methods of curriculum?

Are there different curriculum development processes or models? – First, there are generally two types of curriculum models: the product model and the process model. The model you choose to follow will influence the steps you’ll take to develop the course.

  • Product model. Also known as the objectives model, this model focuses on evaluations, outcomes, and results. It determines what learning has occurred. If you need to develop a curriculum that prioritizes standardized test scores, you’ll need to adhere to the product model. Generally, this model is thought to be more rigid and more difficult to adapt to your students’ unique needs, but it does provide quantitative learning assessments.
  • Process model. This model focuses on how learning develops over time. There’s an emphasis on how the students are learning, and what thoughts they have throughout the process. This approach is more open-ended and considers the overall growth and development of a student rather than their performance on an exam.

Consider the characteristics of each model as well as any institutional requirements you need to adhere to. You may already have a strong preference for one of the two! It is also possible to develop a curriculum that values both product and process. Once you’ve determined what type of curriculum you want to create, it’s time to choose an approach.

  • Subject-centered
  • Problem-centered
  • Learner-centered

We’ll explore each of these in greater detail later on so that you can determine which curriculum development strategy makes the most sense for your course.

What is the curriculum construction?

Free CTET Paper 2 Social Science (महारथी): Mini Live Test 60 Questions 60 Marks 60 Mins Curriculum construction is a specialized area of work which expects a teacher to have a deep understanding of the underlying concept of curriculum and also the skill to systematically design learning experiences to achieve the socially desired goals set by the society we live in.

  • Curriculum development involves various stages/steps to be followed by those engaged in designing and developing curriculum.
  • Gradation of Content: Grading of content is a task in which experts divide the content as per the levels and needs of students.
  • In this, the expert consciously presents the principles of teaching-learning on which the content is based.

The following are the four criteria on which the content is graded.

The criterion of academic discipline structure- gradation of syllabus content follows a subject-specific syllabus. The criterion of usefulness – syllabus content is graded by the principle of the usefulness of materials i.e. the most useful material is exploited at the commencement of the course even if they are complex and boring. The criterion of motivation – grades the content according to its attractiveness for students. The criterion of language acquisition – the gradation of content follows the principle from simple components of the syllabus to more complex ones.

Additional Information

Selection of content: The content selected should aim at helping the learners to attain self-sufficiency in the most economical manner economy of teaching efforts and educational resources, the economy of learning efforts, and economy of the generalisability of the subject matter. The organization of content primarily depends on the target group. Unless we are sure of the prior knowledge background experiences of the prospective learner we cannot identify the scope and relevance of the content. Classification of content in which the weightage given to particular subjects in a document determines the class to which the document is assigned.

Hence, we can conclude that In curriculumconstruction, the act of dividing content as per the class levels will come under the Gradation of content, Last updated on Dec 1, 2022 The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS) has released the official detailed notification for the KVS Recruitment 2022 for the posts of TGT, PGT, PRT, Librarian, Stenographer, etc on 2nd December 2022.

What is the method that is used by the curriculum design?

What are the three models of curriculum design? – There are three models of curriculum design : subject-centered, learner-centered, and problem-centered design.

What are the 5 methods of learning?

It is critical to know the learning style of yourself and those around you. The new flowchart infographic from NeoMam Studios shows your strengths – What Are The Methods Of Curriculum Construction Getty Images “Work hard” is such bland, blanket advice because the definition varies greatly depending on the person. Setting goals may be easy for you, but emotional intelligence a struggle, Where you have your challenges really depends on who you are and, in a broader sense, how you take in the world.

It is crucial to understand how you best learn information, as shown in the new infographic from NeoMam Studios, The flow chart gives several choices and, ultimately, shows you your learning preference. There are five established learning styles: Visual, auditory, written, kinesthetic and multimodal.

Kinesthetic learners have to do something to get it, while multimodal learners shift between different techniques. Your learning preference likely had a direct impact on your career path. Years ago I learned I was kinesthetic, which allowed me to embrace the need to get my hands dirty.

  1. My entrepreneurial ventures, from self-publishing books to founding startups, stem not only from me seeing a need in the market, but from me needing to be directly involved to best understand a new business arena.
  2. I look forward to hearing what you discover as your dominant learning style.
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What are the 4 methods of curriculum integration?

The five levels of curriculum integration identified in this study are identified as departmentalized, reinforcement, complementary or shared units, webbed, and integrated themes.

What are the 4 types of curriculum?

4.2 Sociological Influences of the Four Curricula There are four different types of curricula that educators have to address in the classroom; t hese four are the explicit, implicit, null, and extracurricular. The most obvious curriculum in the classroom is the explicit curriculum because that is the curriculum that has been approved by the New York State Board of Regents.

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Curriculum of extracurricular activities also exists for such activities as academic clubs, band and chorus, or sports. The curriculum that is not so obvious is the implicit or “hidden curriculum” and the null curriculum, which is information that students may never be exposed to because they are excluded from the explicit curriculum.

Each of these curricula will be explained below with examples to illustrate what each entail. What Are The Methods Of Curriculum Construction

What are the factors that influence curriculum construction?

The process of curricular development is influenced by a host of inter- connected factors – educational objectives, learning activities, methods and tools of instruction, the students, and the faculty – in a continuous ‘cyber- netic’ cycle (Miller 1961).

What are the methods of curriculum evaluation?

Curriculum Evaluation Section H Raul Rudoy, M.D., M.P.H. Joe Lopreiato, M.D. Preface: The primary objective of curriculum evaluation is the overall improvement of the medical student’s education.Traditionally, curriculum evaluation has been limited to the appraisal of medical student performance.We suggest that other areas of the curriculum should be evaluated to provide Clerkship Directors with feedback in areas such as communication skills, clinical problem solving, students’ career choice and the influence of the curriculum in guiding the student in the evaluation and resolution of social and ethical issues.

Quantitative methods such as attitude scales and National Licensing Exams, and qualitative methods such as interviews with faculty and direct observation of clinical performance can be utilized in gathering the necessary data to determine the curriculum adequacy.Ideally, a combination of both methods should be used: quantitative methods to minimize error, ensure good sampling and control variables inherent to the particular training program; qualitative methods to ensure that the fluid, dynamic, and real world nature of the instructional process is taken into account.

The development of the final curriculum evaluation tool depends in great part upon the direction that the different clerkship directors will give to the curriculum.As an example, schools that utilize the PBL method (Problem-Based Learning) will benefit by using different measuring techniques than those used by schools that utilize a more traditional system of instruction.In spite of these differences, there are certain evaluation principles that apply to all types of curriculum delivery, such as those that make sure that the student has been engaged in the experience, and activities identified as critical for their development.

    1. Evaluation of Student’s Performance and Outcome as Influenced by the Curriculum
      • Knowledge Acquisition – Some form of testing for knowledge acquisition is done by most medical schools, but the form of test utilized varies depending upon the type of instruction philosophy utilized by that school.We believe that a brief description of the most commonly used methods will benefit clerkship directors that are in the stages of developing or modifying their current methods for curriculum evaluation.
      • Objective Testing – Objective testing and methods are discussed in detail in Section L.This is probably the easiest of all the data to collect and almost every pediatric program utilizes some form of objective evaluation.The multiple-choice examination permits internal comparison between different blocks and from year to year, and Step II of the USMLE provides clerkship directors with a general idea of how well their programs compare with other programs in the USA and Canada.
      • Subjective Testing – (See Sections M and N) These tests require testers with considerable experience in scoring these type of tests or with expertise in the subject tested. The greatest advantage of interpretative testing is that they test the student’s holistic performance by determining the student’s ability to apply factual knowledge to a clinical situation.The disadvantages are that they are difficult to develop and standardize, are difficult to score, require scorers with a high degree of expertise and can be subject to scorer’s bias.The latter can be partially obviated by having more than one examiner score the test and by the use of standardized patients and check lists.

What conclusions can be drawn regarding the usefulness of these two different approaches to test for knowledge acquisition?First of all, both methods are important but it should be recognized that they test for different aspects of knowledge acquisition.The choice of one over the other is mostly dictated by the type of teaching philosophy and by the availability and commitment of clinical faculty.Objective evaluations which are easy to develop and score are limited to test only for factual, recall knowledge.On the other hand, subjective evaluations, which test students by presenting them with situations which are close to real life conditions can be difficult to score and can be labor intensive.The choice of one over the other is not easy and to suggest only one of them will be an exercise in futility.This decision will be easier when all pediatric clerkships adopt the same or similar teaching method.Until then, clerkship directors should choose the method most appropriate for testing students in their program but strong consideration should be given to utilize a combined objective-subjective exam such as a Multiple Choice Test with Reasons Given, which includes open-ended thinking with objective testing and an OSCE or a standardized patient exam.

  1. Regardless of the method used, the information obtained from the student’s examination should be analyzed in a way that will permit modification of the curriculum in order to cover or expand areas in which students demonstrate deficiencies.
  2. Career Differentiation – A well-designed curriculum should provide student contact with a full range of faculty in the pediatric field and will permit exposure of students to pediatric role models that show career satisfaction and professional self-esteem.

The adequacy of the curriculum in influencing students to become pediatricians can be evaluated by observing the results of the National Residents Matching Program or, less preferably, by a survey conducted at the end of the clerkship.Approximately 10% of medical students in USA and Canadian schools will pursue a career in pediatrics.Those clerkships with values less than the national average may want to take a second look at their students’ experience during the pediatric clerkship.

Attitude Toward Social Responsibility in Medicine – A recent national review of medical care has suggested the need to evaluate medical student characteristics, other than academic achievement.These characteristics are associated with better patient management, and include such issues as psychosocial aspects of patient care and the effects of the physician’s actions in the general welfare of the community.Ideally, the curriculum should address the above points by permitting the student to recognize the importance and complexity of social issues in medicine and to permit the student to identify and reinforce the central role of the physician in controlling and coordinating the cost of medical care.

Evaluation of this aspect of the curriculum can be accomplished by utilizing already available questionnaires such as the ATSIM scale developed by Parlow 1 or an individual questionnaire developed as part of their own evaluation tools.It is suggested, for example, that a final exam assessment could include a written clinical case problem which asks students to develop a strategy to contain health costs involving health team providers other than physicians.The above-mentioned example may provide clerkship directors with the needed data to evaluate the student’s perception of psychosocial, economic, as well as biological issues.

      • MCAT scores
      • Demographic class data
      • Grade distributions of standardized tests
      • Previous accrediting body reports
      • Comparative data on your school from the AAMC
      • Alumni surveys
    1. Evaluation of Curriculum Quality
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When evaluating courses of instruction, most medical educators focus on three specific areas: Program, Process, and Participants. Program evaluation involves a critical look at the content, goals, objectives, and evaluation methods of a course.The usual tool utilized is a questionnaire completed by the students at the end of their rotation in which different aspects of instruction and student experiences are evaluated.The results of this questionnaire are often the only evaluation utilized to make changes in curriculum content and in curriculum implementation.The subjective nature of this questionnaire cannot be overemphasized; we are the ones who develop the questionnaire, ask the questions that we believe are important and those questions are answered by students with not much experience or information as to what a physician’s needs are.This is however, only the tip of the iceberg.Serious evaluators will also look at the content of their curriculum.Questions that should be asked include: 1.

What are the overall goals of the curriculum?2. What are the objectives and how do students reach them? 3.Are stated objectives relevant to the learner in the real world? 4. What is the quality of teaching? 5. Has the test bank of questions been reviewed for content and compatibility with what is being taught?6.

How effective is the admissions policy in attracting good learners? Process evaluation refers to the analysis of the way the program is implemented. Questions to ask here include: 1. What characteristics of the learner are stressed: knowledge, problem-solving, self-learning, cost consciousness, or cultural sensitivity? 2.

  • Do students receive feedback on their performance, and when?3.
  • What is the quality of the teaching and how is it measured? 4.
  • What is the quality of the textbook(s) used?5.
  • How much does the faculty become involved in decision making?6.
  • Is the focus of the curriculum knowledge, skills, or attitudes?An often overlooked aspect of process evaluation is whether or not faculty teaching time is considered valuable and rewarded.Standardized questionnaires are available that will, in general, look at aspects of curriculum implementation and the learning environment 2,Modifications of the above source with inclusion of particular details from the individual clerkship can provide similar but much less biased data than that obtained by the previous example.

Participant evaluation includes an analysis of the attitudes and performance of students and faculty. Questions to ask are: How satisfied are participants with the curriculum?What is the performance (knowledge, skill acquisition and attitudes) of students who finish the course?What are the faculty views on teaching and how do they see themselves as teachers (facilitator, lecturer, mentor)?What is the amount of faculty time devoted to teaching?Measurement of the outcomes of graduates is also a part of participant evaluation.A review of all graduates’ career choices, level of preparedness of interns in pediatrics, recent drop-out rates, certification and re-certification results, practice types and locations, and practice surveys can all be used to measure outcomes of the curricular plan.

Another important source forevaluation can be found in the faculty from departments other than Pediatrics.Faculty acting as peer reviewers can provide a more objective information of curriculum adequacy and curriculum delivery than those obtained from questionnaires filled out by students at the end of the clerkship 3,The feedback provided should include a comparison of curriculum at all levels with suggestions for improvement and changes.It is suggested that a checklist be developed which should include at a minimum, questions related to the learning environment and the students’ approach to learning as mandated by the curriculum.

Summary of Curricular Evaluation

  • Program evaluation tools
    • Review of goals and objectives for relevance
    • Review of teaching quality (direct observation and questionnaire)
    • Student admission data
    • AAMC surveys
    • Accreditation reports
    • Alumni surveys
    • Curriculum mapping
  • Process evaluation tools
    • Questionnaires to assess attitudes
    • Direct observations of the learning environment
    • Interviews with faculty and students
    • Debriefing sessions with students at end of course
    • Clinical logs of patient encounters
    • Review of test questions for validity and reliability
  • Participant evaluation tools
    • Objective and subjective testing of students
    • Grade distributions
    • Feedback sessions for students and faculty
    • Peer evaluation
    • Career differentiation
    • Outcome studies
    • Attitudes toward social responsibility


  1. Parlow J, Rothman A.Attitude toward social issues in medicine of five health science faculties.Soc Sci Med 3:351-358.1974.
  2. Irby DM, Peer review of teaching in medicine. J Med Educ.73:459-461.1983.
  3. Mitchell R. The Development of the Cognitive Behavior Survey to Assess Medical Student Learning, Brown University.1992.

Additional References Page G, ed. Essays on curriculum development and evaluation in medicine. Report of the second Cambridge conference June 21-28, 1986. Vancouver, BC. University British Columbia.1989. Friedman CP.Charting the winds of change: Evaluating innovative medical curricula.Acad Med.65:8-14.1990.

Gjjerde CL.Curriculum mapping: Objective, instruction and evaluation.J. Med. Educ.56:316-323.1981. Friedman CP.Improving the curriculum through continuous evaluation.Acad. Med.66:257-258.1991. Coles CR.Curriculum evaluation in medical and health care education. Med. Educ.19:405-422.1985. Whalen JP,Cerchio G, Muslin H.Quality assurance for a medical school curriculum.Teach.

Learn. Med.2:42-45.1990. Miller G.The assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance.Acad. Med.65:563-567.1990. : Curriculum Evaluation

What are the 5 types of curriculum design?

What Are The Methods Of Curriculum Construction Trusted EDUCATION Content! By Karen Schweitzer Curriculum design is a term used to describe the purposeful, deliberate, and systematic organization of curriculum (instructional blocks) within a class or course. In other words, it is a way for teachers to plan instruction. When teachers design curriculum, they identify what will be done, who will do it, and what schedule to follow.

Purpose of Curriculum Design Teachers design each curriculum with a specific educational purpose in mind. The ultimate goal is to improve student learning, but there are other reasons to employ curriculum design as well. For example, designing a curriculum for middle school students with both elementary and high school curricula in mind helps to make sure that learning goals are aligned and complement each other from one stage to the next.

Methods of curriculum construction for social science

If a middle school curriculum is designed without taking prior knowledge from elementary school or future learning in high school into account it can create real problems for the students. Types of Curriculum Design There are three basic types of curriculum design:

Subject-centered design Learner-centered design Problem-centered design

Subject-Centered Curriculum Design Subject-centered curriculum design revolves around a particular subject matter or discipline. For example, a subject-centered curriculum may focus on math or biology. This type of curriculum design tends to focus on the subject rather than the individual.

  1. It is the most common type of curriculum used in K-12 public schools in states and local districts in the United States.
  2. Subject-centered curriculum design describes what needs to be studied and how it should be studied.
  3. Core curriculum is an example of a subject-centered design which can be standardized across schools, states, and the country as a whole.
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In standardized core curricula, teachers are provided a pre-determined list of things that they need to teach their students, along with specific examples of how these things should be taught. You can also find subject-centered designs in large college classes in which teachers focus on a particular subject or discipline.

The primary drawback of subject-centered curriculum design is that it is not student-centered. In particular, this form of curriculum design is constructed without taking into account the specific learning styles of the students. This can cause problems with student engagement and motivation and may even cause students to fall behind in class.

Learner-Centered Curriculum Design In contrast, learner-centered curriculum design takes each individual’s needs, interests, and goals into consideration. In other words, it acknowledges that students are not uniform and adjusts to those student needs.

Learner-centered curriculum design is meant to empower learners and allow them to shape their education through choices. Instructional plans in a learner-centered curriculum are differentiated, giving students the opportunity to choose assignments, learning experiences or activities. This can motivate students and help them stay engaged in the material that they are learning.

The drawback to this form of curriculum design is that it is labor intensive. Developing differentiated instruction puts pressure on the teacher to create instruction and/or find materials that are conducive to each student’s learning needs. Teachers may not have the time or may lack the experience or skills to create such a plan.

Learner-centered curriculum design also requires that teachers balance student wants and interests with student needs and required outcomes, which is not an easy balance to obtain. Problem-Centered Curriculum Design Like learner-centered curriculum design, problem-centered curriculum design is also a form of student-centered design.

Problem-centered curricula focus on teaching students how to look at a problem and come up with a solution to the problem. Students are thus exposed to real-life issues, which helps them develop skills that are transferable to the real world. Problem-centered curriculum design increases the relevance of the curriculum and allows students to be creative and innovate as they are learning.

  • The drawback to this form of curriculum design is that it does not always take learning styles into consideration.
  • Curriculum Design Tips The following curriculum design tips can help educators manage each stage of the curriculum design process.
  • Identify the needs of stakeholders (i.e., students) early on in the curriculum design process.

This can be done through needs analysis, which involves the collection and analysis of data related to the learner. This data might include what learners already know and what they need to know to be proficient in a particular area or skill. It may also include information about learner perceptions, strengths, and weaknesses.

Create a clear list of learning goals and outcomes. This will help you to focus on the intended purpose of the curriculum and allow you to plan instruction that can achieve the desired results. Learning goals are the things teachers want students to achieve in the course. Learning outcomes are the measurable knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students should have achieved in the course.

Identify constraints that will affect your curriculum design. For example, time is a common constraint that must be considered. There are only so many hours, days, weeks or months in the term. If there isn’t enough time to deliver all of the instruction that has been planned, it will impact learning outcomes.

  • Consider creating a curriculum map (also known as a curriculum matrix) so that you can properly evaluate the sequence and coherence of instruction.
  • Curriculum mapping provides visual diagrams or indexes of a curriculum.
  • Analyzing a visual representation of the curriculum is a good way to quickly and easily identify potential gaps, redundancies or alignment issues in the sequencing of instruction.

Curriculum maps can be created on paper or with software programs or online services designed specifically for this purpose. Identify the instructional methods that will be used throughout the course and consider how they will work with student learning styles.

  1. If the instructional methods are not conducive to the curriculum, the instructional design or the curriculum design will need to be altered accordingly.
  2. Establish evaluation methods that will be used at the end and during the school year to assess learners, instructors, and the curriculum.
  3. Evaluation will help you determine if the curriculum design is working or if it is failing.

Examples of things that should be evaluated include the strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum and achievement rates related to learning outcomes. The most effective evaluation is ongoing and summative. Remember that curriculum design is not a one-step process; continuous improvement is a necessity.

What are the three main methods of learning?

Everyone processes and learns new information in different ways. There are three main cognitive learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. The common characteristics of each learning style listed below can help you understand how you learn and what methods of learning best fits you.

What are the 4 curriculum features?

The curriculum content is composed of four strands: Living Things, Materials, Energy and Forces, and Environmental Awareness and Care. These strands, which are subdivided into strand units, outline the concepts and ideas to be explored by children as they work scientifically, and are involved in designing and making.

What are the 3 elements of curriculum implementation?

According to Offorma (2005), curriculum is a programme which is made up of three components: programme of studies, programme of activities and programme of guidance.

What are the 4 types of learning methods?

There are 4 predominant learning styles: Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, and Kinaesthetic. While most of us may have some general idea about how we learn best, often it comes as a surprise when we discover what our predominant learning style is.

What is curriculum method of teaching?

Curriculum – Curriculum is a standards-based sequence of planned experiences where students practice and achieve proficiency in content and applied learning skills. Curriculum is the central guide for all educators as to what is essential for teaching and learning, so that every student has access to rigorous academic experiences.

What are the 4 types of curriculum?

4.2 Sociological Influences of the Four Curricula There are four different types of curricula that educators have to address in the classroom; t hese four are the explicit, implicit, null, and extracurricular. The most obvious curriculum in the classroom is the explicit curriculum because that is the curriculum that has been approved by the New York State Board of Regents.

Curriculum of extracurricular activities also exists for such activities as academic clubs, band and chorus, or sports. The curriculum that is not so obvious is the implicit or “hidden curriculum” and the null curriculum, which is information that students may never be exposed to because they are excluded from the explicit curriculum.

Each of these curricula will be explained below with examples to illustrate what each entail. What Are The Methods Of Curriculum Construction