What Is A Project Specification In Construction?

What Is A Project Specification In Construction
What Are Construction Specifications? – Construction specifications, also known, as specs, detail the work and workmanship needed to complete a construction project. And there’s no way to get around them. As required documents during the design phase, they’re part of a formal process.

According to the Dictionary of Architecture & Construction a specification is, “a written document describing in detail the scope of work, materials to be used, methods of installation, and quality of workmanship for a parcel of work to be placed under contract; usually utilized in conjunction with working (contract) drawings in building construction.” Furthermore, according to The Construction Specifier, “specification sections are customized in order to accurately describe the intended materials, and then these sections are used by the team to identify the type of products that should be used onsite.” As mentioned, construction specifications are prepared before construction begins, in the design phase as part of the contract documents,

Although their structure varies project-by-project, typically they reflect packages to be given to subcontractors from contractors. Specifically, this is extremely helpful in the tender process,

What are the project specifications?

What are project specifications? – A project specification is a document, used for successful project management, that defines the management plan of a project as a whole. It lists the needs, objectives, constraints, expected features, deadlines and budget as accurately as possible.

What are the three types of specification?

There are three primary types of specifications: proprietary, performance and prescriptive.

Why is a project specification important?

15 reasons why specification is crucial to construction – Let’s look at some of the primary reasons why specification is essential to the construction process:

  1. The specification provides clear instructions on project intent, performance and construction.
  2. It can reference the quality and standards which should be applied.
  3. Materials and manufacturers’ products can be clearly defined.
  4. Installation, testing and handover requirements can be identified.
  5. Classification within the specification can be used to support handover and asset management.
  6. It eliminates the need for information overload on the drawing or model, making identifying information easier.
  7. A specification can support project costing, not only the materials and products but the performance and workmanship.
  8. Along with the drawings, the specification forms part of the contractual documents, helping minimise project risk and providing support should there be any legal disputes.
  9. It supports client brief interpretation and gives the client assurance that their commissioned asset is the one being delivered.
  10. It is essential for the construction phase and an important part of the soft-landing process, subsequent asset management and the lifecycle plan.
  11. By being clear, concise and information-rich, a specification provides answers to many onsite construction questions, saving the project team, client and contractor time and money.
  12. After project finish, office masters can incorporate best practices and lessons learnt, improving efficiency, providing quality assurance and ensuring project consistency.
  13. Office masters also save the team time and money because they can be developed over time and adapted to suit a project’s specifics, drawing on specialist knowledge when needed.
  14. The specification is a living document to be used by the complete project team throughout the construction phase; its value does not end at the design phase.
  15. Along with any variations or value engineering, it becomes a part of the project audit trail and a crucial part of the handover documents, forming the basis for asset management, asset maintenance, and even feeding into staff training and human resources policies.

What is the purpose of a specifications?

What is a specification? – A specification details the requirements of the procurement. It is the basis of all offers and therefore the foundation for a contract. A specification becomes an essential contract management document which is used to ensure that the chosen supplier provides what is specified.

What are the three parts of a specification section?

Formats – Specification Section Numbers and Titles : The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) and Construction Specifications Canada (CSC) jointly publish a document called MasterFormat® which is the master list of numbers and titles for organizing information about construction requirements, products, and activities into a standard sequence.

  1. In addition to other applications MasterFormat is the de facto North American standard for assigning numbers and titles to specification sections.
  2. CSI and CSC periodically update MasterFormat according to the changing construction industry.
  3. MasterFormat expands the divisions by assigning numbers to construction subjects known as specification sections.
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The system of numbers is open and flexible to allow user assigned numbers for additional subjects. MasterFormat has been adopted by all Federal government agencies and the private sector design and construction industry throughout the U.S. and Canada. ARCOM 3 uses MasterFormat to assign numbers and titles to the sections of MasterSpec.

Mechanical insulation is located in several divisions: Division 21–Fire Suppression, Division 22–Plumbing, and Division 23–HVAC. The first two digits of the section number are the division number followed by two pairs of digits that provide the standard location of mechanical insulation within these divisions.

The standard location within each of these divisions is identified by the second pair of numbers in the section number being “XX 07 XX.” The benefit of this standard location is that duct, equipment, and pipe insulation can always be found in these locations from project to project and from region to region across the U.S.

21 07 00 – Fire Suppression System Insulation

21 07 16 – Fire-Suppression Equipment Insulation 21 07 19 – Fire-Suppression Piping Insulation

22 07 00 – Plumbing Insulation

22 07 16 – Plumbing Equipment Insulation 22 07 19 – Plumbing Piping Insulation

23 07 00 – HVAC Insulation

23 07 13 – Duct Insulation 23 07 16 – HVAC Equipment Insulation 23 07 19 – HVAC Piping Insulation

Notice the similarity of the numbers and titles within each division. This similarity and the apparent redundancy end at the numbers and titles and the titles of articles and paragraphs with the sections. The requirements for insulation vary among the applications.

In other words, the internal temperatures and conditions are different for each application and often require different materials or installation requirements. Specifications sections can be written using the higher-level number (numbers ending in 00) or can be written using the lower-level numbers (ending with specific numbers in the third pair of numbers).

Specifications for a specific project in a particular division should not be written using both higher- and lower-level numbers (i.e., 23 07 00 and 23 07 13). A project specification written using 23 07 00 would be inclusive of duct, equipment, and piping insulation as applicable to the project.

This would be the choice when the project is simple and requires only one or two different types of insulation systems. When there are multiple types of insulation systems for ducts, equipment, and piping, using the lower-level numbers affords the ability to focus on each application more comprehensively while keeping the subject matter easy to find and read.

Standard arrangement of information within specification sections is the objective of the CSI/CSC SectionFormat®. Retrieval of information continues to be the objective for this concept. Each specification section is divided into three parts. These parts are Part 1–General, Part 2–Products, and Part 3–Execution.

  • Each part includes particular information about the subject of the section.
  • These three parts are fixed in number and title and are included in all specification sections.
  • Part 1–General supplements the “general requirements” in Division 1 sections by setting particular requirements about the materials and workmanship included in the section.

In the case of mechanical insulation, it sets particular requirements for submittals, quality assurance, and other administrative requirements for mechanical insulation. Example : Division 01 Section “Submittals” specifies general requirements for the procedures, including quantities, distribution, and actions to be taken by each party.

In the Part 1 “Submittals” Article of a specification section, particular requirements about what to submit are specified. Part 2–Products contains provisions that set the quality requirements for the products, by describing materials, products, equipment and, if applicable, manufacturing tolerances and factory testing requirements.

Part 3–Execution specifies how the products described in Part 2 are incorporated into the work, specifies workmanship quality requirements without dictating contractor means and methods, and sets field quality-control testing requirements. In each of the three parts, a standard sequence of articles and paragraphs exists.

  1. Suggested articles and paragraphs should be retained only if they apply to the subject of the section and, when retained, they should be arranged in the recommended sequence.
  2. This continues the objective easy retrieval of information.
  3. Page layout and article and paragraph numbering are presented in the CSI/CSC PageFormat©.

This document suggests alternative article and paragraph numbering schemes, recommendations for margins, spacing between articles and paragraphs, and other format issues. The most important feature of this document is the article and paragraph numbering schemes that provide an address for specification text.

What are the two types of specifications in a construction contract?

Types of construction contract specifications – Generally, there are three different types of construction specifications found in contracts: prescriptive specifications, performance specifications, and proprietary specifications.

What are the two main function of specification?

Specifications have two basic functions: Communicate: When prepared by the purchaser, specifications inform the supplier what is required. When prepared by the supplier they provide a prospective purchaser with a description of the attributes of a product.

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Who develops construction specifications?

Construction specifications: Everything you need to know Specifications for architectural, engineering, landscape, and built environment projects, give construction teams a detailed written description of the project work to be carried out, usually including performance, standards, regulations and product selections.

  1. This article answers some commonly asked questions about good specification and how NBS Australia is improving the process.
  2. Specification is the skill of documenting specific requirements about the work to be carried out on a building project.
  3. A construction specification is a well-structured, detailed description of the quality, standards, workmanship, materials, and completion of work, which evolves across a project.

Specifications are usually prepared by architects, engineers, designers and specifiers. They may be published as part of the contractual documentation for building contractors, to be read in parallel with schedules, drawings and sometimes models, and later forming part of the handover information.

What should a project specification address?

What is a project specification? – How does creating a project from scratch look like? In the beginning, there’s usually an idea. However, it’s only an overview of the scope of work on the project. In order to hand over a project for implementation to designers and developers, it’s necessary to define what exactly is to be done.

What is the purpose of plans specifications and drawings?

The objectives of the design drawings and technical specifications are to provide a detailed record of the design of the project set standards for the technical aspects required in the construction set standards for the execution of the construction set standards for documenting the design, tendering and

What are the two most common types of specifications?

Construction specifications in the UK – Specifications in the UK are part of the contract documents that accompany and govern the construction of a building. They are prepared by construction professionals such as architects, architectural technologists, structural engineers, landscape architects and building services engineers,

They are created from previous project specifications, in-house documents or master specifications such as the National Building Specification (NBS). The National Building Specification is owned by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) through their commercial group RIBA Enterprises (RIBAe).

NBS master specifications provide content that is broad and comprehensive, and delivered using software functionality that enables specifiers to customize the content to suit the needs of the project and to keep up to date. UK project specification types fall into two main categories prescriptive and performance.

What are the 8 requirements of a design specification?

Safety Reliability Availability Maintainability Supportability Analyses Physical and Preliminary Functional Def. Imprecise semantics implies other sources of error may still be present.

What are the three 3 main parts of specifications 3 points?

Formats – Specification Section Numbers and Titles : The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) and Construction Specifications Canada (CSC) jointly publish a document called MasterFormat® which is the master list of numbers and titles for organizing information about construction requirements, products, and activities into a standard sequence.

  1. In addition to other applications MasterFormat is the de facto North American standard for assigning numbers and titles to specification sections.
  2. CSI and CSC periodically update MasterFormat according to the changing construction industry.
  3. MasterFormat expands the divisions by assigning numbers to construction subjects known as specification sections.

The system of numbers is open and flexible to allow user assigned numbers for additional subjects. MasterFormat has been adopted by all Federal government agencies and the private sector design and construction industry throughout the U.S. and Canada. ARCOM 3 uses MasterFormat to assign numbers and titles to the sections of MasterSpec.

  • Mechanical insulation is located in several divisions: Division 21–Fire Suppression, Division 22–Plumbing, and Division 23–HVAC.
  • The first two digits of the section number are the division number followed by two pairs of digits that provide the standard location of mechanical insulation within these divisions.

The standard location within each of these divisions is identified by the second pair of numbers in the section number being “XX 07 XX.” The benefit of this standard location is that duct, equipment, and pipe insulation can always be found in these locations from project to project and from region to region across the U.S.

21 07 00 – Fire Suppression System Insulation

21 07 16 – Fire-Suppression Equipment Insulation 21 07 19 – Fire-Suppression Piping Insulation

22 07 00 – Plumbing Insulation

22 07 16 – Plumbing Equipment Insulation 22 07 19 – Plumbing Piping Insulation

23 07 00 – HVAC Insulation

23 07 13 – Duct Insulation 23 07 16 – HVAC Equipment Insulation 23 07 19 – HVAC Piping Insulation

Notice the similarity of the numbers and titles within each division. This similarity and the apparent redundancy end at the numbers and titles and the titles of articles and paragraphs with the sections. The requirements for insulation vary among the applications.

  • In other words, the internal temperatures and conditions are different for each application and often require different materials or installation requirements.
  • Specifications sections can be written using the higher-level number (numbers ending in 00) or can be written using the lower-level numbers (ending with specific numbers in the third pair of numbers).
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Specifications for a specific project in a particular division should not be written using both higher- and lower-level numbers (i.e., 23 07 00 and 23 07 13). A project specification written using 23 07 00 would be inclusive of duct, equipment, and piping insulation as applicable to the project.

This would be the choice when the project is simple and requires only one or two different types of insulation systems. When there are multiple types of insulation systems for ducts, equipment, and piping, using the lower-level numbers affords the ability to focus on each application more comprehensively while keeping the subject matter easy to find and read.

Standard arrangement of information within specification sections is the objective of the CSI/CSC SectionFormat®. Retrieval of information continues to be the objective for this concept. Each specification section is divided into three parts. These parts are Part 1–General, Part 2–Products, and Part 3–Execution.

  • Each part includes particular information about the subject of the section.
  • These three parts are fixed in number and title and are included in all specification sections.
  • Part 1–General supplements the “general requirements” in Division 1 sections by setting particular requirements about the materials and workmanship included in the section.

In the case of mechanical insulation, it sets particular requirements for submittals, quality assurance, and other administrative requirements for mechanical insulation. Example : Division 01 Section “Submittals” specifies general requirements for the procedures, including quantities, distribution, and actions to be taken by each party.

  1. In the Part 1 “Submittals” Article of a specification section, particular requirements about what to submit are specified.
  2. Part 2–Products contains provisions that set the quality requirements for the products, by describing materials, products, equipment and, if applicable, manufacturing tolerances and factory testing requirements.

Part 3–Execution specifies how the products described in Part 2 are incorporated into the work, specifies workmanship quality requirements without dictating contractor means and methods, and sets field quality-control testing requirements. In each of the three parts, a standard sequence of articles and paragraphs exists.

  1. Suggested articles and paragraphs should be retained only if they apply to the subject of the section and, when retained, they should be arranged in the recommended sequence.
  2. This continues the objective easy retrieval of information.
  3. Page layout and article and paragraph numbering are presented in the CSI/CSC PageFormat©.

This document suggests alternative article and paragraph numbering schemes, recommendations for margins, spacing between articles and paragraphs, and other format issues. The most important feature of this document is the article and paragraph numbering schemes that provide an address for specification text.

What are seven types of specifications that may be included in a drawing plan?

Best Practices When Writing Specifications – When writing project documents, you should follow the seven C’s: clear, concise, correct, complete, comprehensive, consistent, co-ordinated. These apply not only for textual documents, but also for information provided directly on drawings and schedules.

The Seven Cs Description
Clear Use plain English to make construction documents understandable for all parties involved. To avoid confusion and clarifications, technical and legal language should only be used when necessary.
Concise The text should avoid repetition and unnecessary words, but this must not be overdone to the point where key information is omitted. For instance, a description like “contractors installing equipment on the site should ensure that that said equipment is in all cases installed plumb and level as per manufacturer’s recommendations and specifications” can be shortened to only “install equipment plumb and level” and no information is missing.
Correct The professional writing the specifications must ensure they provide correct information. Special attention should be given to code section numbers and other cross-references. However, there is no need to copy the whole text when another document is referenced.
Complete Project specifications should not assume the reader already knows a key fact – all relevant references must be included. For example, an industry-specific equipment rating makes no sense unless the corresponding standard is mentioned.
Comprehensive Specifications must cover the requirements with sufficient depth, while avoiding excessive and irrelevant information. For example, relevant features of equipment should be described, but there is no point in describing functions that are not used in the project.
Consistent Terminology and style should not change between different sections of a specification document. This improves readability and prevents misunderstandings.
Coordinated Project teams should work together to avoid contradiction and conflict between different sections of a specification document. Coordination becomes much simpler with modern design and project management software.