What Is A Raker In Construction?

What Is A Raker In Construction
How Tiebacks, Rakers, and Struts Support Shoring Walls A shoring wall is a massive vertical construction wall that needs to do two things. One, it needs to hold an excavation open. Two, it needs to support whatever building or road is directly on the other side of the wall. What Is A Raker In Construction Excavation pit at Living Shangri-La Toronto, image by Forum contributor ProjectEnd Shoring walls that are made for the construction of only one basement can be made short enough that they can be cantilevered. A cantilevered beam basically acts like a diving board.

  • You have the end that’s fixed, and then you have the flexible end.
  • For a cantilevered shoring wall, the soldier piles are drilled much deeper than the base of excavation (up to two to three times as deep), which provides enough lateral (sideways) support that this essentially fixes the beam in place.

The part of the pile that is exposed is the part acting like a diving board, which supports the excavation and can bend a little without moving too much. However, shoring is more frequently used to go two or more basement levels deep, and in this case the wall will need to be structurally reinforced some other way. What Is A Raker In Construction Tieback detail at Northwestern Medicine Outpatient Care Pavilion in Chicago, image by Forum contributor harryc Tiebacks are usually preferred because they keep the excavation clean and open. Essentially, a tieback is a massive soil or rock anchor. A tieback machine drills an angled hole through the wall, puts a large steel cable in the hole, and then pumps concrete into the hole to backfill it.

The concrete bonds to the cable and acts in friction against the soil/rock to resist being pulled out. Then the tieback cable is attached to the soldier pile, and prestressed (loaded) so that it is actively holding the soldier pile back. Tiebacks are great if your next-door neighbour will allow you to drill into their land and install them.

The City of Toronto usually allows this, for example. They’ll even allow it within a very small distance of a subway tunnel! There’s no real harm as long as the cable is destressed (cut) after the excavation is filled with the new building. But, some neighbours just won’t let you encroach, or their building is in the way. What Is A Raker In Construction Rakers in place at Q Loft in Toronto, image by Forum contributor Frank_R A raker is basically an enormous kickstand for your shoring wall. These are easy to build, but they sit inside your excavation (instead of outside, as with a tieback) and make life difficult when you need to make a building around them. They are a necessary evil when tiebacks are not possible or not allowed. What Is A Raker In Construction Struts in place at Vancouver House, image by Forum contributor mcminsen You can also brace your shoring walls against each other, and avoid the massive kickstand. A strut is a beam that braces opposite sides of an excavation against each other, so that as they flex into the excavation they are pushing on each other and propping each other up.

This is less popular because the struts do get in the way of putting equipment and concrete into the hole, but they are popular support methods in places where you might otherwise need rakers on all walls (which would make a very messy excavation). There are other kinds of shoring, like slurry walls, which we won’t explore today.

Needless to say, if you’ve read this far please let us know if you’d like a follow up on alternative shoring systems! Guest contributor Michael Diez de Aux is a geotechnical engineer with Terraprobe, in Toronto. : How Tiebacks, Rakers, and Struts Support Shoring Walls

What is raking in building?

a. Raking Shoring –

  • Raking Shoring is also called inclined shoring.
  • It can be defined as the shoring in which the inclined members are used to provide lateral support to the unsafe structure.
  • Such inclined members are known as the rakers or the inclined shores.

What Is A Raker In Construction

  1. The raking shoring mainly consists of the following components:
  2. 1. Rakers or inclined member
  3. 2. Wallplate
  4. 3. Needles
  5. 4. Cleats
  6. 5. Bracing
  7. 6. Soleplate

Usually, the wall plates of sizes 23cm * 5 cm to 23cm * 76cm are used. These wall plates are fixed or secured to the walls of the structures utilizing the needles. The needles of size 10cm * 76cm are commonly used for this purpose. The needles penetrate the walls up to a depth of about 10cm.

  • The wooden cleats are further used to provide additional strength to the needles.
  • Then, the top ends of the inclined shores are rested against the needles.
  • The sole pieces are bedded at the base of the rakers in an inclined position in the ground to support the rakers.
  • The rakers are fixed to such sole pieces utilizing the cleats and dogs.
  • In case the ground consists of soft soil layers, then the area of the sole pieces is duly increased to distribute the pressure over a larger area.

When multiple rakers are required, the rakers are held together employing the hoop iron or braces. Such braces are about 25 cm thick and 15cm wide. The important points that must be considered during the raking shoring can be listed as follows: 1. The rakers are positioned such that they are inclined at an angle of 45 degrees to the ground as far as possible.

However, the inclination angle may vary from 45 degrees to 75 degrees.2. The rakers must be properly braced at regular intervals.3. In the case of tall buildings, rider rakers may be used to reduce the length of the rakers.4. The suitable size of the rakers must be decided based on the thrust expected to be imposed by the wall.5.

It must be noted that the centerline of the wall and the raker meet at the floor level.6. The spacing of the rakers may vary from 3 to 4.5 m to cover the longer length of the bar.7. The sole plates of a suitable size must be used and must be properly embedded into the ground.8.

  1. The method of erection of the raking shores can be explained in brief as follows:
  2. 1. Fixing of Wall Plate:
  3. As far as possible, the wall plate must be continuous throughout its length.
  4. The wall plates when used for a bulging wall, must be backed up with the timber pieces to deliver continuous bearing throughout its entire length.
  5. Before commencing the erection of the raker, the wall plate is nailed to a cleat such that the wall plate meets the head of the raker.
  6. It must be noted that the wall plate is secured properly to prevent it from sliding upwards.
  7. After the completion of nailing the cleat in position, the wall plate is held firmly against the wall and the raker is fixed.
  8. 2. Fixing of the Sole Piece:
  9. The next step includes fixing the sole piece.
  10. The sole piece must be placed such that it can resist the thrust of the raker at an angle greater than a right angle so that when the raker is tightened up a right angle is duly formed.
  11. The tightening up of the raker must not be done by a hammer.
  12. Then, a small rebate is cut from the foot of the raker such that a lever can be inserted for the tightening up.
  13. Additionally, folding wedges may be inserted between the foot of the raker.
  14. The sole piece must be built up to the required angle and then duly spiked to prevent the outward movements.
  15. On the other hand, in the soft grounds, excavation must be done towards the unsafe wall to provide the necessary angle.
  16. Alternately, the soleplate can also be constructed by using a plank that is as wide as the wall plate.
  17. When the bottom of the wall plate is touching the ground, it could be allowed to rest on the end of the soleplate nearest the wall and later a cleat may be nailed into position in the right angle thus formed.
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The cleats must be nailed onto the soleplate about 50mm away from the foot of the raker. This is done to ensure that space is provided for the insertion of the folding wedges between the raker and the cleat.

  • During the tightening and positioning of the wedges, care must be taken to ensure that it does not permit the wall plate to ride up the wall.
  • The end of the soleplate outside the raker must be secured by a stake or a spike to prevent such movement.
  • 3. Fixing of Brace (or Strut):

Finally, the brace or the strut is fixed. This is done to ensure that any movement by the foot of the wall plate is prevented and ensure that the riding up of the wall plate under the stress is avoided. The strut, if required, must be dogged or spiked.

What is Raker bracing?

Rakers are an internal bracing system that transfers forces from the shoring wall to a theoretically more stable zone. Because rakers take a lot of valuable internal real estate, designers will often try and specify them at 45 degrees. While this is technically feasible, many design and review engineers ignore some of critical items to be considered. Figure 1: Uplift and Geotechnical Tension Wall Capacity for a Steep Raker Raker installation needs to follow a logical sequence. Installing a raker at 45 degrees usually means that the excavation needs to be bermed at 45 degrees, or that such deep cut slots are dug near the rakers. Figure 2: Automatic Search illustrating zero pressures for a significant depth Even when some cohesion is present, excavating soil berms at more than 30 degrees can result in significantly less passive resistance and increased wall displacements. Another often overlooked issue is how passive soil pressures will interact with a passive heel block if a raker is to rest against one. Figure 3: Passive heel block falling within the passive wedge as formed from the wall base When an excavation is in rock, with shallow wall embedment, these effects will be minimal. In other cases, they really need to be considered.

What is the purpose of shoring?

Shoring is the process of temporarily supporting a building, vessel, structure, or trench with shores (props) when in danger of collapse or during repairs or alterations. Shoring comes from shore, a timber or metal prop. Shoring may be vertical, angled, or horizontal.

What does tieback mean in construction?

What Is A Raker In Construction Tiebacks are a horizontal wire or rod that reinforce retaining walls for stability. These tiebacks are anchored on one end to the wall and to a stable structure on the other. This could be a concrete deadman that’s been driven into the ground or anchored into the earth with resistance. The structure resists the forces that would otherwise cause the wall to lean. What Is A Raker In Construction VECP 10,433 SF Permanent Top Down Tieback Wall What Is A Raker In Construction

Why do they call it raking?

The Story of the Golden Rake Raking (verb) – to really hit the ball hard, all over the park. When you’re raking, you’re hitting very well. (baseball-lingo.com). The term “raking” receives its derivation from the popular tool used for gardening and can be applied in a baseball sense, when it comes to hitting.

  1. The term has been adopted by the St.
  2. Thomas University baseball team for the production that its high-powered offense has exhibited thus far in 2018.
  3. The origins of the Golden Rake can be traced back to a fall practice in late September, when Bobcats third-baseman, Randy Oliva exclaimed the now famous phrase, “Yo! That guy rakes!” when watching head coach Jorge Perez raking the clay along the infield at Paul Demie Mainieri Field.

The inspiration for the Golden Rake also came from the now globally recognized “Turnover Chain” made famous by the University of Miami football team last season. Coach Perez was asked his thoughts about what the Golden Rake can do for team chemistry. “I like the fact that the award goes to different players and it promotes friendly competition within the team which the kids enjoy,” said Perez who added that he has received feedback from other coaches around the NAIA.

  1. Perez also appreciates the efforts of the members of team that operate the @STU_Baseball twitter account.
  2. The social media really allows us an opportunity to promote the program and show everything that we are about here at St.
  3. Thomas University,” said Perez.
  4. As much as you, the fans, would like to believe that the Golden Rake was bestowed upon the St.

Thomas University Bobcats by the baseball gods themselves you may just be right. Similar to how Excalibur chose Arthur of Lancelot, the Golden Rake recipient is chosen by a secret panel of voters following every St. Thomas University win. The legend of the Golden Rake began on February 13th, 2018 when the Bobcats took on the 2016 DII National Champion Nova Southeastern Sharks.

  • The game was won by the Bobcats, 9-4 in what was an extraordinary exhibition of hitting, i.e.
  • Raking.The first Golden Rake was awarded to Sergio Lopez who went 4-for-5 with a double, two RBIs and three runs in the win over the Sharks.
  • Since receiving his first Golden Rake nomination, Lopez is hitting an outrageous,722 (13-18) with one home run, five RBIs, eight runs scored, and has three doubles.

Those numbers may have people wondering “Wow, is Lopez the only one that is raking for St. Thomas?” In fact, several other Bobcats have already earned Golden Rakes of their own. The whole lineup has participated in their fair share of raking and since the Golden Rakes inception Jackie Urbaez, Nelson Mompierre, Erick Delgado have also made their hitting prowess (raking) in games turn to gold.

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Although Lopez was the first to garner the recognition of the Golden Rake, Urbaez was the first to earn two Golden Rakes and was able to do so in consecutive games against Ave Maria to open Sun Conference play for the Bobcats. On Friday, February 16 th, Urbaez went 4-for-5 with two doubles, five RBI and a run scored to lead STU to a 13-0 victory.

In an encore performance on Saturday, February 17 th, Urbaez would launch a lead-off home run on the second pitch of the game in an absolute gem of a game from starting pitcher Chris Rodriguez, The solo home run would provide Rodriguez with all the offense he would need.

In game three of the series, Mompierre would go 2-for-2 with a double, 3 RBI and 3 runs to earn his first career Golden Rake award. The Golden Rake is awarded to the Bobcats offensive player who is responsible for the most productive offensive day in a winning effort by St. Thomas. The sabermetric statistic Weighted Runs Created is the primary statistic used to decide the Golden Rake recipient followed by the always important stat of hits and home runs.

Golden Rake Leaderboard 1st – Nelson Mompierre – eight Golden Rakes 2nd – Jackie Urbaez – seven Golden Rakes 3rd – Elih Marrero – six Golden Rakes 3rd (tied) Sergio Lopez – six Golden Rakes 5th – Chris Garabedian – five Golden Rakes 6th – Erick Delgado – four Golden Rakes 7th – Randy Oliva – three Golden Rakes 8th – Oscar Rodriguez – two Golden Rakes 8th (tied) Daniel Lowry – two Golden Rake 10th – Nick Izquierdo – one Golden Rake

What is raking in Masonry?

Raked joint – This is also a very common type of pointing. Working method The mortar is pressed a bit inwards so that it is approximately 2 mm recessed compared to the facing brick. Effect This creates more shadow between the joint and the brick and gives a very well-cared-for appearance. Can be done smooth or brushed.

What is a raker beam?

Raker beams are angled, notched beams that support stadium riser units. They are used universally in outdoor stadiums and arenas and in many indoor arenas and performing-arts theaters.

Where is raking shoring used?

Types of Temporary Shoring Methods – There are a number of different types of temporary shoring methods, some of these include:

Dead shores – Dead shores are the method that temporary shoring companies will use when vertical support is necessary. Dead shores are primarily used when most of the house or building has been damaged or removed. Being able to take on a lot of weight to maintain the structure, they are built with beams and posts to strengthen the integrity and build a firm foundation. Flying shores – Flying shores are a method that shoring companies use when there are two buildings involved. If one of the buildings is being removed or demolished and rebuilt, the flying shore can help to stabilize the remaining building. Many different components go into a flying shore such as cleats, needles, horizontal shores and plates. Raking shores – A raking shore is a structure that is used to support any walls that aren’t structurally sound within a building. Using cleats, needles, sole plates, inclined members, bracing and wall plates, they help to keep walls intact to minimize any damage to the existing building or structure.

What are the two types of shoring?

Figure V:2-8. Shoring Variations: Typical Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Installations – Text version of Figure V:2-8. This figure illustrates four vertical aluminum hydraulic shoring variations: Vertical Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring with Spot Bracing, Vertical Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring with Plywood, Vertical Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring (Stacked), and Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Water System (Typical).

  1. The first variation uses a hydraulic cylinder to exert force against a vertical roll, which transfers the force the the wale.
  2. The second variety adds plywood between the vertical roll and wale.
  3. The third variety stacks multiple arrangements of the first type vertically.
  4. The fourth variety uses a hydraulic cylinder exerting force on a horizontal walethat presses against upright sheeting.B.

Pneumatic Shoring works in a manner similar to hydraulic shoring. The primary difference is that pneumatic shoring uses air pressure in place of hydraulic pressure. A disadvantage to the use of pneumatic shoring is that an air compressor must be on site.

  1. Screw Jacks. Screw jack systems differ from hydraulic and pneumatic systems in that the struts of a screw jack system must be adjusted manually. This creates a hazard because the worker is required to be in the trench in order to adjust the strut. In addition, uniform “preloading” cannot be achieved with screw jacks, and their weight creates handling difficulties.
  2. Single-Cylinder Hydraulic Shores. Shores of this type are generally used in a water system, as an assist to timber shoring systems, and in shallow trenches where face stability is required.
  3. Underpinning. This process involves stabilizing adjacent structures, foundations, and other intrusions that may have an impact on the excavation. As the term indicates, underpinning is a procedure in which the foundation is physically reinforced. Underpinning should be conducted only under the direction and with the approval of a registered professional engineer.

At what depth do you need shoring?

Trenches 5 feet (1.5 meters) deep or greater require a protective system unless the excavation is made entirely in stable rock. If less than 5 feet deep, a competent person may determine that a protective system is not required.

What is the difference between soil nail and tie back?

What Are Soil Nails? – Soil nails are fully threaded steel bars, placed into pre-drilled holes and grouted to keep them in place. Soil nails are placed horizontally into the soil and provide support to a soil mass by transferring tensile loads throughout the ground area.

Bond (shear) stresses occur along the nail grout-to-ground interface and properly configured nail systems reach the resistance level required for the specific retaining wall design. Considered passive reinforcing products, soil nails are not pre-stressed like tieback rods. Typically 20 to 30 feet in length, with small diameter sizes, soil nails are amenable to a variety of drilling patterns needed to support any retaining wall height.

With soil nails in place, providing sufficient tensile resistance and pull-out resistance, the ground remains stable until the earth-resisting retaining wall is built. Corrosion protection contributes to the sustained performance of the earth-resisting system over the long term.

Soil nails are bars installed within an excavation or slope to provide reinforcement to an earth retention structure. They differ from tie backs in that they are considered passive elements and are not actively loaded in tension like a prestressed ground anchor. Soil nails are used in combination with a steel grid cover and shotcrete.

As a system, the soil nail, grid cover, and shotcrete act as a coherent mass with enough strength to resist the overburden pressure of the surrounding soil mass, as well as any surcharge pressure. In comparison to tie back anchors, soil nails have a few significant benefits.

The equipment required to install soil nails is relatively small and mobile, providing a distinct advantage for applications with tight spaces or noise control issues. Using soil nails is typically a more flexible construction technique, allowing for simpler on-site modifications. Also, soil nails are installed early on in the construction process, limiting the disturbance on adjacent structures.


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Cutting-edge manufacturing process eliminates material loss Left- and right-hand thread configurations optimize threading flexibility Various grade options offer flexibility in yield strength Wide range of sizes Fully threaded bars provide ability to cut bars to desired length Ability to supply single bar lengths of up to 60 feet Wide variety of corrosion protection options available Complete range of accessories available to complement our threaded bars

How do you use holdbacks?

What are Curtain Holdbacks? – Curtain holdbacks, also called curtain pullbacks, come in various forms, from tiebacks made of fabric to metal hooks or knobs that are installed in the wall next to a window. Tiebacks are typically only used for decorative curtains that will stay shut, while knobs and hooks offer more versatility of use.

  1. Usually placed about halfway down the wall, they all function to keep curtains swept to the side of a window for a visually-pleasing effect that is just as functional as it is pretty.
  2. To use a curtain holdback, you simply pull the curtains towards each side of the window, behind their holdback, and tuck them onto the inside of the hook or knob.

They keep curtains perfectly bunched and away from the glass. Oftentimes, curtain rods and drapery hardware are sold as curtain rod sets with matching holdbacks. There are many colors and designs to choose from, with some of the most popular mimicking vintage door knobs that come in both metal and wood variations.

What is the function of holdbacks?

The torque arm is a simple device utilized on an array of industrial clutches and holdbacks with torques ranging from a few inch pounds to a million foot pounds. While very basic in design, when mounted incorrectly, all torque arms will yield the same negative result: costly unit failure and associated downtime.

  1. Large holdbacks are used to help increase the safety of high capacity inclined bulk conveyors or bucket conveyors in mining applications.
  2. In the event of a drivetrain failure, holdbacks are utilized to help prevent loaded conveyors from moving backwards.
  3. Without holdbacks, such conveyors, with tons of ore or coal, may accelerate backward causing damage and downtime.

A major complicating factor for these holdback installations is simply that they are typically outdoors, in high contamination environments often with extreme temperatures. As world economies expand, the demand for basic materials such as iron ore, coal or bauxite grow with them.

To address this, some mining operations have chosen to expand conveyor sizes, resulting in larger drive trains which require even more massive holdback sizes. The largest holdback sizes have grown by over 50% to more than 1.2 million foot pounds of holding torque capacity. When power is cutoff or when the load exceeds the drives capability in a way that causes the load to start to back drive, the backstopping action of the clutch is activated.

The clutch rotates slightly against the force which allows the torque arm assembly to receive a portion of the system load. One end of the torque arm is pivotally connected to the head member of the clutch, while the other end of the arm is connected to a stationary structure. A torque arm mount for these larger backstops must be able to restrain the unit from significant rotation in the event of a reversal of force on the conveyor shaft. These torque arm reaction forces can range from a few thousand pounds to more than 100,000 pounds for larger size models.

Holdback manufacturers provide integrated torque arms that can withstand these forces, but the system assembler/installer must ensure that the mounting will withstand the forces as well. The preferred torque arm mounting position is horizontal which reduces bearing load yielding longer bearing life. When mounting, the end of the torque arm must not be rigidly attached to steel framework.

Instead, a bracket or stirrup positioned at the end of the torque arm must provide clearance to permit the backstop to center itself in axial and angular positions to prevent pinching of bearings causing damage or failure of the unit. This top of arm clearance can be either 1/2″ or 1″ depending arm type. The required clearance also reduces any build up of debris that could create a binding situation. An effective preventive maintenance protocol would ensure that such accumulations would be cleared as a matter of routine maintenance. Lastly, the needed clearance of the bracket or stirrup structure used for holding the torque arm will also allow for any thermal expansion/contraction due to swings in temperature.

What is a meaning of raking?

Raked; raking. transitive verb. : to gather, loosen, or smooth with or as if with a rake. rake leaves into a pile. : to gain rapidly or in abundance.

Is raking legal?

In most cases, only an establishment with the requisite permits and gaming licenses may legally take a rake in its cardrooms. While many areas allow players to play cash home games in private dwellings, it’s usually illegal to generate income from these games, whether through a tournament fee or a rake.

What is a raked floor?

A rake or raked stage is a theatre stage that slopes upwards, away from the audience.

What is racking in brickwork?

Racking is defined as masonry in which successive courses are stepped back from the face of the wall.

What is a rake used for in concrete?

Concrete rake: A heavy-duty metal rake, a concrete rake has a flat edge for smoothing out or spreading wet concrete and another side with a slight curve to it for scooping concrete.

What does a joint raker do?

It easily removes old mortar from between bricks. For harder mortar you will need something stronger like a chisel or a grinder but this works most of the time. ‘

What is a meaning of raking?

Raked; raking. transitive verb. : to gather, loosen, or smooth with or as if with a rake. rake leaves into a pile. : to gain rapidly or in abundance.

What is raking in plastering?

Raking out joints for plastering or pointing done as a separate item, or finishing flush as the work proceeds.

What is a raking column?

Inclined Columns – Features, Load Transfer and Design Considerations Inclined columns or slanted columns or raked columns are column that are structurally leaned at an angle with the perpendicular. The inclination to the structure is provided intentionally to meet architectural or structural functions.

Fig.1. Inclined columns with Architectural Importance

The new idea mentioned is that columns are no longer vertical. It can be inclined. Inclined columns are originated from the category of structural framing members gravity load loaded columns and can be applied to both rigid as well as braced frames.

What is a rake in concrete?

Construction dictionary Información importante sobre cookies : Utilizamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios. Si continuas navegando, consideramos que aceptas su uso. | A tool featuring a long, thin handle, with a long metallic piece at one end, perpendicular to the handle, with tooth-like spikes.