Which Company Cement Used In Burj Khalifa?

Which Company Cement Used In Burj Khalifa
ELKEM MICROSILICA® product is used to make the high-strength concrete that is essential for constructing the world’s tallest buildings, such as the record-breaking Burj Khalifa in Dubai. In this application, ELKEM MICROSILICA® product is used as a cost-effective means to increase the compressive strength of the concrete mix.

Is Burj Khalifa made of cement?

Burj Khalifa employs a record-breaking 330,000 cubic m (11.6 million cubic ft) of concrete ; 39,000 m/t of reinforced steel; 103,000 sq m (1.1 million sq ft) of glass; 15,500 sq m (166,800 sq ft) of embossed stainless steel; and the tower took 22 million man hours to build.

Is Tata Steel used in Burj Khalifa?

Steeling The Show | Tata Group From the Howrah Bridge in 1943 to the Burj Khalifa in 2010, Tata Steel has helped raise iconic structures in India and abroad. These metal marvels have become proud symbols of city skylines around the world. Take, for instance, the magnificent Shard, which is the tallest building in the European Union.

  • When architect Renzo Piano designed The Shard, he envisioned ‘a vertical city’.
  • A 309.7-metre-tall city that stands on flooring constructed with 1,000 tonnes of galvanised steel supplied by Tata Steel in Shotton, North Wales.
  • The historic Howrah bridge that graces the city of Kolkata that recently celebrated its 75th anniversary is made of mostly steel supplied by Tata Steel.

Click on the icons on the picture above to explore. : Steeling The Show | Tata Group

Which cement is used in Dubai?

– ​ The Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) 33 Grade is the UltraTech cement that is used for every sort of general civil construction works and only used in places that are subjected to normal/mild environmental conditions. It has certain strength limitations due to which it is not much used in construction works where high grade concrete is required.

This variety is not often produced now, due to its limited use. ​ The Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) 43 Grade is among the UltraTech cement that now has replaced the OPC 43 grade cement and is being used widely for general construction work. This cement type is employed in almost every type of RCC works, various industrial buildings and structures, many commercial as well as residential complexes.

It is very rightfully the engineer’s choice and is utilized to build dams, bridges, and other irrigation works. They also use it in constructing highways and runways. The Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) 53 Grade is utilized in RCC and prestressed concrete of higher grades, instant plugging mortar cement grouts, and in various other construction fields, where an initial higher strength is of utmost requirement.

This grade of UltraTech cement is used for speedy construction and getting a durable concrete. Plus, you can get economic concrete mix designs using this cement type. ​ Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) is an UltraTech cement type that has the capability to make the concrete more impermeable and denser when compared to OPC.

It has a higher long-term strength and produces less heat of hydration. It also offers greater resistance to the attack of aggressive waters than normal OPC and can be used for all types of construction. The several other advantages of PPC include its resistance to sulfate and chloride attack, alkali silica reaction and a reduced water demand.

What type of cement is used in UAE?

Ordinary Portland Cement are the most widely specified in the UAE. Portland cement is used in various applications, from concrete, mortar and render to the manufacture of pre-cast units such as blocks, bricks, pipes and tiles. CEMEX OPC is produced by burning a precisely specified mixture of raw materials containing lime, silica, alumina and small quantities of other materials to form a clinker.

Can be used with admixtures to produce concretes suitable for a wide range of applications Consistency in manufacture Compatible with fly ash and blast furnace slag

Concrete – in ready mix blocks and precast Block Manufacture Mortar Application Special Applications – like construction chemicals Concrete Pipes

Delivered in pressurised bulk powder tankers by road, the standard load size is 50 tonnes. Silo identity disks can be provided for individual products Make sure you’re ready to receive and store your bulk material by viewing the checklist All CEMEX drivers are fully trained and experienced in the discharging of our vehicles, please do all you can to ensure your site is accessible with no obstructions.

If you are in any doubt, we can send an engineer to advise you – just ask by calling Customer Services on +971 4 880 1212. To avoid premature deterioration of the reducing agent incorporated in the cement for control of soluble chromium (VI), storage should be in accordance with our recommendations given on dispatch documents.

Contact with wet cement, wet concrete or mortar may cause irritation, dermatitis or severe alkali burns. Contact between cement powder and body fluids (e.g. sweat and eye fluids) may also cause irritation, dermatitis or burns. There is serious risk of damage to the eyes.

Which pump is used in Burj Khalifa?

Burj Khalifa – a new high for high-performance concrete Key: Open access content Subscribed content Free content Trial content The world’s tallest structure – the 828 m high Burj Khalifa building in Dubai – has set a new benchmark for engineering super-tall buildings. In particular, it significantly raised the bar for high-performance-concrete construction, with its massive reinforced-concrete core and wings extending nearly 600 m above ground level. This paper describes the how the extreme concreting challenges were overcome on the project, including successfully pumping and placing high-performance concrete to unprecedented heights as well as preventing excessive cracking and shrinkage in the hot and arid conditions. Practical advice is provided for future projects. The 828 m high Burj Khalifa (formerly known as the Burj Dubai) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates opened in January 2010 as the world’s tallest structure. Its Y-shaped, 586 m high reinforced-concrete core also represented a step-change for high-performance concrete construction ( ). Figure 1 The 828 m tall Burj Khalifa dominates the Dubal skyline and is the world’s tallest structure by far – the first 586 m of the building is constructed from high-performance reinforced concrete () The project is the latest and largest manifestation of the world’s increasing appetite for super-tall buildings. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and the Urban Habitat (), there were 82 buildings of 300 m or greater under construction in January 2010, the vast majority of which were being constructed primarily with reinforced concrete. At least four buildings of around 1000 m are currently at the detailed proposal stage and others with heights of 1400–1600 m are on drawing boards. High-performance concrete is a crucial part of the viability of super-tall buildings, both structurally and economically. The stiffness provided by high-modulus concrete has significant benefits in terms of limiting movement, and high strength is necessary to reduce the cross-section of vertical elements. Furthermore, the pumpability and high early strength of high-performance concrete coupled with prefabrication of reinforcing cages and advances in slip- and climb-form technology mean that large, complex reinforced-concrete structures can be constructed at rates of two to three levels per week. Properly designed reinforced concrete is thus becoming far more competitive with structural steel in terms of construction speed. For the many super-tall structures and other major infrastructure projects under construction in the Middle East, the durability of high-performance concrete also helps to ensure the required service life will be achieved in a hot, chemically aggressive environment. However, such concrete can be more sensitive than conventional concrete during the plastic and early hardening phase, particularly in a harsh drying environment. This paper discusses the issues encountered with using high-performance concrete on Burj Khalifa and how they were overcome. The suitability of reinforced-concrete construction for super-tall buildings is entirely dependent on the ability to pump the concrete. The material may not be viable if large quantities need to be placed by crane, which would not only limit the casting rate but also significantly delay other works. However, whereas the literature contains a great deal of information on many characteristics of high-performance concrete, there is little information on pumping. It was originally planned to conduct staged pumping at Burj Khalifa, which would have involved a separate set of problems and possible delays. However, following mixture development, procedural modifications, pressure monitoring and the advent of powerful pumps such as the Putzmeister 14000 SHP-D, a world-record pumping height of 601 m was achieved during the final part of the core wall casting in November 2007 ( ). The previous record was 448 m at Taipeh 101 Tower in 2003. Figure 2 A world record concrete pumping height of 601 m was achieved on 8 November 2007 It was also considered economic to pump relatively small quantities of C50 concrete for metal deck composite slabs above the 586 m concrete core rather than use cranes, adding a further 5 m to the record in April 2008. For a 48 m 3 slab using 3 m 3 skips with a 30 min transit time, the maximum casting rate would be 12 m 3 /h and would require two cranes full time for 4 h. For pumping, the time in the pipeline was approximately 30 min at this elevation but resulted in a relatively uninterrupted casting rate of 20 m 3 /h or more thereafter. The 11 m 3 of concrete evacuated during cleaning the pipeline was used in other applications. One of the challenges to designing pumpable concrete in the Middle East is the use of crushed aggregate for both coarse and fine aggregate. Two principal types of aggregate are used in the region: gabbro and a high-quality limestone, principally from the Emirates and Oman, though the quality of the fine aggregate can vary significantly around the Gulf. The abrasion characteristics of coarse aggregate are an important consideration for pumping: the rate of wear of the pipeline is a significant cost consideration, particularly at high pressure. The lifespan of a pipeline when using highly abrasive gabbro can be as low as 10 000 m 3, For Burj Khalifa, approximately 40 000 m 3 of a suitably designed mix containing a dolomitic limestone was pumped through the central pipeline with only minor local replacement. Another crucial consideration in mixture proportioning is the pipeline diameter and the maximum aggregate size. A 150 mm pipeline was used on Burj Khalifa, which enabled a 20 mm maximum aggregate size to be used up to level 100 (346 m). There are issues with weight, cost and concrete volume associated with the use of larger diameter pipes for high-pressure pumping. As such, use of a smaller diameter pipeline with a smaller maximum aggregate size may be more practical in many applications. a problem with pumping concrete on a super-tall tower is that the degree of difficulty is always increasing but the team can become blasé There is a tendency today to use a high proportion of fine aggregate in high-performance concrete, particularly when it is designed to have a slump flow exceeding 500 mm. However, even with higher fines, these concretes were found to have low shrinkage and creep characteristics. In the Emirates, a fine dune sand (<600 μm) is also used to increase the finer fraction and the improve cohesion of the mixture, while in other areas such as Qatar – where dune sand contains high quantities of gypsum – viscosity-modifying admixtures can be used to improve cohesion and segregation resistance. In the case of Burj Khalifa, the fine-aggregate percentage for tower mixes was approximately 50% and fly ash was used at a replacement level of 13–20% together with silica fume at 5–10%. A specially modified superplasticiser was developed for the project by BASF to achieve greater workability retention with early strength development. Indicative mixture proportions are given by, Concrete pumping trials were conducted before the Burj Khalifa tower construction using a Putzmeister BSA 14000 HP-D stationary pump with a maximum hydraulic pressure of 310 bar. A length of 600 m of high-pressure ZX 125 delivery pipe was laid out horizontally with transducers to measure concrete pressure after pumping through distances of 250, 450 and 600 m ( ). The pipeline was in direct sunlight, but during one of the cooler months of the year. Figure 3 A 600 m, 125 mm diameter concrete delivery pipe fitted with transducers was laid out on the ground near the site to help assess pressures due to pipe friction Five different concrete mixtures were tested, and fresh and hardened concrete properties were measured before and after pumping. This procedure provided useful data, indicating that single-stage pumping would be possible as well as highlighting certain practical problems which reduced possible blockage during construction. However, there were changes in a number of parameters that meant friction factors calculated for the pumping trial were different from in situ pumping. An alternative procedure to horizontal trials is the use of in situ pressure transducers at the hopper, at the end of the horizontal section of the pipeline and at various elevations to establish the friction factor in situ. The limitation of this procedure is that blockage of the pipeline cannot be allowed, which tends to inhibit pushing the limits. Appropriate positioning of pumps and planning of concrete-truck flow on and off site will help ensure smooth operation of pumping. Equipment and tools necessary to clear the pipeline in the event of blockage should be kept in a locked area near the point of discharge to enable immediate action by the pumping team if required. A seminar with the concrete supplier, pump operators, contractor's supervisors and consultant's representatives should be conducted, with an interpreter if necessary, so that all parties know the procedure and their role. This should be repeated regularly: a problem with pumping concrete on a super-tall tower is that the degree of difficulty is always increasing but the team can become blasé. Concrete in the Middle East has a potential for blockage during pumping due temperature effects and delays. If practically possible, all pumping of concrete, particularly in summer months, should be conducted at night. The batching plant should be as close as possible to the project to reduce transit time and disruptions to supply – a site plant is best. Careful consideration should be given to the maximum allowed concrete placement temperature. To achieve the common limit of 32°C with high-performance concrete, and depending on the moisture content of the fine aggregate, the added water content could be almost completely composed of flake ice during the summer months, when shade temperatures can exceed 50°C. Limited variation in rheology and concrete temperature through summer will help minimise pumping problems. Batching plants in the Middle East generally use pan mixers or similar where the ingredients are well mixed before discharge into a truck. At large replacement levels, most of the flake ice needs to melt to lubricate the mix before discharge. Monitoring the ammeter in the plant provides a good indication of the workability of the concrete in the pan, and workability should be measured at the plant and site regularly to confirm full melting before pumping. If there is no ice facility at the batching plant, an alternative is to use a high-volume fly ash mixture to limit the heat of hydration. This was done for the 4 m thick raft of the 412 m Al Hamra Tower in Kuwait, where the casting was scheduled in August and a peak temperature of 71°C was specified, and the batching plant did not have an ice plant. At various elevations on the Burj Khalifa project, concrete was tested for rheological properties, using an Icar rheometer, and temperature both before and after pumping. The sampling included C80-20, C80-14 and C60-14 concretes. There was some variation in the results but the average effects of pumping to elevations from 350 m to 580 m was a 2–3°C rise in temperature and a 10% reduction in slump flow. Pumping was found roughly to halve the plastic viscosity of the concrete and double the dynamic yield stress. The results appear related to the increase in temperature during pumping. The significantly lower plastic viscosity after pumping will reduce the segregation resistance of the concrete, and should be considered during mix design and when deciding on placement procedures. On the other hand, pumping will tend significantly to increase early-age compressive strength. The greater strength after pumping combined with the significant concrete volume within typical structural elements means that the in situ compressive strength can greatly exceed that of compliance cube/cylinder specimens, particularly if taken before pumping. Where demanding early-age strength targets are required, the in situ maturity should be assessed using appropriate methods to avoid possible unnecessary modification to the mixture, such as reduced retardation, that may compromise pumpability. While sampling at the point of discharge would be more representative of the concrete in the actual structure, it can create significant logistical and safety problems, especially on a confined climb form. On Burj Khalifa, samples were taken at a site laboratory with periodic assessment of the effect of pumping by sampling concrete after it was pumped. At Burj Khalifa there were three stationary concrete pumps positioned in parallel on the ground floor slab adjacent to the tower: two Putzmeister BSA 14000 SHP-Ds with maximum hydraulic pressure of 360 bar (equivalent to a concrete pressure up to 240 bar) and one Putzmeister BSA 14000 HP-D with a maximum hydraulic pressure of 310 bar ( ). The pumps were connected to 150 mm diameter high-pressure pipes servicing the three wings and the central core, all with separate delivery pipelines. This configuration meant that concrete could be placed at up to three separate locations simultaneously. Figure 4 A total of 165 000 m 3 of concrete for the Burj Khalifa tower was delivered by three Putzmeister pumps on the ground floor with up to 240 bar capacity Free-standing Putzmeister placing booms with a reach of 28 m were located on each of the three wings while a larger placing boom with a reach of 32 m was used for the central core ( ). The booms were secured to the Doka climb-form system and were raised along with the formwork. The delivery pipelines were connected to reducers several floors below the formwork to connect to the 125 mm diameter booms. Figure 5 MX32 Putzmeister concrete placing boom on the core, seen here with its operator, had a 32 m reach and was mounted on a 20 m high steel column attached to the Doka climbing formwork The general trend of increasing pumping pressure with elevation and the effect of different concrete types are shown in, At floor 101, the concrete for the core walls changed from C80-20 to C80-14, with a noticeable reduction in pumping pressure. The increased water/cement ratio of the C60-14 mixture appeared to reduce pumping pressure slightly compared to C80-14. Figure 6 Graph showing how pumping pressure increased with height up to around 200 bar – and the reduction due to changing from 20 mm to 14 mm aggregate above 346 m All the potential benefits of pumping high-performance concrete can be lost if blockage occurs and therefore preventing blockage must be a vital consideration. Blockage can be caused by priming with a wet slurry, excessive delay, inadequate retardation and incompatibility of admixtures. Measurement of fresh concrete properties at the site can be a useful guide to the suitability of the delivered concrete before pumping. Temperature, slump flow and visual inspection for segregation after slump flow should be tested both at the plant and on site. Good practice is to measure the first three trucks and then regularly thereafter. On Burj Khalifa, detailed rheological properties of the core concrete were assessed at every fifth level. With the extreme ambient temperatures that can occur in the Middle East, blockage due to setting is a particular concern. On a super-tall structure, the substantial volume within the pipeline and the time for the concrete to reach the point of discharge need to be fully understood before attempting to push ‘old' concrete through. The old adage of ‘better safe than sorry' is especially true of evacuating a pipeline in which a problem has occurred or when the concrete in the pipeline has exceeded an agreed time since batching. There have been significant advances in many aspects of concrete technology in the Middle East, with great increases in strength, modulus and durability. However, a serious limitation in the region has been the lack of systematic quality control. This has often been exacerbated by high test errors of cube samples as well as sometimes unreliable reporting of compliance data. Production standard deviations of greater than 7 MPa have been common as are within-test standard deviations of e MPa or more based on 28-day pair differences. Significant sources of error are the quality of the cube moulds, sampling, curing and testing. Samples for compressive strength or other hardened properties should be taken at a properly controlled testing facility. Attempting to take samples at the point of discharge often results in poor to non-existent initial curing and early mechanical damage during transport. Compliance data are often used for quality assurance but not in a timely manner to influence production, which has led to over-design of concrete mixtures. Aside from reduced economy, the variability in compressive strength indicates an underlying variability in mixture proportions, which may also influence rheology and pumpability. Due to the high production and testing variability, it is prudent to include an in situ testing programme to confirm design assumptions. High-performance concrete in the Middle East is often designed with high workability and would be considered self-consolidating concrete in many parts of the world. However, it is often placed and vibrated using the same techniques as traditional concrete, which can lead to segregation. High-workability, high-performance concrete should be allowed to flow from the point of discharge and stop moving before any limited vibration ( ). In the case of vertical elements, small portable tremie pipes can be placed at the approximate flow distance apart to reduce the time to position the placing boom or pump outlet. Such modifications to construction practices can be very helpful in super-tall structures, enabling contractors to keep the concrete pumping at a constant rate and thereby avoid blockages due to excessive articulation of placing booms containing static concrete, particularly when the weather is hot. Any blockage in a placing boom is difficult to clear and the piping is expensive to replace. Figure 7 Placing high-workability concrete in the core walls at night – minimal movements of the boom between placing points helped to avoid blockages The installation of a reducer near the pump can be a good precaution so that any concrete with a high segregation potential blocks at that location rather than elsewhere in the pipeline. This will not necessarily prevent blockage caused by a wet slurry, or stop viscosity reduction during pumping, but it is a good precaution against variability in the delivered concrete. High-performance concrete in the Middle East typically contains 5–10% silica fume with a high cementitious content and has a tendency rapidly to form a ‘skin' under the harsh drying conditions. The skin can limit the melding of cast layers, but can be reduced by retaining moisture in the concrete surface by the use of evaporation retarders and other methods to reduce evaporation. The thixotropic nature of self-consolidating concrete can also induce distinct layer casting of the material. The first consequence of this is often only visual but reductions in mechanical strength of more than 40% have also been reported by, A dramatic reduction in strength following a critical delay between casting a subsequent layer is also shown by, This can be a particular concern in casting self-consolidating-concrete rafts or other elements where the delay between layers can be substantial and no vibration is conducted. High-performance concrete usually has negligible bleed and can be quite cohesive. Therefore finishing works require operatives to develop a feel for material. Trial applications should be conducted early to enable the finishers to become familiar with the concrete's properties and to confirm an acceptable finish. Evaporation retarders facilitate finishing by retaining moisture in the upper layer helping to eliminate sprinkling of water on the concrete during finishing, which reduces surface quality. The low bleed characteristics of high-performance concrete and the strong drying conditions in the Middle East make the concrete particularly susceptible to plastic shrinkage cracking. In the warmer months, high-performance concrete will often have a placement temperature less than ambient and moisture will tend to condense on the fresh concrete surface. However, after the surface has heated to ambient temperature, the formation of plastic cracks can be rapid and dramatic if appropriate measures are not taken to limit evaporation. An evaporation retarder is a very practical and inexpensive method to reduce plastic shrinkage cracking. Wind breaks and sun shades are also helpful. Effective fogging is the best method as it can actually keep a high humidity layer at the concrete surface, though wind breaks may be necessary to confine the body of air above the concrete. For flatwork, concreting and finishing in the heat of the day should be avoided with pours planned so that curing can commence before 10 a.m. at the latest. The general guideline as given in ACI 305-99 () is that the rate of evaporative loss which exceeds the rate of bleeding (i.e. when plastic cracking would occur) is approximately 1·0 (kg/m 2 )/h (). However, some agencies in the USA require that pouring of high-performance concrete bridge deck overlays be postponed until the rate of evaporation is less than 0·25 or 0·50 (kg/m 2 )/h (VDT, 2002; ). If plastic cracks do develop, the cracks concerned should be vibrated if the concrete has not reached initial set. Attempts to close plastic cracks by trowelling will generally only cover over the cracks, which may influence structural performance and provide pathways for chlorides to the reinforcement. The optimum curing for high-performance concrete is ponding with water. This provides water to replace that used in hydration, improving concrete properties and helping to reduce early autogenous shrinkage. The latent heat of evaporation helps release the heat of concrete hydration, which can markedly reduce peak temperature – especially in concrete containing fly ash, slag and natural pozzolans. The use of polythene over wet hessian will help keep water in contact with the concrete surface but does not allow evaporative heat loss from the surface. Ponding is best for thicker elements. Early-age autogenous shrinkage can be particularly significant in high-performance concrete containing high replacement levels of slag (). Even limited periods of water curing immediately after finishing can thus provide significant reductions in autogenous shrinkage. However, the immediate application of a curing membrane may increase early autogenous shrinkage by blocking the pores, which causes greater tensile stresses within the concrete. In applications where prolonged water curing is difficult, liquid water curing for the first day or so before application of a curing membrane would still have considerable benefits. For vertical surfaces, the use of a controlled-permeability form liner is a good technique for improving the density and appearance of the concrete surface. The water that collects in the liner is also sucked into the hydrating concrete, providing excellent early curing for vertical surfaces – traditionally the most difficult to cure effectively. Alternatively, the formwork should be kept in place for as long as possible. On Burj Khalifa, where the formwork could be set back within 12 h, a sprayed curing compound was used. Due to widespread use of crushed limestone aggregate with a low coefficient of thermal expansion and the relatively warm climate, the use of insulation on formwork is rarely required in the Middle East to control internal thermal restraint cracking. High-performance concrete offers immense benefits to developers, consultants and contractors working on the hundreds of super-tall structures under construction and planned in the Middle East and elsewhere in the world. The material's high strength and modulus mean that super-tall buildings can have more slender vertical elements. Also, as has been proved on the Burj Khalifa project in Dubai, single-stage pumping to over 600 m is now possible and this, together with high early strengths, allows rapid cycle times to meet today's demanding construction schedules. However, appropriate care and attention to mix design, placing, protection and curing is vital to minimise potential problems with pump blockage, segregation, autogenous shrinkage and cracking. Burj Khalifa shattered all previous world construction records by a considerable margin and required an enormous effort by all parties involved to overcome its many construction challenges – not least with regard to using high-performance concrete ( ). In the quest to build the world's next tallest structure, the lessons learned at Burj Khalifa must not be overlooked. Figure 8 Burj Khalifa set new standards for reinforced-concrete construction but there is no room for complacency in future projects () If you would like to comment on this paper, please email up to 200 words to the editor at, If you would like to write a paper of 2000 to 3500 words about your own experience in this or any related area of civil engineering, the editor will be happy to provide any help or advice you need. The author would like to thank Emaar, developer of the Burj Khalifa project, for permission to present this paper as well as the technical staff from contractor Samsung JV, concrete supplier Unimix and concrete pump supplier Putzmeister for their assistance. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill of Chicago were the architect and structural engineer for the project and Hyder Consulting was the supervising engineer. : Burj Khalifa – a new high for high-performance concrete

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What is the highest grade of concrete?

In India maximum grade of concrete used is M60 mostly, and the concrete used above this grade will be designed as self-compacting concrete to ensure compaction.

Can Indians buy flat in Burj Khalifa?

Can Indian nationals buy a property in Dubai? – Yes, Indian nationals can buy property in Dubai. In fact, Indians have ranked amongst the top nationalities to invest in Dubai real estate for several years. As per Indian laws, purchasing a property in Dubai is legally okay.

  • The Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), enacted in 1999, is the governing law for such purchases by Indian citizens.
  • Further, as per the Liberalised Remittance Scheme (LRS), a resident can invest up to $250,000 in properties abroad.
  • With the introduction of “golden visas” by the Dubai government, the real estate markets have seen an increased interest by investors.

These visas have liberalised home ownership rules for foreigners residing in Dubai. As per new rules for property investment, investors buying real estate worth two million Dirhams or more can apply for a 10-year visa to stay in Dubai.

What is the cost of Burj Khalifa in Indian Rupees for 1 day?

The entry fee for Burj Khalifa is around Rs 5970.64 per person. While, for general admission, children below the age of 12 years are charged the price of Rs 3222.25 and adults are charged the cost of Rs 3980.42 at the top level and Rs 9951.06 at the top sky level.

Which pump is used in high rise building?

Booster Pump Systems for High Rise Buildings – For booster pump systems of this size, we offer nearly limitless customization of the overall system, with unique options for both the control system and the pumps. With retrofitting, as was the case with this DoubleTree location, everything is custom because it must be tailored to specific building requirements.

  1. Our assessment of the property, the existing equipment – a continuous-speed, three-pump system that had reached end of life – and the hotel’s needs, led us to recommend a variable-speed, three-pump system that would be more efficient and responsive.
  2. Each of the pumps, coupled with a 25 horsepower variable speed motor, is capable of 200 gallons per minute (GPM) and is contained within the larger Metro-Varipac Multi-Stage Vertical Pump System 2100.
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As the old controller was no longer functioning, the new system is now operating with a Metro-Tech III controller capable of both pressure and variable frequency drive (VFD) trending. In addition to incorporating some of the most reliable pumps and components on the market, the System 2100 comes with a variety of additional benefits: 1.

Minimal routine maintenance required 2. Offers potentially significant energy cost savings due to the variable speed control 3. Provides the perfect solution in medium to high pressure applications A variable speed system like this is perfect for hotels because the system is capable of sitting idle during low-demand periods.

This idle state, which easily ramps up when demand increases, saves time, ultimately extends the life of the system and, most importantly, improves the guest experience. In fact, according to Larry Pyzik, Assistant Chief Engineer at the DoubleTree, “After the equipment was installed, we were getting positive comments about how great the showers were, about the water pressure.

It made a huge difference.” As an added design bonus that proved especially beneficial for this project, we designed the System 2100 to exist in a relatively small footprint when compared to its power. This allows the equipment to fit into just about any space and, thanks in part to extra space in the pump room, the unit’s smaller size allowed us to set everything up before taking the existing pumps offline.

Translation: Minimum downtime and, as a result, almost no disruption to guests staying in the hotel at the time. We even added a valve to the building on the discharge side to reduce downtime if major service is ever required.

Which pump is mostly used in industry?

Types of Industrial Pumps currently on the market –

Centrifugal Pumps:

These pumps are the most used in the chemical industry and the most effective for handling solid particles carried in a fluid suspension. The centrifugal pump is a type of hydraulic pump that transforms the mechanical energy of an impeller into kinetic or pressure energy of an incompressible fluid. From mechanic to hydraulic. Which Company Cement Used In Burj Khalifa The chemical and processing industries use centrifugal pumps for things like paints, chemicals, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, cellulose, food production, beverages and sugar refining The main characteristics of these pumps are:

They do not have articulated components and the coupling mechanisms are very simple. The electric impeller of the motor is quite simple. For a defined operation, the expense is constant and no regulating device is required. They adapt easily to many circumstances. The space required is about 1/8 of the equivalent plunger pump. The weight is minimal, and therefore the foundations are too. The maintenance of a centrifugal pump is reduced to changing the oil of the bearings, the packaging press – mechanical closure and sealing joints, so the number of elements to change is minimal. The price of a centrifugal pump is ¼ of the price of an equivalent plunger pump.

Positive Displacement Pumps:

This type of industrial pump guides the fluid that moves along its entire trajectory, which is contained between the impeller and the housing or cylinder. They have a chamber that increases volume (suction) and decreases volume (drive). All types of rotary pumps are positive displacement pumps and include gear pumps, screw/spindle, rotating vanes and pistons.

Helical Pumps

These pumps are known as progressive cavity pumps or helical screw pumps. They are positive displacement pumps and are ideal for the transfer of fluids with fragile solids. Suitable for viscous and abrasive fluids.

Liquid ring vacuum pumps

These pumps are positive displacement rotary machines that create a vacuum and are commonly used for all types of industrial processes in a wide range of industries including chemical, electrical, environmental, food and beverage processing and packaging, marine operations, mining and oil.

Peristaltic Pumps:

The peristaltic pumps are a type of positive displacement hydraulic pump, used to pump a wide variety of fluids. The fluid is contained within a flexible tube recessed inside a circular cover of the pump so there is no contact between the mechanical elements and the product.

Lobe Pumps:

Lobe pumps are rotary volumetric pumps. Pumping is produced by 2 lobes that rotate in the opposite direction, to conduct the liquid into the space between the body and a lobe. The effect is smooth, with good acceptance of large particles in suspension.

Flexible impeller pumps

Flexible impeller pumps are designed to work in both directions and are characterized by being self-priming and very versatile. However, they are not suitable for working at high temperatures (>80ºC) due to the high friction between the impeller and the body.

Rotary Pumps:

These industrial pumps discharge a continuous flow. Although they are generally considered pumps for viscous liquids, they can also handle almost any liquid that is free of abrasive solids. These are machines that develop pressure by transporting liquids in a defined path in a single direction.

Reciprocal or Alternative Pumps:

In these pumps, the fluid moves by alternative movement, when moving in one direction it sucks and in the opposite direction it expels. The best-known pump of this kind is the diaphragm. InoxMIM is one of the leading manufacturers of centrifugal pumps nationwide, with high-performance machines and excellent results. Which Company Cement Used In Burj Khalifa If you would like further information, just give us a call on +34 972 58 20 40, send an email to [email protected], or spend a few seconds completing the following form, so that one of our sales representatives can contact you as soon as possible. Privacy summary This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful.

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How did they get concrete to Burj Khalifa?

The Concrete Mixture – Throughout the project, operators could only use high-strength concrete mixtures. The mixtures were only poured at night because of hot temperatures during the day. The concrete had to be chilled in the plant before preparation. Some of the water was replaced with ice, allowing the concrete to remain at 28 degrees Celsius as it was transferred to the site.

Plant personnel monitored and logged each batch of concrete. Temperature and viscosity were checked regularly before the concrete arrived at the pumps. Then, samples were poured to check pressure. While developing the delivery line system, engineers considered wear behavior, compressive strength and flow path.

Truck-mounted boom pumps placed the structure’2s 7,000-square-meter (m 2 ) foundation. Two hundred concrete piles (1.5 m in diameter) support the foundation for the core tower, and 650 piles support the tower’s wing sections. Which Company Cement Used In Burj Khalifa Image 2. Three trailer pumps were combined into one station to reach a record height of 606 meters

Which concrete is hardest?

Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a cementitious, concrete material that has a minimum specified compressive strength of 17,000 pounds per square inch (120 MPa) with specified durability, tensile ductility and toughness requirements; fibers are generally included in the mixture to achieve specified requirements. Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC), is also known as reactive powder concrete (RPC). The material is typically formulated by combining portland cement, supplementary cementitious materials, reactive powders, limestone and or quartz flour, fine sand, high-range water reducers, and water. The material can be formulated to provide compressive strengths in excess of 29,000 pounds per square inch (psi) (200 MPa). The use of fine materials for the matrix also provides a dense, smooth surface valued for its aesthetics and ability to closely transfer form details to the hardened surface. When combined with metal, synthetic or organic fibers it can achieve flexural strengths up to 7,000 psi (48 MPa) or greater. Fiber types often used in UHPC include high carbon steel, PVA, Glass, Carbon or a combination of these types or others. The ductile behavior of this material is a first for concrete, with the capacity to deform and support flexural and tensile loads, even after initial cracking. The high compressive and tensile properties of UHPC also facilitate a high bond strength allowing shorter length of rebar embedment in applications such as closure pours between precast elements. UHPC construction is simplified by eliminating the need for reinforcing steel in some applications and the materials high flow characteristics that make it self-compacting. The UHPC matrix is very dense and has a minimal disconnected pore structure resulting in low permeability (Chloride ion diffusion less than 0.02 x 10-12 m2/s. The material’s low permeability prevents the ingress of harmful materials such as chlorides which yields superior durability characteristics. Some manufacturers have created just-add-water UHPC pre-mixed products that are making UHPC products more accessible. The American Society for Testing and Materials has established ASTM C1856/1856M Standard Practice for Fabricating and Testing Specimens of Ultra High Performance Concrete that relies on current ASTM test methods with modifications to make it suitable for UHPC. The following is an example of the range of material characteristics for UHPC: Strength Compressive: 17,000 to 22,000 psi, (120 to 150 MPa) Flexural: 2200 to 3600 psi, (15 to 25 MPa) Modulus of Elasticity: 6500 to 7300 ksi, (45 to 50 GPa) Durability Freeze/thaw (after 300 cycles): 100% Salt-scaling (loss of residue): < 0.013 lb/ft3, (< 60 g/m2) Abrasion (relative volume loss index): 1.7 Oxygen permeability: < 10-19 ft2, (<10-20 m2) Figure 1. Shawnessy Light Rail Transit Station, Calgary, Canada

What material is Burj Khalifa made of?

Architecture – The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings, provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential.

  • Twenty-six helical levels decrease the cross-section of the tower incrementally as it spirals skyward.
  • The central core emerges at the top and culminates in a sculpted spire.
  • A Y-shaped floor plan maximizes views of the Arabian Gulf.
  • Viewed from the base or the air, Burj Khalifa is evocative of the onion domes prevalent in Islamic architecture.

Over 40 wind tunnel tests were conducted on Burj Khalifa to examine the effects the wind would have on the tower and its occupants. These ranged from initial tests to verify the wind climate of Dubai, to large structural analysis models and facade pressure tests, to micro-climate analysis of the effects at terraces and around the tower base.

Even the temporary conditions during the construction stage were tested with the tower cranes on the tower to ensure safety at all times. Stack effect or chimney effect is a phenomenon that affects super-tall building design and arises from the changes in pressure and temperature with height. Special studies were carried on Burj Khalifa to determine the magnitude of the changes that would have to be dealt with in the building design.

Concourse level to level 8 and level 38 and 39 will feature the Armani Hotel Dubai. Levels 9 to 16 will exclusively house luxurious one and two-bedroom Armani Residences. Floors 45 through 108 are private ultra-luxury residences. The Corporate Suites occupy most of the remaining floors, except for level 122 which houses At.mosphere and level 124, the tower’s public observatory, At the Top, Burj Khalifa.

  1. For the convenience of homeowners, the tower has been divided into sections with exclusive Sky Lobbies on Levels 43, 76 and 123 that feature state-of-the-art fitness facilities including a Jacuzzis on Level 43 and 76.
  2. The Sky Lobbies on 43 and 76 additionally house swimming pools and a recreational room each that can be utilized for gatherings and lifestyle events — offering an unparalleled experience, both pools open to the outside offering residents the option of swimming from inside to the outside balcony.

Other facilities for residents include a Residents’ Library, and Lafayette Gourmet, a gourmet convenience store and a meeting place for the residents. Valet parking is provided for guests and visitors. The interior design of Burj Khalifa public areas was also done by the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP and was led by award-winning designer Nada Andric.

It features glass, stainless steel and polished dark stones, together with silver travertine flooring, Venetian stucco walls, handmade rugs and stone flooring. The interiors were inspired by local culture while staying mindful of the building’s status as a global icon and residence. Over 1,000 pieces of art from prominent Middle Eastern and international artists adorn Burj Khalifa and the surrounding Mohammed Bin Rashid Boulevard.

Many of the pieces were specially commissioned by Emaar to be a tribute to the spirit of global harmony. The pieces were selected as a means of linking cultures and communities, symbolic of Burj Khalifa being an international collaboration. Excavation work began for Burj Khalifa in January 2004 and over the ensuing years to its completion; the building passed many important milestones on its goal to become the tallest man-made structure the world has ever seen.

  1. In just 1,325 days since excavation work started in January 2004, Burj Khalifa became the tallest free-standing structure in the world.
  2. Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep.

Burj Khalifa’s construction will have used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000 tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel rebar, and construction will have taken 22 million man-hours. The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa began in May 2007 and was completed in September 2009.

  • The vast project involved more than 380 skilled engineers and on-site technicians.
  • At the initial stage of installation, the team progressed at the rate of about 20 to 30 panels per day and eventually achieved as many as 175 panels per day.
  • The tower accomplished a world record for the highest installation of an aluminium and glass façade with a height of 512 metres.
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The total weight of aluminium used on Burj Khalifa is equivalent to that of five A380 aircrafts and the total length of stainless steel bull nose fins is 293 times the height of Eiffel Tower in Paris. In November 2007, the highest reinforced concrete core walls were pumped using 80 MPa concrete from ground level.

  • A vertical height of 601 metres.
  • This smashed the previous pumping record on a building of 470m on Taipei 101; the world’s second tallest tower and the previous world record for vertical pumping of 532 metres for an extension to the Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant in 1994.
  • The concrete pressure during pumping to this level was nearly 200 bars.

The amount of rebar used for the tower is 31,400 metric tons – laid end to end this would extend over a quarter of the way around the world.

January 2004 Excavation started
February 2004 Piling started
March 2005 Superstructure started
June 2006 Level 50 reached
January 2007 Level 100 reached
March 2007 Level 110 reached
April 2007 Level 120 reached
May 2007 Level 130 reached
July 2007 Level 141 reached world’s tallest building
September 2007 Level 150 reached world’s tallest free-standing structure
April 2008 Level 160 reached world’s tallest man-made structure
January 2009 Completion of spire Burj Khalifa tops out
September 2009 Exterior cladding completed
January 2010 Official launch ceremony

Architectural, Construction & Building Design| Burj Khalifa

What type of concrete is used in Burj Khalifa?

High Performance Concrete Used in Concrete – The high-performance concrete used in Burj Khalifa guarantee low permeability and higher durability. The C80 and C60 cube strength concrete is used incorporating fly ash, Portland cement, and the local aggregates.

  1. A young’s modulus of 43800N/mm 2 is said to be granted by the C80 concrete.
  2. The largest concrete pumps in the world were used to pump concrete to height up to 600 m at a single stage.
  3. Two numbers of this type of pump was used.
  4. As the temperature of the location (Dubai) is very high, there were chance of cracks due to shrinkage.

So, the concrete pouring process was carried out at night at a cooler temperature. Ice was added to the concrete mix to facilitate the desired temperature. To withstand the excessive pressure caused due to the building weight, special concrete mixes were employed.

How was the Burj Khalifa built?

Architecture – The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings, provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential.

Twenty-six helical levels decrease the cross-section of the tower incrementally as it spirals skyward. The central core emerges at the top and culminates in a sculpted spire. A Y-shaped floor plan maximizes views of the Arabian Gulf. Viewed from the base or the air, Burj Khalifa is evocative of the onion domes prevalent in Islamic architecture.

Over 40 wind tunnel tests were conducted on Burj Khalifa to examine the effects the wind would have on the tower and its occupants. These ranged from initial tests to verify the wind climate of Dubai, to large structural analysis models and facade pressure tests, to micro-climate analysis of the effects at terraces and around the tower base.

  1. Even the temporary conditions during the construction stage were tested with the tower cranes on the tower to ensure safety at all times.
  2. Stack effect or chimney effect is a phenomenon that affects super-tall building design and arises from the changes in pressure and temperature with height.
  3. Special studies were carried on Burj Khalifa to determine the magnitude of the changes that would have to be dealt with in the building design.

Concourse level to level 8 and level 38 and 39 will feature the Armani Hotel Dubai. Levels 9 to 16 will exclusively house luxurious one and two-bedroom Armani Residences. Floors 45 through 108 are private ultra-luxury residences. The Corporate Suites occupy most of the remaining floors, except for level 122 which houses At.mosphere and level 124, the tower’s public observatory, At the Top, Burj Khalifa.

  • For the convenience of homeowners, the tower has been divided into sections with exclusive Sky Lobbies on Levels 43, 76 and 123 that feature state-of-the-art fitness facilities including a Jacuzzis on Level 43 and 76.
  • The Sky Lobbies on 43 and 76 additionally house swimming pools and a recreational room each that can be utilized for gatherings and lifestyle events — offering an unparalleled experience, both pools open to the outside offering residents the option of swimming from inside to the outside balcony.

Other facilities for residents include a Residents’ Library, and Lafayette Gourmet, a gourmet convenience store and a meeting place for the residents. Valet parking is provided for guests and visitors. The interior design of Burj Khalifa public areas was also done by the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP and was led by award-winning designer Nada Andric.

It features glass, stainless steel and polished dark stones, together with silver travertine flooring, Venetian stucco walls, handmade rugs and stone flooring. The interiors were inspired by local culture while staying mindful of the building’s status as a global icon and residence. Over 1,000 pieces of art from prominent Middle Eastern and international artists adorn Burj Khalifa and the surrounding Mohammed Bin Rashid Boulevard.

Many of the pieces were specially commissioned by Emaar to be a tribute to the spirit of global harmony. The pieces were selected as a means of linking cultures and communities, symbolic of Burj Khalifa being an international collaboration. Excavation work began for Burj Khalifa in January 2004 and over the ensuing years to its completion; the building passed many important milestones on its goal to become the tallest man-made structure the world has ever seen.

In just 1,325 days since excavation work started in January 2004, Burj Khalifa became the tallest free-standing structure in the world. Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep.

Burj Khalifa’s construction will have used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000 tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel rebar, and construction will have taken 22 million man-hours. The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa began in May 2007 and was completed in September 2009.

  • The vast project involved more than 380 skilled engineers and on-site technicians.
  • At the initial stage of installation, the team progressed at the rate of about 20 to 30 panels per day and eventually achieved as many as 175 panels per day.
  • The tower accomplished a world record for the highest installation of an aluminium and glass façade with a height of 512 metres.

The total weight of aluminium used on Burj Khalifa is equivalent to that of five A380 aircrafts and the total length of stainless steel bull nose fins is 293 times the height of Eiffel Tower in Paris. In November 2007, the highest reinforced concrete core walls were pumped using 80 MPa concrete from ground level.

A vertical height of 601 metres. This smashed the previous pumping record on a building of 470m on Taipei 101; the world’s second tallest tower and the previous world record for vertical pumping of 532 metres for an extension to the Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant in 1994. The concrete pressure during pumping to this level was nearly 200 bars.

The amount of rebar used for the tower is 31,400 metric tons – laid end to end this would extend over a quarter of the way around the world.

January 2004 Excavation started
February 2004 Piling started
March 2005 Superstructure started
June 2006 Level 50 reached
January 2007 Level 100 reached
March 2007 Level 110 reached
April 2007 Level 120 reached
May 2007 Level 130 reached
July 2007 Level 141 reached world’s tallest building
September 2007 Level 150 reached world’s tallest free-standing structure
April 2008 Level 160 reached world’s tallest man-made structure
January 2009 Completion of spire Burj Khalifa tops out
September 2009 Exterior cladding completed
January 2010 Official launch ceremony

Architectural, Construction & Building Design| Burj Khalifa

What is the curtain wall of Burj Khalifa made of?

Shape of the Tower – Adrian Smith is the man behind the structural and the architectural design of Burj Khalifa. The basic structure is a central hexagon core with three wings, which is clustered around it, as shown in figure-2. While moving up along the tower, one wing at each tier is set back. This makes decreasing cross section when moving up. The structure consists of 26 terraces. Fig.2: Cross Section plan of Burj Khalifa

What is the world record for the Burj Khalifa?

Architecture – The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings, provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential.

  1. Twenty-six helical levels decrease the cross-section of the tower incrementally as it spirals skyward.
  2. The central core emerges at the top and culminates in a sculpted spire.
  3. A Y-shaped floor plan maximizes views of the Arabian Gulf.
  4. Viewed from the base or the air, Burj Khalifa is evocative of the onion domes prevalent in Islamic architecture.

Over 40 wind tunnel tests were conducted on Burj Khalifa to examine the effects the wind would have on the tower and its occupants. These ranged from initial tests to verify the wind climate of Dubai, to large structural analysis models and facade pressure tests, to micro-climate analysis of the effects at terraces and around the tower base.

Even the temporary conditions during the construction stage were tested with the tower cranes on the tower to ensure safety at all times. Stack effect or chimney effect is a phenomenon that affects super-tall building design and arises from the changes in pressure and temperature with height. Special studies were carried on Burj Khalifa to determine the magnitude of the changes that would have to be dealt with in the building design.

Concourse level to level 8 and level 38 and 39 will feature the Armani Hotel Dubai. Levels 9 to 16 will exclusively house luxurious one and two-bedroom Armani Residences. Floors 45 through 108 are private ultra-luxury residences. The Corporate Suites occupy most of the remaining floors, except for level 122 which houses At.mosphere and level 124, the tower’s public observatory, At the Top, Burj Khalifa.

  • For the convenience of homeowners, the tower has been divided into sections with exclusive Sky Lobbies on Levels 43, 76 and 123 that feature state-of-the-art fitness facilities including a Jacuzzis on Level 43 and 76.
  • The Sky Lobbies on 43 and 76 additionally house swimming pools and a recreational room each that can be utilized for gatherings and lifestyle events — offering an unparalleled experience, both pools open to the outside offering residents the option of swimming from inside to the outside balcony.

Other facilities for residents include a Residents’ Library, and Lafayette Gourmet, a gourmet convenience store and a meeting place for the residents. Valet parking is provided for guests and visitors. The interior design of Burj Khalifa public areas was also done by the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP and was led by award-winning designer Nada Andric.

  1. It features glass, stainless steel and polished dark stones, together with silver travertine flooring, Venetian stucco walls, handmade rugs and stone flooring.
  2. The interiors were inspired by local culture while staying mindful of the building’s status as a global icon and residence.
  3. Over 1,000 pieces of art from prominent Middle Eastern and international artists adorn Burj Khalifa and the surrounding Mohammed Bin Rashid Boulevard.

Many of the pieces were specially commissioned by Emaar to be a tribute to the spirit of global harmony. The pieces were selected as a means of linking cultures and communities, symbolic of Burj Khalifa being an international collaboration. Excavation work began for Burj Khalifa in January 2004 and over the ensuing years to its completion; the building passed many important milestones on its goal to become the tallest man-made structure the world has ever seen.

  • In just 1,325 days since excavation work started in January 2004, Burj Khalifa became the tallest free-standing structure in the world.
  • Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep.

Burj Khalifa’s construction will have used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000 tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel rebar, and construction will have taken 22 million man-hours. The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa began in May 2007 and was completed in September 2009.

The vast project involved more than 380 skilled engineers and on-site technicians. At the initial stage of installation, the team progressed at the rate of about 20 to 30 panels per day and eventually achieved as many as 175 panels per day. The tower accomplished a world record for the highest installation of an aluminium and glass façade with a height of 512 metres.

The total weight of aluminium used on Burj Khalifa is equivalent to that of five A380 aircrafts and the total length of stainless steel bull nose fins is 293 times the height of Eiffel Tower in Paris. In November 2007, the highest reinforced concrete core walls were pumped using 80 MPa concrete from ground level.

A vertical height of 601 metres. This smashed the previous pumping record on a building of 470m on Taipei 101; the world’s second tallest tower and the previous world record for vertical pumping of 532 metres for an extension to the Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant in 1994. The concrete pressure during pumping to this level was nearly 200 bars.

The amount of rebar used for the tower is 31,400 metric tons – laid end to end this would extend over a quarter of the way around the world.

January 2004 Excavation started
February 2004 Piling started
March 2005 Superstructure started
June 2006 Level 50 reached
January 2007 Level 100 reached
March 2007 Level 110 reached
April 2007 Level 120 reached
May 2007 Level 130 reached
July 2007 Level 141 reached world’s tallest building
September 2007 Level 150 reached world’s tallest free-standing structure
April 2008 Level 160 reached world’s tallest man-made structure
January 2009 Completion of spire Burj Khalifa tops out
September 2009 Exterior cladding completed
January 2010 Official launch ceremony

Architectural, Construction & Building Design| Burj Khalifa