Extracting raw material I: blasting and ripping – The most important raw materials for making cement are limestone, clay, and marl. These are extracted from quarries by blasting or by ripping using heavy machinery.
- 1 Which is are the important raw material?
- 2 Which raw material is not required by cement industry?
- 3 What are the raw materials of cement?
- 4 What are the two main raw materials?
- 5 What are the 5 main types of materials?
- 6 What are the 3 types of materials?
- 7 What is used to make cement?
Which is important raw material in cement industry?
Limestone is the main raw material. The location of a cement plant depends mostly on the limestone deposits. The other raw materials are seashells, slag from steel plants and slag from fertilizer, silica, and aluminium are important ingredients. Gypsum is necessary to regulate the setting time of cement.
Which is the important raw material required in cement industry Mcq?
Which is the most important raw material used in the product Option 3 : Both (A) and (B) Free 150 Questions 100 Marks 180 Mins The correct answer is Both (A) and (B), Important Points
Cement is one of the most important building materials. The most important raw materials for making cement are limestone, clay and marl. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) in the form of the mineral calcite. These are extracted from quarries by blasting or by ripping using heavy machinery.
Jamsar is the largest deposit of gypsum in Rajasthan. The important deposits of limestone are as follows.
Sheopura, Ajmer Lakheri, Bundi Nimbhahera, Chittorgarh
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Which is are the important raw material?
Understanding Raw Materials – Raw materials are used in a multitude of products and can take many different forms. Raw materials are the input goods or inventory that a company needs to manufacture its products. For example, the steel used to manufacture vehicles would be a raw material for an automobile manufacturer.
Which raw material is not required by cement industry?
Which of the following is not a raw material used in the cement industry ?(A) Limestone(B) Silica(C) Manganese (D) Gypsum Answer Verified Hint: It is a mineral present in various plants, such as almonds, legumes, beans, tea, whole grains, and green leafy vegetables.
As the body needs it to function correctly, it is called an essential food. They are used by people as medicine. Complete answer: For construction activities, such as building homes, factories, bridges, highways, airports, dams and other commercial establishments, cement is important. Manganese is often used by the steel industry in deoxidizing and desulfurizing additives and as an alloying constituent.
On the other hand Manganese is an important raw material for the iron and steel industry. In this industry, roomy and heavy raw materials such as limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum are required. There are 128 large plants and 332 small cement plants in the region Iron and steel is a heavy industry where both raw materials and finished products are heavy and voluminous, resulting in heavy shipping costs.A new method of introducing manganese in High Alumina cements can be obtained by using manganese raw materials already in mixing up the raw meal before sintering.
By the addition of manganese sulphate to High Alumina cements a control of hydration similarly as by the use of gypsum can be obtained, despite other hydration products being formed. In the iron and steel industry, manganese is an important raw material since it is used to harden steel and keep it from rusting.
It is found in batteries consisting of dry cells It is used in the manufacturing of a number of alloys. It is used in the electrical, glass and chemical sectors. So the correct answer is option (C) Manganese. Note: The ready availability of raw materials for producing cement is an essential factor that supports the growth of this industry.
Which of the following is the most important raw material for?
Which of the following is the most important raw material fo Free 12 Questions 12 Marks 10 Mins The correct answer is Coal.
Coal is one of the most important sources of energy and is being used for various purposes such as heating of houses, as fuel for boilers and steam engines and for generation of electricity by thermal plants. Coal is found in abundance in our country and it is the most important source of energy in our country.
Mineral oil is used to treat constipation. It is known as a lubricant laxative. It works by keeping water in the stool and intestines. This helps to soften the stool and also makes it easier for stool to pass through the intestines. Natural gas is a non-renewable hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals.
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Which is the most important raw material for chemical industry?
The complicated characteristics of the chemical industry – The scope of the chemical industry is in part shaped by custom rather than by logic. The petroleum industry is usually thought of as separate from the chemical industry, for in the early days of the petroleum industry in the 19th century crude oil was merely subjected to a simple distillation treatment,
Modern petroleum industrial processes, however, bring about chemical changes, and some of the products of a modern refinery complex are chemicals by any definition. The term petrochemical is used to describe these chemical operations, but, because they are often carried out at the same plant as the primary distillation, the distinction between petroleum industry and chemical industry is difficult to maintain.
Metals in a sense are chemicals because they are produced by chemical means, the ores sometimes requiring chemical methods of dressing before refining; the refining process also involves chemical reactions. Such metals as steel, lead, copper, and zinc are produced in reasonably pure form and are later fabricated into useful shapes.
- Yet the steel industry, for example, is not considered a part of the chemical industry.
- In modern metallurgy, such metals as titanium, tantalum, and tungsten are produced by processes involving great chemical skill, yet they are still classified as primary metals.
- The boundaries of the chemical industry, then, are somewhat confused.
Its main raw materials are the fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and petroleum), air, water, salt, limestone, sulfur or an equivalent, and some specialized raw materials for special products, such as phosphates and the mineral fluorspar. The chemical industry converts these raw materials into primary, secondary, and tertiary products, a distinction based on the remoteness of the product from the consumer, the primary being remotest.
- The products are most often end products only as regards the chemical industry itself; a chief characteristic of the chemical industry is that its products nearly always require further processing before reaching the ultimate consumer.
- Thus, paradoxically, the chemical industry is its own best customer.
An average chemical product is passed from factory to factory several times before it emerges from the chemical industry into the market. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now There are many routes to the same product and many uses for the same product.
The largest use for ethylene glycol, for example, is as an automobile antifreeze, but it is also used as a hydraulic brake fluid. Further processing leads to many derivatives that are used as additives in the textile, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries; as emulsifiers in the application of insecticides and fungicides; and as demulsifiers for petroleum.
The fundamental chemicals, such as chlorine or sulfuric acid, are used in so many ways as to defy a comprehensive listing. Because of the competitiveness within the chemical industry and among the chemicals, the chemical industry spends large amounts on research, particularly in the highly industrialized countries.
What are the raw materials of cement?
Visit ShapedbyConcrete.com to learn more about how cement and concrete shape the world around us. Portland cement is the basic ingredient of concrete. Concrete is formed when portland cement creates a paste with water that binds with sand and rock to harden.
Cement is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and other ingredients. Common materials used to manufacture cement include limestone, shells, and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slag, silica sand, and iron ore.
These ingredients, when heated at high temperatures form a rock-like substance that is ground into the fine powder that we commonly think of as cement. Bricklayer Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, England first made portland cement early in the 19th century by burning powdered limestone and clay in his kitchen stove.
With this crude method, he laid the foundation for an industry that annually processes literally mountains of limestone, clay, cement rock, and other materials into a powder so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water. Cement plant laboratories check each step in the manufacture of portland cement by frequent chemical and physical tests.
The labs also analyze and test the finished product to ensure that it complies with all industry specifications. The most common way to manufacture portland cement is through a dry method. The first step is to quarry the principal raw materials, mainly limestone, clay, and other materials.
- After quarrying the rock is crushed.
- This involves several stages.
- The first crushing reduces the rock to a maximum size of about 6 inches.
- The rock then goes to secondary crushers or hammer mills for reduction to about 3 inches or smaller.
- The crushed rock is combined with other ingredients such as iron ore or fly ash and ground, mixed, and fed to a cement kiln.
The cement kiln heats all the ingredients to about 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit in huge cylindrical steel rotary kilns lined with special firebrick. Kilns are frequently as much as 12 feet in diameter—large enough to accommodate an automobile and longer in many instances than the height of a 40-story building.
- The large kilns are mounted with the axis inclined slightly from the horizontal.
- The finely ground raw material or the slurry is fed into the higher end.
- At the lower end is a roaring blast of flame, produced by precisely controlled burning of powdered coal, oil, alternative fuels, or gas under forced draft.
As the material moves through the kiln, certain elements are driven off in the form of gases. The remaining elements unite to form a new substance called clinker. Clinker comes out of the kiln as grey balls, about the size of marbles. Clinker is discharged red-hot from the lower end of the kiln and generally is brought down to handling temperature in various types of coolers.
- The heated air from the coolers is returned to the kilns, a process that saves fuel and increases burning efficiency.
- After the clinker is cooled, cement plants grind it and mix it with small amounts of gypsum and limestone.
- Cement is so fine that 1 pound of cement contains 150 billion grains.
- The cement is now ready for transport to ready-mix concrete companies to be used in a variety of construction projects.
Although the dry process is the most modern and popular way to manufacture cement, some kilns in the United States use a wet process. The two processes are essentially alike except in the wet process, the raw materials are ground with water before being fed into the kiln.
What are the two main raw materials?
Example – There are two main types of raw materials: and, Direct materials are unprocessed resources that can be specifically traced to an end product. Lumber is a good example of a direct raw material. When Fender receives a batch of lumber, it sorts the woods and stamps it for specific guitars.
These direct materials are designated to specific finished goods. Indirect materials are unprocessed materials that can’t really be designated for specific finished goods. Most of the time indirect materials are called factory supplies on the balance sheet. Fender Guitars would probably consider guitar finish an indirect raw material.
Guitar finish is delivered in 55-gallon barrel drums. You can’t really designate finish for each guitar, so the drums of guitar finish and lacquer are usually called factory supplies. Smaller amounts of direct materials are sometimes labeled indirect unrefined materials too.
Which is the largest cement plant?
Michigan Cement Plant Recognized as ‘World’s Largest’ The certified a cement plant in Alpena, Michigan, as the “World’s Largest Cement Plant.” The location, named Lafarge Alpena, produces more than 2.4 million metric tons of cement annually.
It produces low-carbon OneCem PLC, Type I/II, Type III, Masonry Type N and Type S cements. In addition to traditional energy sources, the site utilizes paper and cardboard as well as used auto tires for cement production.The plant began cement production in 1907 and currently employs over 200 workers. Lafarge Alpena works with, which operates the “World’s Largest Limestone Quarry” in Rogers City. According to Lafarge Alpena, its cement can be in the Gordie Howe Bridge, Comerica Park and Ford Field.
: Michigan Cement Plant Recognized as ‘World’s Largest’
What are the 5 main types of materials?
Answer1.1: Metallic, polymeric, ceramic, composite, and electronic materials are the five main classes.1.2 What are some of the important properties of each of the five main classes of engineering materials?
What are the 5 main groups of materials?
Materials can be majorly classified in five considerable categories i.e. Metals, Polymers, wood, fabrics and Ceramics. Materials can be majorly classified in five considerable categories i.e. Metals, Polymers, wood, fabrics and Ceramics. On primary basis metals can be classified in to main groups i.e. are ferrous and nonferrous metals. Ferrous Metals : Ferrous metals are those metals that contain iron as a considerable constituent in it whilst nonferrous metals are free from iron metal. Ferrous metals are magnetic in nature therefore these are used in different applications that involved the usage of electro magnets.
Non Ferrous Metals : Non Ferrous metals include a long list of metals some of these metals are copper, aluminum and lead etc. Copper metal is widely used in electrical wires due to its high conductivity for electric current. Copper is generally really very soft and can be drawn into wire easily. Aluminum is also a metal which is relatively similar to copper in its properties because it is also very soft and malleable just like copper.
Aluminum can be easily manipulated through machining, casting, drawing and extrusion. Lead is a special type of heavy metal has insufficient conductivity of electrical charges But due to lead’s ductility, malleability and softness it is mixed with other metals to make them ready for machining operations. FRPs are also replacing some metals in various applications for better. Since FRPs are of high strength, durability and furthermore these are flexible and light weighted therefore the rear and front body of heavy automobiles like buses are presently replaced by these FRPs in place of a metallic sheet.
C) Ceramic : Ceramic is a substance which is manufactured from inorganic and nonmetallic constituents. The constituents are subjected by the application of heat and consequent cooling. Ceramics are extraordinarily hardened, thus types of ceramics are used as manipulative tools for example as in the case of grinding wheels.
Ceramics materials have high melting point therefore ceramics are used in furnace linings and other high temperature applications. Ceramics are high heat absorbers therefore these are also used in storage heaters. Ceramic balls are also manufactured to substitute steel in ball bearings. d) Wood : Wood is a stiff, rigid, fibrous tissue obtained from numerous trees. e) Fabric : A fabric is an elastic woven material comprising of an arrangement of usual or synthetic fibers frequently named as what is called as thread or yarn. The term fabric cloth is utilized in textile congregating trades (for example couture and dressmaking) as analogies for textile.
What are the 3 types of materials?
Traditionally the three major classes of materials are metals, polymers, and ceramics. Examples of these are steel, cloth, and pottery. These classes usually have quite different sources, characteristics, and applications.
What are the 3 main ingredients in cement?
Composition of cement Composition of cement Introduction Portland cement gets its strength from chemical reactions between the cement and water. The process is known as, This is a complex process that is best understood by first understanding the chemical composition of cement. Manufacture of cement Portland cement is manufactured by crushing, milling and proportioning the following materials:
Lime or calcium oxide, CaO: from limestone, chalk, shells, shale or calcareous rock Silica, SiO 2 : from sand, old bottles, clay or argillaceous rock Alumina, Al 2 O 3 : from bauxite, recycled aluminum, clay Iron, Fe 2 O 3 : from from clay, iron ore, scrap iron and fly ash Gypsum, CaSO 4,2H 2 0: found together with limestone
The materials, without the gypsum, are proportioned to produce a mixture with the desired chemical composition and then ground and blended by one of two processes – dry process or wet process. The materials are then fed through a kiln at 2,600º F to produce grayish-black pellets known as clinker.
Chemical shorthand Because of the complex chemical nature of cement, a shorthand form is used to denote the chemical compounds. The shorthand for the basic compounds is:
|Calcium oxide (lime)||Ca0||C|
|Silicon dioxide (silica)||SiO 2||S|
|Aluminum oxide (alumina)||Al 2 O 3||A|
|Iron oxide||Fe 2 O 3||F|
|Water||H 2 O||H|
Chemical composition of clinker The cement clinker formed has the following typical composition:
|Compound||Formula||Shorthand form||% by weight 1|
|Tricalcium aluminate||Ca 3 Al 2 O 6||C 3 A||10|
|Tetracalcium aluminoferrite||Ca 4 Al 2 Fe 2 O 10||C 4 AF||8|
|Belite or dicalcium silicate||Ca 2 SiO 5||C 2 S||20|
|Alite or tricalcium silicate||Ca 3 SiO 4||C 3 S||55|
|Sodium oxide||Na 2 O||N||) )Up to 2|
|Potassium oxide||K 2 O||K|
|Gypsum||CaSO 4,2H 2 O||C S H 2||5|
Representative weights only. Actual weight varies with type of cement. Source: Mindess & Young Properties of cement compounds These compounds contribute to the properties of cement in different ways Tricalcium aluminate, C 3 A:- It liberates a lot of heat during the early stages of hydration, but has little strength contribution.
Gypsum slows down the hydration rate of C 3 A. Cement low in C 3 A is sulfate resistant. Tricalcium silicate, C 3 S:- This compound hydrates and hardens rapidly. It is largely responsible for portland cement’s initial set and early strength gain. Dicalcium silicate, C 2 S: C 2 S hydrates and hardens slowly.
It is largely responsible for strength gain after one week. Ferrite, C 4 AF: This is a fluxing agent which reduces the melting temperature of the raw materials in the kiln (from 3,000 o F to 2,600 o F). It hydrates rapidly, but does not contribute much to strength of the cement paste.
- By mixing these compounds appropriately, manufacturers can produce different types of cement to suit several construction environments.
- References: Sidney Mindess & J.
- Francis Young (1981): Concrete, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp.671.
- Steve Kosmatka & William Panarese (1988): Design and Control of Concrete Mixes, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Ill.
pp.205. Michael Mamlouk & John Zaniewski (1999): Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., : Composition of cement
Which mineral is required for cement industry?
Limestone is one of the key minerals used in cement making. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed mostly of the calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) and, according to the Mineral Education Coalition, comprises about 15% of the Earth’s sedimentary crust.
What is used to make cement?
Different minerals need to be mined in order to make cement. Limestone (containing the mineral calcite), clay, and gypsum make up most of it. The US Geological Survey notes that cement raw materials, especially limestone, are geologically widespread and (luckily) abundant.
Domestic cement production has been increasing steadily, from 66.4 million tons in 2010 to about 80.5 million tons of Portland cement in 2014 according to the U.S. Geological Survey 2015 Cement Mineral Commodity Summary, The overall value of sales of cement was about $8.9 billion, most of which was used to make an estimated $48 billion worth of concrete.
Most construction projects involve some form of concrete. There are more than twenty types of cement used to make various specialty concrete, however the most common is Portland cement. Cement manufacturing is a complex process that begins with mining and then grinding raw materials that include limestone and clay, to a fine powder, called raw meal, which is then heated to a sintering temperature as high as 1450 °C in a cement kiln.
In this process, the chemical bonds of the raw materials are broken down and then they are recombined into new compounds. The result is called clinker, which are rounded nodules between 1mm and 25mm across. The clinker is ground to a fine powder in a cement mill and mixed with gypsum to create cement.
The powdered cement is then mixed with water and aggregates to form concrete that is used in construction. Clinker quality depends on raw material composition, which has to be closely monitored to ensure the quality of the cement. Excess free lime, for example, results in undesirable effects such as volume expansion, increased setting time or reduced strength.
- Several laboratory and online systems can be employed to ensure process control in each step of the cement manufacturing process, including clinker formation.
- Several laboratory and online systems can be employed to ensure process control Laboratory X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) systems are used by cement QC laboratories to determine major and minor oxides in clinker, cement and raw materials such as limestone, sand and bauxite.
Read Analysis of Clinker and Cement with Thermo Scientific ARL OPTIM’X WDXRF Sequential Spectrometer to learn why XRF is the technique of choice for elemental analysis in cement industry. Combination X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) systems accomplish both chemical phase analysis for a more complete characterization of the sample.
Clinker phase analysis ensures consistent clinker quality. Such instrumentation can be fitted with several XRF monochromators for major oxides analysis and a compact diffraction (XRD) system which has the capability of measuring quartz in raw meal, free lime (CaO) and clinker phases as well as calcite (CaCO 3 ) in cement.
Read XRF/XRD Combined Instrumentation Can Provide Complete Quality Control of Clinker and Cement to learn more about technology that combines the advantages of both XRF and XRD together. Cross Belt Analyzers based on Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) technology are installed directly on the conveyor belt to measure the entire material stream continuously and in real time to troubleshoot issues in pre-blending stockpile control and quarry management, raw mix proportioning control, and material sorting.
Read PGNAA Improves Process and Quality Control in Cement Production to learn what makes PGNAA particularly suited for cement analysis. Accurate cement production also depends on belt scale systems to monitor output and inventory or regulate product loadout, as well as tramp metal detectors to protect equipment and keep the operation running smoothly.
The Cement Manufacturing Process flow chart sums up where in the process each type of technology is making a difference. NOTE: Need a Belt scale system for your bulk material handling? To help you decide which belt scale system is best for your mining operation, we’ve outlined the options in an easy-to-read belt scale system selection guide so you can decide which belt scale system is right for you. Click on the image, take a look at the chart, and see if it helps you decide.
What is the most important cement mineral?
Limestone is one of the key minerals used in cement making. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed mostly of the calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) and, according to the Mineral Education Coalition, comprises about 15% of the Earth’s sedimentary crust.
What is the most important property of cement?
Fineness of Cement – The size of the particles of the cement is its fineness. The required fineness of good cement is achieved through grinding the clinker in the last step of cement production process. As hydration rate of cement is directly related to the cement particle size, fineness of cement is very important.