Building material is material used for construction, Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, wood, and even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings, Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic.
- 1 Which material is used for construction?
- 2 Which material is most suitable for construction?
- 3 Why is iron used in construction?
- 4 What materials are in cement?
- 5 Why steel is used in RCC?
- 6 What are the 3 major material for constructing a structure?
Which material is used for construction?
Wood – Wood is the most common material that is used as a construction material for various purposes. There are quite a few types of wood that are used for various purposes.
Deodar Wood – In Timer genre the soft woods are mostly comes from Deodar wood. It is moderately soft in nature and used for making cheap furniture, packing box, structural work etc. Mahogany Wood – High quality wood that is durable under water as well. For its longevity and durability it is commonly used for all type of furniture. Satin Wood – Hard and durable in nature. Mostly used for furniture making, ornamental works etc. Teak Wood – Fire resistant, durable, Termite proof wood that is used for all type of works such as furniture making, interior decoration etc. It is one of the valuable timber trees in world and limited for superior work.
Apart from these types there are other types of wood such as Shisham wood, Sal wood, Rose wood, Pine wood, Mulberry wood and many more. Apart from these 6 important construction material there are others such as Metal, Glass, Foam, Tarpaulin and the list is endless.
Which material is most suitable for construction?
Steel – Steel is a popular material for building because it is strong without being extremely heavy. This makes it the ideal material for large, multi-story buildings and manufacturing and industrial facilities, Unlike wood, steel can stand up to moisture and is not susceptible to termites and fire.
It also will last much longer than wood. Steel can accommodate wide, open designs while maintaining the structural integrity of the building, in contrast to masonry. It’s also malleable, giving designers the freedom to explore more unconventional building shapes. As a manufactured material, steel materials are consistent and predictable, making repeatable, exact, precise craftsmanship easier to achieve.
However, using steel to frame a building will be more expensive than wood. A good structural engineer will be able to economize, using enough steel to safely construct your building and sustain the above load while monitoring and limiting unnecessary expenses.
What is a very strong material used for construction?
Steel: – Steel is one of the strongest building materials available with excellent strength capacity in both tension and compression. Because of its high strength-to-weight ratio, it is ideal for structural framework of tall buildings and large industrial facilities.
- Structural steel is available in standard shapes such are angles, I beams and C-channels.
- These shapes can be welded together or connected using high-strength bolts to build structures capable of resisting large forces and deformations.
- Steel is a relatively expensive building material so it is the structural engineer’s responsibility to choose economic sizes and shapes according to the actual loads on the building to avoid overdesign.
Because of the the higher cost of steel, I often get questions from our clients asking if there is a way to reduce the weight and size of some of steel members in the structure. This can be done if the loads can be reduced on the members and/or additional vertical supports can be introduced.
How many types of material are there?
Traditionally the three major classes of materials are metals, polymers, and ceramics. Examples of these are steel, cloth, and pottery. These classes usually have quite different sources, characteristics, and applications.
Why is iron used in construction?
Hint: Properties of Iron: Lustrous, ductile, malleable. When Iron comes in contact with damp air, rusting of iron starts. Iron is diluted rapidly when it comes in contact with dilute acids. Complete step by step answer: Iron is used in constructing bridges because of following reasons: -Tensile Strength of Iron is highly greater than other elements so it can be used as a Building material.
- Also, Iron is a strong metal and it is far different from mercury which melts rapidly.
- Iron is also widely and cheaply available in comparison to other materials which is also an important factor in construction of bridges.
- Another reason is that it reacts less with the environment because it is a less reactive metal.
Iron is used in construction of bridges and houses because it is capable of lifting the weight of different things at one time. We know that iron is a strong, hard and tough metal, hence it has high resisting power. So, it can resist high load, stress and strain.
Also, iron is capable of lifting a load of different things at the same time. However, iron used in construction of bridges experiences rusting due to the action of moisture and water. Rusting and corrosion can severely damage the properties of iron making it unfit to serve as the bridge. Rusting and corrosion decreases the strength and other physical properties of iron and converts the strong iron into flaky powder.
-Rusting of iron can be prevented in many ways so as to save its properties from getting degraded. In case of bridges iron is painted or coated which protects its surface from reacting with water and moisture. Electroplating and Galvanising are the other ways to protect iron from rusting and corrosion.
After studying and analysing above reasons, we can say that Iron can be used in the construction of bridges. Additional Information: Some more uses of Iron are as follow: -Iron is used in manufacturing steel. -Iron is also used to make alloys. Some more properties of Iron: -Conductivity, -low cost -dissolvable, etc.
-Alloys of iron- Steel, Manganese, Nickel, Tungsten, etc. Note: There is one exception i.e. Steel. Steel has higher tensile strength than Iron. So it can also be used as a building material.
What materials are in cement?
Visit ShapedbyConcrete.com to learn more about how cement and concrete shape the world around us. Portland cement is the basic ingredient of concrete. Concrete is formed when portland cement creates a paste with water that binds with sand and rock to harden.
Cement is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and other ingredients. Common materials used to manufacture cement include limestone, shells, and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slag, silica sand, and iron ore.
These ingredients, when heated at high temperatures form a rock-like substance that is ground into the fine powder that we commonly think of as cement. Bricklayer Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, England first made portland cement early in the 19th century by burning powdered limestone and clay in his kitchen stove.
- With this crude method, he laid the foundation for an industry that annually processes literally mountains of limestone, clay, cement rock, and other materials into a powder so fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water.
- Cement plant laboratories check each step in the manufacture of portland cement by frequent chemical and physical tests.
The labs also analyze and test the finished product to ensure that it complies with all industry specifications. The most common way to manufacture portland cement is through a dry method. The first step is to quarry the principal raw materials, mainly limestone, clay, and other materials.
After quarrying the rock is crushed. This involves several stages. The first crushing reduces the rock to a maximum size of about 6 inches. The rock then goes to secondary crushers or hammer mills for reduction to about 3 inches or smaller. The crushed rock is combined with other ingredients such as iron ore or fly ash and ground, mixed, and fed to a cement kiln.
The cement kiln heats all the ingredients to about 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit in huge cylindrical steel rotary kilns lined with special firebrick. Kilns are frequently as much as 12 feet in diameter—large enough to accommodate an automobile and longer in many instances than the height of a 40-story building.
- The large kilns are mounted with the axis inclined slightly from the horizontal.
- The finely ground raw material or the slurry is fed into the higher end.
- At the lower end is a roaring blast of flame, produced by precisely controlled burning of powdered coal, oil, alternative fuels, or gas under forced draft.
As the material moves through the kiln, certain elements are driven off in the form of gases. The remaining elements unite to form a new substance called clinker. Clinker comes out of the kiln as grey balls, about the size of marbles. Clinker is discharged red-hot from the lower end of the kiln and generally is brought down to handling temperature in various types of coolers.
The heated air from the coolers is returned to the kilns, a process that saves fuel and increases burning efficiency. After the clinker is cooled, cement plants grind it and mix it with small amounts of gypsum and limestone. Cement is so fine that 1 pound of cement contains 150 billion grains. The cement is now ready for transport to ready-mix concrete companies to be used in a variety of construction projects.
Although the dry process is the most modern and popular way to manufacture cement, some kilns in the United States use a wet process. The two processes are essentially alike except in the wet process, the raw materials are ground with water before being fed into the kiln.
Why steel is used in RCC?
Steel develops a good bond with concrete which prevents slipping of the two materials under load. Steel can be recycled easily. Steel has a high tensile strength which is not present in concrete.
Why is wood used in construction?
Tree-conomics. – Wood is a sustainable, high-value building material. Building with wood is efficient, often completed faster than other systems, and can be done year-round in almost any climate. Wood can often be locally sourced from North American forests and is frequently less expensive than alternative building materials.
What are the 3 major material for constructing a structure?
The construction industry uses a variety of building materials for different aspects of a home build. Architects consult with structural engineers on the load-bearing capabilities of the materials with which they design, and the most common materials are concrete, steel, wood, masonry, and stone.
- Each has different strength, weight, and durability, which makes it right for various uses.
- There are national standards and testing methods that govern the use of building materials in the construction industry, so that they can be relied on for providing structural integrity.
- Architects also choose materials based on cost and aesthetics.
Building materials are usually categorized into two sources: natural and manmade. Materials such as stone and wood are natural, and concrete, masonry, and steel are manmade. But both must be prepared or treated before they’re used in building. Here is a list of building materials that are commonly used in construction.
What material was used for construction first?
Early Materials – In Neolithic times, bone, grasses, hide, and animal fibers were used. Natural building materials were dominant. It was common to use mammoth ribs, tree bark, logs, clay, and lime plaster to shape and assemble using simple tools. The first structures were likely similar to huts and tents.
- Stone : Even when a lack of metal tools limited the types of available materials, builders could erect stone structures. Dry stone walls don’t even have mortar to bind the stones together. Still, stones can be used to construct buildings, bridges, and sculptures. Early examples can be found in Scotland and Ireland.
- Mud : Mud bricks, first used in the late Neolithic period, were improved by the ancient Egyptians around 3000 BC. Mud was mixed with straw to form an adobe-like material heated into bricks. This process evolved into the use of mortar, which was used over the casing stones of the Great Pyramid of Giza, allowing stonemasons to carve and set them to tight tolerances.
- Wood : One of the first building materials, wood remains popular and is a renewable resource. Prehistoric shelters and fortifications often consisted of wood, and wooden logs likely served as the first bridges. Today, lumber is used to frame homes and other structures, and various types of wood are used for interior/exterior building materials and furnishings.
- Bronze : During the Bronze Age, bronze and copper were used to make more durable tools. Bronze could be shaped; it could also be recast if damaged. This eventually led to the use of iron, which is similar in hardness. Steel was created by adding carbon to iron—a process that was in place after 300 BC.