Development of fiberboard panels manufactured from reclaimed cement bags , February 2021, 101525 Cement bags are mostly made from multi-ply Kraft paper due to its elevated strength, relatively low cost and the ability to withstand high temperatures during filling and packaging. The method to produce this type of paper, namely the Kraft method, presents some advantages comparatively to other pulping methods such as shorter cooking time, low sensitivity to bark and high strength of the resulting pulps.
- In this particular method, it is also easier to recycle the production chemicals and waste water in addition to the appearance of valuable process byproducts such as turpentine, tall oil and lignin derivatives,
- For the most part, Kraft paper can be easily recycled and reused, nonetheless the cement residue impregnated on the discarded bags prevent them from being recycled into cellulose fibers causing a negative environmental impact,
It is therefore important to find other uses for this type of construction solid waste. The principles of circular economy rely, among other things, on the development of new eco-friendly composite materials. Cellulose fibers have been increasingly gaining attention as a non-toxic and renewable alternative to synthetic fibers in the manufacturing of polymer composites.
Moreover recycled fibers obtained from cellulosic waste products such as carboards, newspaper or cement bags present obvious advantages when compared to natural cellulose fibers due to the lower environmental impact on natural resources, abundant availability and reduced cost. Cellulosic fibers are classified as non-wood and wood fibers according to their origin and composition, however the basic structures of both kinds of fibers are similar in terms of their chemical constituents,
Wood fibers are also known as lignocellulosic fibers because of the high lignin content and are grouped according to their origin, into softwood fibers, usually obtained from pines, firs, etc. and hardwood fibers from the birch tree, eucalyptus, beech amongst others,
Recent developments in technology increased the use of cellulose fibers as reinforcement in several engineering applications as indicated by the review literature,,, ]. One possible application for reclaimed Kraft paper is the use as natural reinforcing fiber in cement boards. These cementitious composites are widely employed by the construction industry as ceilings, floors, siding, roofs and tile backer boards.
Their improved qualities include fire-resistance, durability, immunity to insect attack in addition to better withstanding the elements, Khorami et al., used Kraft pulp fibers from waste cardboard along with glass fibers and nano silica fume The main objective of this research was to develop two types of polymeric fiberboard panels utilizing reclaimed cement bags as the reinforcing phase.
- The first type of panel utilizes shredded cement bags while on the second type, the bags are subjected to a pulping process that results in a particulate-like material.
- A commercial type paper shredder was used to produce the paper strips 4 m m wide and 35 m m long, referred to in this work as “fibers”.
The pulping process was conducted by The literature revealed a wide range of Urea-formaldehyde resin contents, with values ranging from 10% all the way up to 50% depending on the type of the fiber used, In this study, the UF resin percentages were chosen based on the stability of the fiberboards.
Percentages below 10% yielded mechanically unstable boards, with the reinforcing material easily falling apart. On the other hand, the boards with resin content above 40% would leak from the mold during compression and curing. The performance of the panels was evaluated in accordance to the recommendations of the ASTM,
The panel edges were trimmed with the help of a circular saw to get rid of edge defects and the specimens were cut to the required sizes for each test experiment. The density of all panels was measured and their performance was assessed in terms of thickness swelling, modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and internal bond strength.
Table 4 shows the number of specimens The X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, indicated the presence of elements and chemical compounds characteristic of Portland cement in both types of raw material treatment: paper fiber and particulate paper. This indicates that although found in smaller quantities the pulping process didn’t remove the cement completely from the particulate material.
No other major contaminat was found on the discarded cement bags that could compromise the final product. Thermogravimetry tests showed that Diego de Castro Sales: Validation, Methodology, Visualization. Antônio Eduardo Cabral: Project administration, Conceptualization, Resources.
Marcelo S. Medeiros: Formal analysis, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing. The authors hereby declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. They also confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors and that there are no other persons who satisfied the criteria for authorship but are not listed.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by FUNCAP (Fundação Cearense de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico),
A.Q. Dayo et al. J.C.M. Cravo et al. E. Booya et al. A. Akhavan et al. M. Khorami et al. A. Sharma et al. T. Väisänen et al. K. Oksman et al. K. Pickering et al. M. Ardanuy et al.
Fiberboards are used in a variety of applications that can be for interior as well as for exterior. However, their production involves the consumption of virgin wood fibers and the use and production of formaldehyde-based adhesives, with the consequent impact on the environment and health. The removal of these adhesives results in a significant loss of physico-mechanical properties. To confront these major problems, the use of wheat straw, an agricultural waste, as raw material for the production of binderless fiberboards has been explored. As an alternative to synthetic adhesive, enzymatic treatment of fiber and lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNFs) addition, as well as their combination, have been studied. The different treatments produce an important increase in the mechanical properties in front of the untreated fiber and commercial fiberboard, being the combination of both which presents the best results. Separately, the enzymatic treatment produces a greater strengthening effect than the addition of LCNF. In terms of structural stability, the addition of LCNFs and treatment combinations shows the best results for water absorption and thickness swelling. The results obtained show the possibility to obtain fiberboards without synthetic adhesives with mechanical properties far superior to commercial fiberboardsas as such as bending strengths higher than 100 MPa, flexural modulus 5.5 GPa, internal bond 1.6 MPa, and 122.52 kJ/m 2 of impact strength with an estimated added cost of 1 €/m 3,
This paper presents numerical and experimental investigations on a typical thermal break composite façade profile under four-point bending. The purpose of this study is to gain the knowledge of the interfacial behaviour between aluminum extrusion and polyamide insert beyond elastic range. Understanding the behaviour of this energy efficient façade profile within plastic range is important for the design under extreme loading, such as earthquakes, strong wind conditions and even blast loads. The experimental investigation was carried out on four types of beam specimens. The specimens were grouped by their span lengths with three specimens for each span length. As the specimens’ geometry and composite action are complicated, seven strain gauges were used per specimen including small strain gauges to fit in the limited space of the thermal break section. A three stage failure process was observed during the experiments. A numerical investigation was carried out by using Finite Element modelling to simulate behaviour of the thermal break composite façade profile under similar loading condition in order to compare with the testing results as well as to capture the corresponding failure mechanisms. Numerical simulations were setup by applying a proposed partitioned multi-phase failure model to simulate three stage failure process discovered by experiments. The results from FE models were compared and discussed with experimental counterparts. In summary, FE models showed consistent results to the experimental counterparts and it also provided the insight and more details of failure mechanism and stress distribution including interfacial condition details. Behaviour of the thermal break façade profile in the plastic range displayed excellent ductility and high strength capacity of this type of thermal break section in the plastic range after slip. Confinement through steel spirals can significantly improve the performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). However, only a few studies are available in the literature in this context. Considering the variability of recycled coarse aggregates (RCA), more studies are needed to explore the behavior of RAC confined by steel spirals. In this study, the stress-strain behavior of steel spiral confined RAC incorporating acetic acid immersed and mechanically rubbed recycled coarse aggregates (AMRCA) is studied. For this purpose, three different concrete mix designs and three different confinement levels of steel spirals were considered. Results show that the increase of confinement level increases the peak stress, peak strain, and ultimate strain of RAC incorporating AMRCA (AMRAC). At the same confinement level, the ultimate and peak strains of all the confined AMRAC samples are noticed higher than confined NAC samples of the same series. Peak strength reduction due to the addition of AMRCA is also observed lower for confined AMRAC samples than unconfined AMRAC samples. The applicability of the stress-strain model and relationship to determine the permissible content of RCA, previously developed for steel spiral confined NAC and RAC to spirally confined AMRAC samples, is also examined. Renewable solar energy has been increasingly used due to its efficiency and cleanliness. Integrating solar cells directly to supporting structures can eliminate the mounting systems and reduce the cost. Once integrated, the strains of solar cells and supporting materials become the same. Therefore, it is necessary to study the strain effect on the solar cells. This study evaluates the performance of amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si) when they are integrated with building substrates, such as roofs and exterior walls. Based on the materials used and the failure modes under compression, these building substrates can be generally categorized into two groups: rigid and flexible substrates, which are simulated using concrete/FRP-wrapped concrete, and thin FRP plate attached to rubber, respectively, in this study. Cylinders from different materials were fabricated and bonded with (a-Si) solar cells, and then tested under compression. During the test, the (a-Si) solar cells were illuminated using a projector to simulate the sun light. J-V characteristics curves were measured and Maximum Power Point (MPP) was calculated. It is observed that the performance of (a-Si) solar cells remained unchanged until failure for specimens with rigid substrates; and buckling of solar cells, including both local and global buckling, occurred for specimens with flexible substrate. It can be concluded that, while the strain has negligible effect on the performance of (a-Si) solar cells under pure compression because of their small deflections, it has a significant effect on performance of solar cells under buckling because of the change in the angle and effective area receiving the light, which in turn causes the decrease of the performance. The findings from this paper can be used as a guideline to choose solar cells for building applications. In tropical countries such as Sri Lanka, wall care putties are applied as primers in building constructions providing a smooth shield for the wall. This research study was conducted to investigate the durability performance in terms of rain surface erosion and the bonding strength by shear testing of different wall care putty materials along with walling materials. Four types of walling materials and ten types of wall care putty mixtures were selected. Accelerated erosion test and lap shear strength test were conducted and bond breaking patterns were examined. X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted to investigate the chemical compositions of putty mixtures. Results demonstrate that cement block walling material and putty C+10% cement wall care putty mixture have the highest bonding strength. Similarly, cement added putty mixtures showed higher durability and bonding strength than putties in their pure form. Wall constructions have the capacity to contribute to the passive regulation of indoor Relative Humidity. This property, referred to as moisture buffering, is linked to the hygroscopicity of materials, which allows materials to store and release moisture from and to the surrounding air, depending on the indoor Relative Humidity levels. Laboratory testing procedures, based on a step-response method, were introduced to quantify moisture buffering. The step response method monitors the change in mass of samples, when subjected to square wave humidity variation and constant temperature. However, those protocol’s prescribed testing environmental conditions may not be representative of the materials behaviour in buildings, as the surface of walls is exposed to an indoor environment that changes with respect to the temperature and humidity daily and seasonally. This paper investigates the response of clay and gypsum plasters to quasi sinusoidal and simultaneous humidity and temperature functions. It was experimentally shown that the relative humidity influences the amount of water vapour adsorbed and desorbed by the materials, while temperature impacts the rate and the time lag response of clay and gypsum to the indoor humidity variation. The significance of the investigation is to demonstrate the joint effects of Relative Humidity and temperature on hygroscopic materials and to seek to developing a laboratory test, which can represent the real behaviour of such materials in buildings, which are exposed to sine wave-forms. Due to its high structural efficiency and aesthetics, free-form grid structures have been widely used in various public structures. However, it is neither a convenient nor an obvious task for engineers to create a discrete grid on a free-form surface that manifests the architect’s intent. This paper presents an efficient design approach based on Coulomb’s law to generate well-shaped and fluent grids for free-form grid structural design. In the method, nodes of the grid structure are considered to be interacting particles in an electric field and are added to the surface in a progressive way. The nodal position is determined by Monte Carlo simulation and the grid is generated by connecting the particles that are already in equilibrium. According to the different ways of adding particles, two variations of the method are introduced in this paper: point-based progressive method (PBPM), and curve-based progressive method (CBPM). Case studies are provided to demonstrate the effective execution of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can effectively avoid mapping distortion and generate grids with regular shape and fluent lines to meet the aesthetic requirements. Furthermore, the proposed method provides flexible control over the direction and size of the grid, which gives architects a more flexible choice.
: Development of fiberboard panels manufactured from reclaimed cement bags
What are the different types of cement bags?
Types of Cement Bags By:Sherry Date:September-18-19 Cement is a necessity of construction, they always packed into bags, but do you know what types pf cement bags? Commonly used cement bags are valve bags, but it is also divided into different types. According to the material can be divided into: woven bags, PE bags, paper bags, kraft paper bags and so on. 1. Woven bag is made of polypropylene woven fabric with upper or lower valve orifice.2. PE bag is made of polyethylene woven cloth valve mouth bag, with moisture-proof, moisture-proof, corrosion-resistant characteristics.3. Paper plastic bag is made of kraft paper and woven cloth.
- It has the characteristics of high strength and moisture-proof.4.
- Raft paper bag is made of kraft paper, with environmental protection, impact resistance and beautiful appearance.
- Why use valve bags to pack cement? 1.
- The overall appearance of this bag is square, which is very suitable for stacking transportation.2.
Convenient filling materials, and the sealing method is simple.3. Suitable for packaging powder, particle, sheet and other materials.4. Improve packaging efficiency, reduce labor intensity. In addition to the above types, there are other types of cement bags, but the above several more common.
What are multicolor cement bags?
The brilliant reason he lays ziploc bags of cement in his backyard
Cement Bag – Multicolor Cement Bags Manufacturer from Ahmedabad Product Details:
|Storage Capacity||As per customization|
|Dimension||As per request|
|Surface||Rotogravure Printing,Flexo printing|
We are the leading manufacturers and exporter of Multicolor Cement Bags and our product is made of good quality. This bag is made without adhesives from coated polypropylene fabric with multi color gravure printing. The sack can be produced either as a one-layer block bottom valve bag or as an open mouth bag with a block bottom having multi color gravure printing.
- It surpasses all comparable products as far as resistance to breakage is concerned, is versatile and also eco-friendly and economical.
- Multicolor Printing provide very good marking value
- Higher Strength
- Reduce Space through Higher Stacking
- Easy Transportation
- Environment Friendly
- Good Printing Quality
- More Market Value through more printing surface
- Resists water & humidity
- Maximum protection
- Manual Or Auto Filling – Sack Placing & Filling
- Save Product and Money
- Building Material : Cement, Gypsum, Lime, Other Building Materials
- Food Products : Flour, Sugar, Salt, Poppy-seed, Yeast, etc.
- Chemical industry : Fertilisers, herbicides, packaging of polyolefin pellets, hazardous materials, powders, etc.
- Agriculture: Cereals (Corn, Rice), seeds, feed, fodder, etc.
: Cement Bag – Multicolor Cement Bags Manufacturer from Ahmedabad
Why plastic bags are preferred in cement packaging industry?
Plastic Bags – Given the intrinsic problem of kraft paper bag, many improvements have been made to the paper bag and new bags are also beginning to appear. Plastic bags or sacks are the most prominent product in the cement packaging industry. There are many merits in choosing plastic bags. Another important feature of plastic bag lies in its spillage free capability. This is to say, in the supply chain from the filling process to its end user, plastic sack will cause far less dust or spillage problem than paper bag. Moreover, the ductility of the plastic bag has proven to be most suitable to the filling machine, in other words, it prevents bag from expanding or even exploding while in the process of filling.