For Soundness Test Of Cement Which Apparatus Is Used?

For Soundness Test Of Cement Which Apparatus Is Used
Le Chatelier Apparatus is Used for – The Le Chatelier Apparatus is used for the determination of soundness of ordinary and rapid hardening portland cement by expansion method. The test name is Soundness test of Cement using Le Chatelier Apparatus. The presence of lime or magnesia in the cement is responsible for the soundness of cement.

How soundness of cement is tested?

Soundness – The soundness test determines whether hardened cement paste is prone to excessive expansion by boiling the test specimens for a fixed period of time. The soundness of cement is mainly tested by two methods: EN-196 (1995), which is based on the Le Châtelier test method, and the autoclave test (ASTM-C151, 2015), in which pressure is also applied to the sample.

The soundness values for hardened cement paste specimens produced with 2.5–6% CS ( Alp et al,, 2008 ) showed an average reduction of 13% in expansion when compared to control specimens without CS. Other studies also showed that the incorporation of CS as part of the raw feed may allow the production of cement clinker with equivalent ( Ali et al., 2013 ) or lower expansion ( Supekar, 2007 ) than that of control PC without CS.

Expansion of specimens containing 2.5% CS decreased by 20% when compared to the corresponding PC specimens. These results can be correlated with the decrease in the free CaO content ( Alp et al., 2008; Supekar, 2007 ). The reason for this is that, by applying elevated temperatures (or pressure in the autoclave test method), it is possible to measure the extent of expansion caused by the delayed hydration of unburnt CaO.

What is the is requirement for soundness of cement?

Soundness/expansion of cement = L1-L2 L1=Measurement taken after 24 hours of immersion in water at a temp. of 27 ± 20C L2=Measurement taken after 3 hours of immersion in water at boiling temperature.

Which equipment is used to determine the soundness?

Which equipment is used for finding the soundness of cement? Option 3 : Le-Chatelier apparatus Free 20 Questions 20 Marks 15 Mins Concept: Soundness Test:

Expansion of cement is measured/computed by soundness test. Soundness means the ability to resist volume expansion and it is an indication of durability. The unsoundness in cement is due to the presence of an excess of free lime that could be combined with acidic oxide at the kiln. The soundness of cement may be determined by two methods, namely the Le-Chatelier method and the autoclave method. The Le-Chatelier test detects unsoundness due to free Lime only. This method of testing does not indicate the presence and after effect of the excess of magnesia. As per Indian Standard specification, if the content of magnesia is greater than 3% in cement then Autoclave Test is performed which is sensitive to both Lime and Magnesia.

You might be interested:  How To Regularize Unauthorized Construction In Delhi?

Vicat Apparatus : It is used to measure the setting time and consistency of concrete. Permeability apparatus: It is used to measure the fineness of the cement, Pycnometer : It is used to find the specific gravity of the soil solids

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students : Which equipment is used for finding the soundness of cement?

What is Blaine apparatus?

The Blaine Fineness Apparatus is used in measuring the fineness of Portland cement in accordance with ASTM and AASHTO standards. The fineness is measured in terms of the specific area of cement expressed as total surface area in square centimeters per gram.

  • The apparatus consists of a U-tube glass manometer, a ground joint with stainless steel test cell, a stop cock and a rubber bulb.The Blaine Fineness Apparatus is used in measuring the fineness of Portland cement in accordance with ASTM and AASHTO standards.
  • The fineness is measured in terms of the specific area of cement expressed as total surface area in square centimeters per gram.

The apparatus consists of a U-tube glass manometer, a ground joint with stainless steel test cell, a stop cock and a rubber bulb.

Which apparatus used for consistency of cement?

What is the normal consistency of cement paste? The normal consistency of cement paste generally varies from 25% to 35%. There is no trial and error method by using the Vicat apparatus to find out the correct consistency of cement.

Which equipment is used to test the setting time of cement?

Standards – ASTM C266; AASHTO T154 The UTCM-0578 Gillmore Apparatus is used to determine the setting time of cement hydraulic hydrometer lime and mortar. Apparatus consists of two horizontally positioned arms, carrying weighted needles, initial needle has a 2.12 mm diameter and 113.4 g in weight and the final needle has a 1.06 mm diameter and 453.6 g in weight.

Dimensions 300x100x300 mm
Weight (approx.) 2,5 kg

Is code for Le Chatelier apparatus?

What is the IS Code for Le Chatelier Apparatus? Le Chatelier Apparatus have to conforming the standard IS: 5514 (1996).

Why sodium sulphate is used for soundness test?

Description – The most common soundness test involves repeatedly submerging an aggregate sample in a saturated solution of sodium or magnesium sulfate. This process causes salt crystals to form in the aggregate pores, which simulate ice crystal formation (Figures 1 and 2). The basic procedure is as follows (from Roberts et al., 1996 ):

  1. Oven dry the sample and separate it into specific sieve sizes.
  2. Immerse the sample in a saturated solution of sodium or magnesium sulfate and let it remain at a constant temperature for 18 hours.
  3. Remove the sample from the solution and dry to a constant weight at 110 ± 5 o C (230 ± 9 o F).
  4. Repeat this cycle five times.
  5. Wash the sample to remove the salt; then dry.
  6. Determine the loss in weight for each specific sieve size and compute a weighted average percent loss for the entire sample.

The maximum loss values typically range from 10 – 20 percent for every five cycles.

For Soundness Test Of Cement Which Apparatus Is Used Figure 1. Aggregates before a soundness test. For Soundness Test Of Cement Which Apparatus Is Used Figure 2. Aggregates after a soundness test.

Other soundness tests use relatively the same procedure but substitute actual freezing and thawing in place of the salt crystallization of the procedure described previously. Cracks in PCC resulting from poor aggregate freeze-thaw resistance are often called durability cracks or “D cracks”,

You might be interested:  Cement Bricks Vs Clay Bricks Which Is Better?

Which two apparatus are used for finding the setting time and soundness of cement respectively?

_ apparatus is used to find the soundness of cement: Free 10 Questions 10 Marks 6 Mins Concept: Soundness of Cement

Expansion of cement is measured/computed by soundness test. Soundness means the ability to resist volume expansion and it is an indication of durability. The unsoundness in cement is due to the presence of an excess of free lime that could be combined with acidic oxide at the kiln.

Measurement: The soundness of cement may be determined by two methods, namely the Le-Chatelier method and the autoclave method.

The Le-Chatelier test detects unsoundness due to free Lime only. This method of testing does not indicate the presence and after effect of the excess of magnesia. As per Indian Standard specification, if the content of magnesia is greater than 3% in cement then Autoclave Test is performed which is sensitive to both Lime and Magnesia.

India’s #1 Learning Platform Start Complete Exam Preparation Daily Live MasterClasses Practice Question Bank Mock Tests & Quizzes Trusted by 3.4 Crore+ Students : _ apparatus is used to find the soundness of cement:

Why is the soundness test conducted?

1. Introduction – The soundness of cement may be defined as the property of which cement resists or withstands the expansion due to slow or delayed hydration of free lime, magnesia and calcium sulphate. In other words, soundness can be defined as the ability of the to retain its volume after it has hardened.

What is the test of sound measurement?

Tests of sound measurement Tests of Sound measurement implies the tests of validity, reliability and practicality, Tests of validity : It is the most important criterion of Tests of sound measurement and means the degree to which an instrument measures what it is suppose to measure.

It can also be taken as utility. There are three types of validity to be considered in this connection: Content validity -this provides ample coverage of the current study. If the representative sample of universe is contained in the instrument, the content validity is considered to be good. Criteria-related validity – this implies the ability to predict result or estimate the existence of present situation.

The concerned criteria should possess the following characteristics:

Relevance Freedom from bias Reliability Availability

Constructability : is termed as the most complex and abstract. If the measure confirms to the degree that it relates to predicted correlations with the other theoretical, In order to determine construct validity the researcher associates a set of propositions with the results that are received from making use of the measurement instrument.

What is mean by soundness of cement?

Soundness of Cement – The various properties of cement mainly influence the properties of hardened concrete or mortar. Generally, once the concrete or mortar gets hardened, they do not go under expansion or contraction.i.e. the volume of concrete or mortar does not change, once they are set.

Soundness of cement refers to the ability of cement to retain its volume after it has hardened. After the drying of cement mortar or concrete, it should not undergo any appreciable change in volume. If there is a change in the volume, it will cause the cement to expand or contract. Therefore, there are chances of development of cracks,

You might be interested:  Which Of The Following Is Correct Regarding Cement Concrete Pipes?

Such cement is called unsound cement. Unsound cement can cause severe troubles to the durability of structures when such cement is used. Sound cement never goes under any volume changes once it sets and there is no expansion or contraction after hardening. For Soundness Test Of Cement Which Apparatus Is Used

Which of the following chemicals are used in soundness test of aggregates?

Sulfate Solution Preparation – Chemicals used for the soundness test of aggregates include Sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate USP grade salts. These are widely available from chemical suppliers in either anhydrous or crystalline form. To prepare the immersion fluid, stir the chemical salts in 25° to 30°C (77° to 86°F) water until the mixture is saturated and some solids precipitate back out of solution.

About 350g of anhydrous or 750g of crystalline chemical per liter of water is usually sufficient. The solution volume must be at least five times the volume of the solids of the samples to be immersed at one time. The prepared mixture must be covered to reduce evaporation, frequently stirred to break up the salt cake, and maintained at 70±2°F (21±1°C) for 48 hours before use.

In some cases, like a temperature-controlled laboratory, the temperature limitations are easily met. Other situations require that the solution be artificially heated or cooled to maintain compliance. At the time of use, caked material must be broken up and stirred back into solution.

How do you test the soundness of piles?

Integrity Testing of Concrete Piles – Piles integrity testing is quick and simple method and it enables number of piles to be tested in a single working day. This method provides information about continuity, defects such as cracks, necking, soil incursions, changes in cross section and approximate pile lengths (unless the pile is very long or the skin friction is too high).

Integrity tests provide an indication of soundness of concrete but they should be undertaken by persons experienced in the method and capable of interpreting the results with specific regard to piling. In piles integrity test, a small metal / hard rubber hammer is used to produce a light tap on the top of the pile.

The shock travels down the length of the pile and is reflected back from the toe of the pile and recorded through a suitable transducer / accelerometer (also held on the top of the pile close to the point of impact)in a computer disk for subsequent analysis.

  1. The primary shock wave which travels down the length of the shaft is reflected from the toe by change in density between the concrete and the sub strata.
  2. However, if the pile has any defects or discontinuities within its length these will set up secondary reflections which will be added to the return signal.

By a careful analysis of the captured signal and a knowledge of the conditions of the ground, age of the concrete etc. a picture of the location of such problems can be built up. Normally more than one recording of signals is done until repeatability of signals is achieved. For Soundness Test Of Cement Which Apparatus Is Used

Why is the soundness test conducted?

1. Introduction – The soundness of cement may be defined as the property of which cement resists or withstands the expansion due to slow or delayed hydration of free lime, magnesia and calcium sulphate. In other words, soundness can be defined as the ability of the to retain its volume after it has hardened.