How Is Cement Manufactured By Wet Process?

How Is Cement Manufactured By Wet Process
Wet Process – The wet process of cement manufacturing refers to grinding raw material into slurry after mixing with water and then feeding them into the wet process kiln for drying and calcination and finally forming clinker. The slurry’s water content is usually between 32%-36%.

  • In addition, the raw material slurry can also be dehydrated into raw material blocks and put into the kiln to calcine clinker.
  • This method is called the semi-wet process, which still belongs to the cement wet process production.
  • Advantages: the wet process of cement production has the characteristics of simple operation, low dust and easy conveying.

Because the slurry has fluidity so that its homogeneity is good and the quality of clinker is improved. What’s more, the energy consumption of raw material grinding in the wet process is reduced by nearly 30%. Disadvantages: the heat consumption of the wet process is too high, usually between 5234-6490 J/kg and the consumption of ball mill vulnerable parts is also large.

What is wet process of cement?

Wet Process of Cement – The raw materials used for the Manufacturing of Cement by Wet Process are calcareous materials, such as limestone or chalk, and argillaceous materials such as shale or clay, Cement factories are installed where this raw material is available in abundant quantity,

What is the process of making cement?

Mixing of Raw Materials: –

  1. In the wet process, there are two raw materials e. calcareous and argillaceous. Initially, Calcareous materials are crushed using crushers and argillaceous material is washed With water in the container.
  2. After crossing the line stones are stored in silos similarly after washing the clay is stored in basins.
  3. The crushed materials from different silos and basins are drawn in correct proportions in a channel called wet grinding mills. Both the materials are intimately mixed in the presence of water and to form a fine thin paste known as slurry
  4. Slurry is then stored in another silo may be called as slurry silo where it is constantly stirred. The composition of raw materials is checked again and, if required, corrected by adding clay or chalk materials as desires.
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Burning: In this operation, the slurry is directly fed into a long inclined steel cylinder called a Rotary kiln. In this kiln there are 3 different zones shown in fig. below Cement Manufacturing Process Flow Chart (i) Drying Zones: In the wet process, the drying zone is comparatively larger than the dry process.

  1. It is because the raw material in slurry form is directly fed into the kiln which has more amount of water.
  2. As shown in the figure it is the upper portion of the kiln.
  3. In this zone, water is evaporated at a temperature of 100-400°C.
  4. Ii) Formations of modules : As the slurry gradually descends in the kiln, the carbon dioxide from the slurry evaporates and small lumps formed which may be called modules.

(iii) Burning Zone:- The modules enter this zone where temperatures are kept about 1400-1500° C. The modules are converted into dark greenish balls and the product obtained in the kiln, known as clinker, is of varying size 5 to 20 mm. The clinkers are very hot when coming out of this zone.

  • Iv) Cooling of Clinkers:- As shown in the figure another rotary kiln is provided in an opposite direction which is also inclined.
  • It is used to cool down the clinkers up to about 90°C.
  • Grinding: The cooled clinkers are finely ground in ball mills or tube mills.
  • Also, the gypsum is added during grinding about 2-4%.

The gypsum acts as a retarder and so allows the cement to mix with sand or aggregate and to be placed in position.i.e. it increases the initial setting time of cement. Storage and Packing: As cement comes out from grinding mills, it is collected in a hopper and taken in bucket elevator for storage in silos.

What is the manufacturing process of Portland cement?

Methods of Manufacturing Process of Cement. – At present Portland Cement is manufactured by two processes, Dry Process, and Wet Process. The main difference between these two methods of manufacturing of cement is that in the dry process, calcareous and argillaceous raw materials are fed into the burning kilns in a perfectly dry state.and, In the wet process, however, these materials are supplied into the kiln in the form of an intimate mixture with water called SLURRY.

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What are the disadvantages of wet process of cement manufacturing?

The following are the major disadvantages of the wet process of cement manufacturing, Mixing of Raw materials in wash mill with 35 to 50% water. Materials exiting the mill are called ‘slurry’ and have flowability characteristics. The size of kiln needed for the manufacturing of cement is bigger.

What is the process of making cement?

Mixing of Raw Materials: –

  1. In the wet process, there are two raw materials e. calcareous and argillaceous. Initially, Calcareous materials are crushed using crushers and argillaceous material is washed With water in the container.
  2. After crossing the line stones are stored in silos similarly after washing the clay is stored in basins.
  3. The crushed materials from different silos and basins are drawn in correct proportions in a channel called wet grinding mills. Both the materials are intimately mixed in the presence of water and to form a fine thin paste known as slurry
  4. Slurry is then stored in another silo may be called as slurry silo where it is constantly stirred. The composition of raw materials is checked again and, if required, corrected by adding clay or chalk materials as desires.

Burning: In this operation, the slurry is directly fed into a long inclined steel cylinder called a Rotary kiln. In this kiln there are 3 different zones shown in fig. below Cement Manufacturing Process Flow Chart (i) Drying Zones: In the wet process, the drying zone is comparatively larger than the dry process.

It is because the raw material in slurry form is directly fed into the kiln which has more amount of water. As shown in the figure it is the upper portion of the kiln. In this zone, water is evaporated at a temperature of 100-400°C. (ii) Formations of modules : As the slurry gradually descends in the kiln, the carbon dioxide from the slurry evaporates and small lumps formed which may be called modules.

(iii) Burning Zone:- The modules enter this zone where temperatures are kept about 1400-1500° C. The modules are converted into dark greenish balls and the product obtained in the kiln, known as clinker, is of varying size 5 to 20 mm. The clinkers are very hot when coming out of this zone.

(iv) Cooling of Clinkers:- As shown in the figure another rotary kiln is provided in an opposite direction which is also inclined. It is used to cool down the clinkers up to about 90°C. Grinding: The cooled clinkers are finely ground in ball mills or tube mills. Also, the gypsum is added during grinding about 2-4%.

The gypsum acts as a retarder and so allows the cement to mix with sand or aggregate and to be placed in position.i.e. it increases the initial setting time of cement. Storage and Packing: As cement comes out from grinding mills, it is collected in a hopper and taken in bucket elevator for storage in silos.

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What is suspension pre-heating in cement manufacturing?

Phase IV: Calcination – The calcination is the core phase of the cement making dry process. The calcination of the preheated raw meal takes place in the rotary kiln of the cement plant. The rotary kiln is a huge rotating furnace in which the raw meal is heated up to 1450 ⁰C and turned to clinker. How Is Cement Manufactured By Wet Process Cement Rotary Kiln The heat source of the rotary kiln is the flame from the burner located on the kiln’s front end. Using natural gas or coal as fuels, the burner shoots high-temperature flames to calcine the raw meal. After calcination, the cement clinker will enter a cooler for cooling.

What type of cement is used in construction?

Cement is a kind of powdery hydraulic inorganic cementitious material, which is the most basic and widely used building material in modern society. Cement can be hardened in the air or in water, and can firmly bond sand and stone together. It is widely used in civil engineering, water conservancy, national defense, and other projects.

The most commonly seen and used cement is portland cement, or ordinary portland cement (OPC). This type of cement was invented in the early 19th century by Joseph Aspdin. It is named ‘portland cement’ because its property is similar to the stone quarried on the Ise of Portland, England. The making process of portland cement in the modern industry can be divided into the wet process, dry process, and semi-dry process.

Nowadays, the dry process is the most popular cement making process which is widely adopted by cement plants all over the world for its great advantages in energy saving and environmental protection.