This article is about the temporary framework. For other uses of scaffold and scaffolding, see Scaffold (disambiguation), Scaffolding, also called scaffold or staging, is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man-made structures. Scaffolds are widely used on site to get access to heights and areas that would be otherwise hard to get to.
Unsafe scaffolding has the potential to result in death or serious injury. Scaffolding is also used in adapted forms for formwork and shoring, grandstand seating, concert stages, access/viewing towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes and art projects. There are five main types of scaffolding used worldwide today.
These are tube and coupler (fitting) components, prefabricated modular system scaffold components, H-frame / façade modular system scaffolds, timber scaffolds and bamboo scaffolds (particularly in China and India). Each type is made from several components which often include:
- A base jack or plate which is a load-bearing base for the scaffold.
- The standard, the upright component with connector joins.
- The ledger, a horizontal brace.
- The transom, a horizontal cross-section load-bearing component which holds the batten, board, or decking unit.
- Brace diagonal and/or cross section bracing component.
- Batten or board decking component used to make the working platform.
- Coupler, a fitting used to join components together.
- Scaffold tie, used to tie in the scaffold to structures.
- Brackets, used to extend the width of working platforms.
Specialized components used to aid in their use as a temporary structure often include heavy duty load bearing transoms, ladders or stairway units for the ingress and egress of the scaffold, beams ladder/unit types used to span obstacles and rubbish chutes used to remove unwanted materials from the scaffold or construction project.
What are the 8 types of scaffolding?
8 Types of Scaffolding and its Uses Different types of Scaffolding used for various types of construction. The 8 types of scaffoldings are trestle, steel, patented, suspended, cantilever, single, double, kwikstage scaffolding etc. To understand these Scaffoldings completely lets first learn its definition and then the uses of various Type of Scaffoldings, and their uses. By understanding the meaning, usage, purpose and results of each type of Scaffolding. You can easily select the various types of Scaffolding required for your construction work. This is also helpful in creating a safer environment for construction workers. Keep yourself updated from about most trending products and share your thoughts.
What is a scaffold OSHA?
1926.450 – Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subpart. | Occupational Safety and Health Administration
- Adjustable suspension scaffold means a suspension scaffold equipped with a hoist(s) that can be operated by an employee(s) on the scaffold.
- Bearer (putlog) means a horizontal transverse scaffold member (which may be supported by ledgers or runners) upon which the scaffold platform rests and which joins scaffold uprights, posts, poles, and similar members.
- Boatswains’ chair means a single-point adjustable suspension scaffold consisting of a seat or sling designed to support one employee in a sitting position.
- Body belt (safety belt) means a strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device.
Body harness means a design of straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner to distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders, with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.
- Brace means a rigid connection that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member, or to a building or structure.
- Bricklayers’ square scaffold means a supported scaffold composed of framed squares which support a platform.
- Carpenters’ bracket scaffold means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform supported by brackets attached to building or structural walls.
Catenary scaffold means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform supported by two essentially horizontal and parallel ropes attached to structural members of a building or other structure. Additional support may be provided by vertical pickups. Chimney hoist means a multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold used to provide access to work inside chimneys.
- Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
- Continuous run scaffold (Run scaffold) means a two-point or multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold constructed using a series of interconnected braced scaffold members or supporting structures erected to form a continuous scaffold.
- Coupler means a device for locking together the tubes of a tube and coupler scaffold.
- Crawling board (chicken ladder) means a supported scaffold consisting of a plank with cleats spaced and secured to provide footing, for use on sloped surfaces such as roofs.
- Deceleration device means any mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip-stitch lanyard, specially-woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, or automatic self-retracting lifeline lanyard, which dissipates a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest or limits the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.
- Double pole (independent pole) scaffold means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform(s) resting on cross beams (bearers) supported by ledgers and a double row of uprights independent of support (except ties, guys, braces) from any structure.
- Equivalent means alternative designs, materials or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.
Exposed power lines means electrical power lines which are accessible to employees and which are not shielded from contact. Such lines do not include extension cords or power tool cords.
- Eye or Eye splice means a loop with or without a thimble at the end of a wire rope.
- Fabricated decking and planking means manufactured platforms made of wood (including laminated wood, and solid sawn wood planks), metal or other materials.
- Fabricated frame scaffold (tubular welded frame scaffold) means a scaffold consisting of a platform(s) supported on fabricated end frames with integral posts, horizontal bearers, and intermediate members.
Failure means load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. Load refusal is the point where the ultimate strength is exceeded.
- Float (ship) scaffold means a suspension scaffold consisting of a braced platform resting on two parallel bearers and hung from overhead supports by ropes of fixed length.
- Form scaffold means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform supported by brackets attached to formwork.
- Guardrail system means a vertical barrier, consisting of, but not limited to, toprails, midrails, and posts, erected to prevent employees from falling off a scaffold platform or walkway to lower levels.
- Hoist means a manual or power-operated mechanical device to raise or lower a suspended scaffold.
Horse scaffold means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform supported by construction horses (saw horses). Horse scaffolds constructed of metal are sometimes known as trestle scaffolds.
- Independent pole scaffold (see “Double pole scaffold”).
- Interior hung scaffold means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform suspended from the ceiling or roof structure by fixed length supports.
- Ladder jack scaffold means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform resting on brackets attached to ladders.
- Ladder stand means a mobile, fixed-size, self-supporting ladder consisting of a wide flat tread ladder in the form of stairs.
- Landing means a platform at the end of a flight of stairs.
Large area scaffold means a pole scaffold, tube and coupler scaffold, systems scaffold, or fabricated frame scaffold erected over substantially the entire work area. For example: a scaffold erected over the entire floor area of a room. Lean-to scaffold means a supported scaffold which is kept erect by tilting it toward and resting it against a building or structure.
Lifeline means a component consisting of a flexible line that connects to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or that connects to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.
Lower levels means areas below the level where the employee is located and to which an employee can fall. Such areas include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, roofs, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, materials, water, and equipment.
- Masons’ adjustable supported scaffold (see “Self-contained adjustable scaffold”).
- Masons’ multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold means a continuous run suspension scaffold designed and used for masonry operations.
- Maximum intended load means the total load of all persons, equipment, tools, materials, transmitted loads, and other loads reasonably anticipated to be applied to a scaffold or scaffold component at any one time.
- Mobile scaffold means a powered or unpowered, portable, caster or wheel-mounted supported scaffold.
- Multi-level suspended scaffold means a two-point or multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold with a series of platforms at various levels resting on common stirrups.
Multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform(s) which is suspended by more than two ropes from overhead supports and equipped with means to raise and lower the platform to desired work levels. Such scaffolds include chimney hoists.
Needle beam scaffold means a platform suspended from needle beams. Open sides and ends means the edges of a platform that are more than 14 inches (36 cm) away horizontally from a sturdy, continuous, vertical surface (such as a building wall) or a sturdy, continuous horizontal surface (such as a floor), or a point of access.
Exception: For plastering and lathing operations the horizontal threshold distance is 18 inches (46 cm).
- Outrigger means the structural member of a supported scaffold used to increase the base width of a scaffold in order to provide support for and increased stability of the scaffold.
- Outrigger beam (Thrustout) means the structural member of a suspension scaffold or outrigger scaffold which provides support for the scaffold by extending the scaffold point of attachment to a point out and away from the structure or building.
- Outrigger scaffold means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform resting on outrigger beams (thrustouts) projecting beyond the wall or face of the building or structure, the inboard ends of which are secured inside the building or structure.
Overhand bricklaying means the process of laying bricks and masonry units such that the surface of the wall to be jointed is on the opposite side of the wall from the mason, requiring the mason to lean over the wall to complete the work. It includes mason tending and electrical installation incorporated into the brick wall during the overhand bricklaying process.
- Pole scaffold (see definitions for “Single-pole scaffold” and “Double (independent) pole scaffold”).
- Power operated hoist means a hoist which is powered by other than human energy.
- Pump jack scaffold means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform supported by vertical poles and movable support brackets.
- Qualified means one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his/her ability to solve or resolve problems related to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
- Rated load means the manufacturer’s specified maximum load to be lifted by a hoist or to be applied to a scaffold or scaffold component.
- Repair bracket scaffold means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform supported by brackets which are secured in place around the circumference or perimeter of a chimney, stack, tank or other supporting structure by one or more wire ropes placed around the supporting structure.
- Roof bracket scaffold means a rooftop supported scaffold consisting of a platform resting on angular-shaped supports.
- Runner (ledger or ribbon) means the lengthwise horizontal spacing or bracing member which may support the bearers.
- Scaffold means any temporary elevated platform (supported or suspended) and its supporting structure (including points of anchorage), used for supporting employees or materials or both.
Self-contained adjustable scaffold means a combination supported and suspension scaffold consisting of an adjustable platform(s) mounted on an independent supporting frame(s) not a part of the object being worked on, and which is equipped with a means to permit the raising and lowering of the platform(s).
- Shore scaffold means a supported scaffold which is placed against a building or structure and held in place with props.
- Single-point adjustable suspension scaffold means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform suspended by one rope from an overhead support and equipped with means to permit the movement of the platform to desired work levels.
- Single-pole scaffold means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform(s) resting on bearers, the outside ends of which are supported on runners secured to a single row of posts or uprights, and the inner ends of which are supported on or in a structure or building wall.
Stair tower (Scaffold stairway/tower) means a tower comprised of scaffold components and which contains internal stairway units and rest platforms. These towers are used to provide access to scaffold platforms and other elevated points such as floors and roofs.
- Stall load means the load at which the prime-mover of a power-operated hoist stalls or the power to the prime-mover is automatically disconnected.
- Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffold means a platform resting directly on the rungs of step ladders or trestle ladders.
- Stilts means a pair of poles or similar supports with raised footrests, used to permit walking above the ground or working surface.
- Stonesetters’ multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold means a continuous run suspension scaffold designed and used for stonesetters’ operations.
- Supported scaffold means one or more platforms supported by outrigger beams, brackets, poles, legs, uprights, posts, frames, or similar rigid support.
- Suspension scaffold means one or more platforms suspended by ropes or other non-rigid means from an overhead structure(s).
- System scaffold means a scaffold consisting of posts with fixed connection points that accept runners, bearers, and diagonals that can be interconnected at predetermined levels.
- Tank builders’ scaffold means a supported scaffold consisting of a platform resting on brackets that are either directly attached to a cylindrical tank or attached to devices that are attached to such a tank.
Top plate bracket scaffold means a scaffold supported by brackets that hook over or are attached to the top of a wall. This type of scaffold is similar to carpenters’ bracket scaffolds and form scaffolds and is used in residential construction for setting trusses.
- Tube and coupler scaffold means a supported or suspended scaffold consisting of a platform(s) supported by tubing, erected with coupling devices connecting uprights, braces, bearers, and runners.
- Tubular welded frame scaffold (see “Fabricated frame scaffold”).
- Two-point suspension scaffold (swing stage) means a suspension scaffold consisting of a platform supported by hangers (stirrups) suspended by two ropes from overhead supports and equipped with means to permit the raising and lowering of the platform to desired work levels.
Unstable objects means items whose strength, configuration, or lack of stability may allow them to become dislocated and shift and therefore may not properly support the loads imposed on them. Unstable objects do not constitute a safe base support for scaffolds, platforms, or employees. Examples include, but are not limited to, barrels, boxes, loose brick, and concrete blocks.
- Vertical pickup means a rope used to support the horizontal rope in catenary scaffolds.
- Walkway means a portion of a scaffold platform used only for access and not as a work level.
- Window jack scaffold means a platform resting on a bracket or jack which projects through a window opening.
: 1926.450 – Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subpart. | Occupational Safety and Health Administration
What is basic scaffolding?
Basic scaffolding work consists of scaffolding work connected with the operation or use of modular or pre-fabricated scaffolds, cantilevered materials hoists with a maximum working load of 500kg, ropes and gin wheels, safety nets and static lines, and bracket scaffolds (tank and formwork) for licensing purposes.
What is scaffold material?
Scaffolds, typically made of polymeric biomaterials, provide the structural support for cell attachment and subsequent tissue development.
Why is PCL used in scaffolds?
Introduction – Massive bone defect is a great challenge for both patients and orthopaedic surgeons. Among the available therapeutic strategies for promoting healing of large bone defect, bone tissue engineering (BTE) approach is promising by using scaffolds of synthetic or natural biomaterials that promote proliferation, and differentiation of bone cells 1, A variety of bone grafts and bone substitutes are available to treat different types of bone defects. Although autografts are the optimal material, but related to a limited supply and donor-site morbidity 2, Allogeneic bone grafts are concerned due to limited osteoinductivity and disease transmission 3, There is increased interest in using tissue engineering to enhance bone repair and cell-based gene delivery is becoming a primary approach in BTE 4, The use of stem cells, in particular, the BMMSCs have been the most popular in cartilage and bone repair 5, Bone scaffolds are typically made of porous degradable materials that provide the mechanical support during the formation of repair tissue 6, The key requirements of an ideal BT scaffold should include: macroporosity >100 μm, microporosity in vivo degradation time to match the speed of tissue in-growth 7, Actually, there are various conventional and manual techniques used for scaffold fabrication such as solvent casting and gas forming. However, these methods can only produce scaffolds with randomly-formed internal architecture which is highly dependent on the process 8, Solid free-form fabrication (SFF)based techniques are probably the most widely used for the fabrication of 3D interconnected porous scaffolds 9, Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is the first SFF technique based on extruding a molten polymer which requires the use of thermoplastic material. PCL is commonly used for bone scaffolds due to its high mechanical strength, the low melting temperature and glass transition temperature, as well as high thermal stability 10, However, synthetic materials usually have limited cell affinity, due to their hydrophobicity and lack of surface cell recognition sites 11, 12, On the other hand, naturally derived polymers, such as chitosan and collagen, can potentially interact with cells via cell surface receptors and regulate cell function. Natural polymer derived hydrogels are capable of retaining large amounts of water and closely similar to living tissues. In addition, they can also provide chemical cues for cells by incorporation of bioactive molecules 13, 14, Therefore, they have been widely used as cell and drug carrier in tissue engineering 15, Chitosan is the partial deacetylated derivative of chitin and is one of the most widely used natural polymers for the fabrication of biomaterials for BTE 16, 17, An increased basicity will lead to a gel-like precipitation of chitosan by neutralization of the amine groups. The ease of gelation without toxic additives and a sol/gel transition upon injection in the body are desirable for in situ injection for bone and cartilage defects 18, However, the mechanical strength of the aforementioned natural polymers may be inferior and subject to variable enzymatic host degradation 19, 20, which hampered the application of chitosan in load-bearing bone defect. In the current work, we integrated 3D-printed porous PCL scaffolds with chitosan thermogels to form a hybrid scaffold for BTE. The porous PCL scaffolds were fabricated by FDM using bio-printer. Thermo-sensitive chitosan hydrogel was obtained by blending chitosan glycerol phosphate disodium as previously reported 21, Rabbit bone marrow (BM) MSCs were isolated as the osteogenic cells in the current study. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether the hybrid scaffold could improve the proliferation and enhance osteogenesis of BMMSCs. We hypothesized the chitosan/PCL scaffolds can improve cell seeding efficacy, osteoinductivity, and give excellent mechanical stiffness, when compared to chitosan-thermogel or PCL scaffold alone.
What is 2 plank scaffold?
Easy-to-install & Light Scaffolding System – A cost-effective, easy-to-install and light scaffolding system, the two-plank walkway allows easy access for roof trusses and gutters, ideal for building single and double-story housing. According to specifications, we can help with design of the scaffolding in Melbourne, so it perfectly suits the building design and optimises safe access for roofing and guttering tradesman.