# How The Excavation Is Done In Highway Construction?

How Does the Excavation Process Work? – Before the excavation and heavy earthworks process can begin, the site must be carefully examined to make sure that the natural habitat and artifacts surrounding it persevered throughout the excavation process. Next, the plans for the size and depth of the site are made and the excavation contractors make drawings from them to clearly mark the excavation site’s boundaries.

setting out corner benchmarks surveying ground and top levels excavation to the approved depth dressing the loose soil making up to cut off level the construction of dewatering wells and interconnecting trenches making boundaries of the building the construction of protection bunds and drains

### What is excavation method?

Excavation methods are the various techniques used within archaeology to dig, uncover, identify, process, and record archaeological remains. Archeological excavation involves the removal of soil, sediment, or rock that covers artifacts or other evidence of human activity.

## How many methods are there of excavation?

8 Types Of Excavation Used In Construction.

### What is the most common form of excavation in construction?

Excavating Materials – Some excavation techniques will be much more efficient than others. Because of this, we have listed the main types of materials and how you should approach your project.

Sand and Fine Soils Excavation

Sand and fine soil excavation is one of the most basic excavation methods. This involves the removal of fine materials, such as sand, from an area. Sometimes, this excavation method is used to package and move the material. Other times it is just used to remove the material from the area.

Topsoil Excavation

Topsoil excavation is the method of excavating that is defined by the material: the top level of soil including vegetation and its rootzone. This method is used to remove anything that would be unsuitable to bear structural loads. This includes vegetation, soil, and any other decaying material. Topsoil excavation is one of the most common excavation methods.

Rock Excavation

Rock excavation, one of the more difficult excavation types, is the method of clearing rocky terrain and surfaces to prepare for a construction project. Due to the scale and hardness of the rocks, more conventional equipment such as diggers, excavators and picks aren’t efficient in breaking up and removing this material.

Muck Excavation

Muck excavation is the combination of liquid (usually water) with dirt, creating a sloppy unpleasant material. This can be undesirable, and often have a negative impact on nearby rivers, lakes or ponds. Using large excavation vehicles such as diggers, excavators or vacuum excavators you can collect the material and spread it out allowing it to dry up or you can relocate it.

Earth Excavation

Earth excavation is the method of removing the soil located underneath the topsoil. Usually, a method used to lay out a structural foundation, it can also be utilised for creating drainage ditches and other projects. With most earth excavation projects being fairly large, they will normally be performed by excavation vehicles such as suction excavators, diggers and dump trucks.

Liquid

Not to be confused with muck excavation, liquid excavation is the relocation, and usually disposal, of liquid from an area. This is usually performed on small ponds, lakes or silos, as well as removing liquid from projects which has accumulated as a result of bad weather. This is usually conducted by machines such as suction excavators and vacuum trucks.

## What is the 5 foot rule excavation?

Trenches 5 feet (1.5 meters) deep or greater require a protective system unless the excavation is made entirely in stable rock. If less than 5 feet deep, a competent person may determine that a protective system is not required.

### Which machine is used for excavation?

Excavating machine, any machine, usually self-powered, that is used in digging or earth-moving operations of some kind; the power shovel, bulldozer, and grader (qq.v.) are examples.

## What is the minimum depth of excavation?

Free Gujarat Engineering Service 2019 Official Paper (Civil Part 1) 150 Questions 150 Marks 90 Mins As per Cl.7.2, IS:1904, All foundations shall extend to a depth of at least 50 cm below the natural ground level. Important Point: The design of building foundations is performed based on prescribed serviceability and strength criteria laid down by various standard codes adopted by different countries.

Generally, the total settlement of a foundation is described under the serviceability criterion; whereas a strength criterion is described by bearing capacity of the soil or rock underlying the foundation. As per Rankine formula, minimum depth of foundation is given as $$}_ }} = \frac }} }} \times }\phi }} }\phi }}} \right)^2}$$ Where, q = Gross bearing capacity, γ = Unit weight of soil, and ϕ = Angle of internal friction of soil Latest GPSC Engineering Services Updates Last updated on Oct 1, 2022 The Gujarat Public Service Commission (GPSC) has released a new notification for the GPSC Engineering Services Recruitment 2022.

The commission has released 28 vacancies for the recruitment process. Candidates can apply for the applications from 15th October 2022 to 1st November 2022 and their selection will be based on Prelims, Mains and Interview. Candidates with a Graduation degree as the basic GPSC Engineering Services Eligibility Criteria are eligible to appear for the recruitment process.

## What is the four foot rule for excavation?

OSHA requires employers to provide ladders, steps, ramps, or other safe means of egress for workers working in trench excavations 4 feet (1.22 meters) or deeper. The means of egress must be located so as not to require workers to travel more than 25 feet (7.62 meters) laterally within the trench.

#### What is basic excavation?

1.2 What is excavation work? – Excavation work generally means work involving the removal of soil or rock from a site to form an open face, hole or cavity, using tools, machinery or explosives. Excavation work can occur anywhere, including:

• on construction sites
• in public areas.

Excavation work includes:

• open excavations
• potholing
• pit excavations
• trenches and retaining walls
• shafts and drives
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### What is excavation work in construction?

What is Excavation Work? – Excavation work is the movement of rock and dirt to create a space for construction work to begin. It includes digging holes, grading land and leveling for:

• Foundations
• Sewer lines
• Pipes
• Drainage
• Landscaping

Before any project starts, the landscape must be moved, graded, and made ready to architectural and engineering specifications.

## What is the greatest danger in excavation?

The greatest risk from excavations is cave-ins.

## What is the purpose of excavation?

What is Excavation? – Excavation is the process of moving things like earth, rock, or other materials with tools, equipment, or explosives. It includes earthwork, trenching, wall shafts, tunneling, and underground. Excavation has several critical purposes, including exploration, environmental restoration, mining, and construction.

• Construction is one of the most common applications for excavation.
• In construction, excavation is used to create building foundations, reservoirs, and roads.
• Several different processes are used in excavation, including trenching, digging, dredging, and site development.
• These processes will require unique techniques, tools, and machinery to get the job done right.

#### What are the 4 potential hazards in excavation?

The hazards and risks are usually: –

1. Collapse of the sides of the excavation.
2. Materials falling onto the people working in the excavation.
3. People and vehicles falling into the excavation.
4. The undermining of nearby structures causing their collapse into the excavation.
5. Damage to underground services during excavation work causing electrocution, explosion, gas escape, flooding etc.
6. Ingress of water causing flooding

The works should be carefully planned and carried out. Ensure that equipment and materials needed are available on site before work starts. Ensure that the work is directed by a competent supervisor and the works are inspected daily by someone who understands the risks and precautions to be taken.

## What is the maximum excavation angle?

1926 Subpart P App B – Sloping and Benching | Occupational Safety and Health Administration (a) Scope and application, This appendix contains specifications for sloping and benching when used as methods of protecting employees working in excavations from cave-ins.

1. The requirements of this appendix apply when the design of sloping and benching protective systems is to be performed in accordance with the requirements set forth in § 1926.652(b)(2).
2. B) Definitions,
3. Actual slope means the slope to which an excavation face is excavated.
4. Distress means that the soil is in a condition where a cave-in is imminent or is likely to occur.

Distress is evidenced by such phenomena as the development of fissures in the face of or adjacent to an open excavation; the subsidence of the edge of an excavation; the slumping of material from the face or the bulging or heaving of material from the bottom of an excavation; the spalling of material from the face of an excavation; and ravelling, i.e., small amounts of material such as pebbles or little clumps of material suddenly separating from the face of an excavation and trickling or rolling down into the excavation.

Maximum allowable slope means the steepest incline of an excavation face that is acceptable for the most favorable site conditions as protection against cave-ins, and is expressed as the ratio of horizontal distance to vertical rise (H:V). Short term exposure means a period of time less than or equal to 24 hours that an excavation is open.

(c) Requirements – (1) Soil classification, Soil and rock deposits shall be classified in accordance with appendix A to subpart P of part 1926. (2) Maximum allowable slope, The maximum allowable slope for a soil or rock deposit shall be determined from Table B-1 of this appendix.

(3) Actual slope, (i) The actual slope shall not be steeper than the maximum allowable slope. (ii) The actual slope shall be less steep than the maximum allowable slope, when there are signs of distress. If that situation occurs, the slope shall be cut back to an actual slope which is at least ½ horizontal to one vertical (½H:1V) less steep than the maximum allowable slope.

(iii) When surcharge loads from stored material or equipment, operating equipment, or traffic are present, a competent person shall determine the degree to which the actual slope must be reduced below the maximum allowable slope, and shall assure that such reduction is achieved.

 SOIL OR ROCK TYPE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SLOPES (H:V)(1) FOR EXCAVATIONS LESS THAN 20 FEET DEEP(3) STABLE ROCK TYPE A (2) TYPE B TYPE C VERTICAL (90º) 3/4:1 (53º) 1:1 (45º) 1 ½:1 (34º)

Footnote(1) Numbers shown in parentheses next to maximum allowable slopes are angles expressed in degrees from the horizontal. Angles have been rounded off. Footnote(2) A short-term maximum allowable slope of 1/2H:1V (63º) is allowed in excavations in Type A soil that are 12 feet (3.67 m) or less in depth.

1. Short-term maximum allowable slopes for excavations greater than 12 feet (3.67 m) in depth shall be 3/4H:1V (53º).
2. Footnote(3) Sloping or benching for excavations greater than 20 feet deep shall be designed by a registered professional engineer.
3. Figure B-1 Slope Configurations (All slopes stated below are in the horizontal to vertical ratio) B-1.1 Excavations made in Type A soil.1.

All simple slope excavation 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of ¾:1. SIMPLE SLOPE – GENERAL Exception: Simple slope excavations which are open 24 hours or less (short term) and which are 12 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of ½:1. SIMPLE SLOPE – SHORT TERM 2. All benched excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 3/4 to 1 and maximum bench dimensions as follows: SIMPLE BENCH MULTIPLE BENCH 3. All excavations 8 feet or less in depth which have unsupported vertically sided lower portions shall have a maximum vertical side of 3½ feet. UNSUPPORTED VERTICALLY SIDED LOWER PORTION – MAXIMUM 8 FEET IN DEPTH) All excavations more than 8 feet but not more than 12 feet in depth with unsupported vertically sided lower portions shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1 and a maximum vertical side of 3½ feet. UNSUPPORTED VERTICALLY SIDED LOWER PORTION – MAXIMUM 12 FEET IN DEPTH) All excavations 20 feet or less in depth which have vertically sided lower portions that are supported or shielded shall have a maximum allowable slope of ¾:1. The support or shield system must extend at least 18 inches above the top of the vertical side. SUPPORTED OR SHIELDED VERTICALLY SIDED LOWER PORTION 4. All other simple slope, compound slope, and vertically sided lower portion excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted under § 1926.652(b). B-1.2 Excavations Made in Type B Soil 1. All simple slope excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1. SIMPLE SLOPE 2. All benched excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1 and maximum bench dimensions as follows: SINGLE BENCH MULTIPLE BENCH 3. All excavations 20 feet or less in depth which have vertically sided lower portions shall be shielded or supported to a height at least 18 inches above the top of the vertical side. All such excavations shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1:1.

• VERTICALLY SIDED LOWER PORTION 4.
• All other sloped excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted in § 1926.652(b).
• B-1.3 Excavations Made in Type C Soil 1.
• All simple slope excavations 20 feet or less in depth shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1½:1.
• SIMPLE SLOPE 2.
• All excavations 20 feet or less in depth which have vertically sided lower portions shall be shielded or supported to a height at least 18 inches above the top of the vertical side.
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All such excavations shall have a maximum allowable slope of 1½:1. VERTICAL SIDED LOWER PORTION 3. All other sloped excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted in § 1926.652(b). B-1.4 Excavations Made in Layered Soils 1. All excavations 20 feet or less in depth made in layered soils shall have a maximum allowable slope for each layer as set forth below. C OVER A C OVER B A OVER B A OVER C B OVER C 2. All other sloped excavations shall be in accordance with the other options permitted in § 1926.652(b). : 1926 Subpart P App B – Sloping and Benching | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

#### Do & don’ts for excavation?

Don’ts –

Don’t progress without proper authorization i.e. follow the work permit system. Don’t use iron tools without non-conductive handles where underground power cables may be present or suspected. Don’t allow the excavator machine to move near overhead or underground power lines. Don’t cross in a barricaded area without proper precautions. Don’t allow personnel to work near excavating machinery. Don’t climb in or out of the pit by climbing on the sides. Use stairs or a ladder. Don’t jump over the trench or pit to cross. Don’t let the person stand on track or on the bucket of the excavator. Don’t leave the excavator machine before stopping the engine. Don’t refuel the excavator inside the job site. Don’t smoke while refueling excavator machines. Don’t move heavy equipment near to excavated trenches or pits. Don’t allow reinforcement rods to protrude dangerously where cut.

Summary Most of the risks associated with excavation work can be managed by providing preventative controls such as benching, battering, shoring and providing hard barricades around the excavated area. Administrative controls such as posting safety instructions in the form of safety do’s and don’ts, safety signs, warning tapes, safety markings, etc.

• Are still needed to ensure the safety of pedestrians, vehicles and workers.
• The do’s and don’ts of excavation safety can be prepared and communicated to workers to educate them about the hazards associated with excavation work and how to ensure safety precautions to avoid injury or damage to property.

These safety do’s and don’ts for excavation work can be posted in the workplace to remind the worker of safety precautions and improve work efficiency. You may find affiliate links in this article. This means that if you click on a link and purchase any of the products on this page, we may receive a commission, at no additional cost to you, It does not affect our knowledge sharing, opinions or reviews.

### How is excavation depth calculated?

A common situation in construction estimating and planning is the excavation of a pit or trench with sloped sides. For example: (from: http://www.constructioncost.co/construction-tips-to-calculate-excavation-of-trenches.htm ) In this example, we have a trench of unknown length with the sides of the excavation cut back at a slope of 1:1. The bottom of the trench is 5 feet wide.

If we assume the depth is also 5 feet, then the top of the trench is 15 feet wide. The cross-sectional area of the trench is (5+15)/2*5, or the average trench width of 10 feet * 5 feet deep = 50 square feet. If the trench is 100 feet long, and the ends of the trench excavation are not also sloped, then the volume is 50 * 100 = 5000 cubic feet, or 185 cubic yards.

Now, what if we have a column footing that is 3 feet x 3 feet and all four sides are sloped? Many would calculate the volume as the average width * the average length * the depth, or 10*10*5 = 500 cf, or 18.5 cy. But that is not the correct calculation. What you are looking at is a pyramidal frustum. It’s a pyramid with the top cut off. The formula for finding its volume is: Reference: https://mathworld.wolfram.com/PyramidalFrustum.html#:~:text=A%20pyramidal%20frustum%20is%20a,area%2C%20and%20the%20top%20area. The variables are h for the height, A1 for the area of the base, and A2 for the area of the top. To transform this for use with our excavation, Ab will be the area of the bottom of the excavation, At will be the area of the top of the excavation, and D will be the depth. Ab = Wb * Lb, where Wb and Lb are the width and length of the bottom of the excavation. At = Wt * Lt, where Wt and Lt are the width and length of the top of the excavation. In our example, Wb = Lb = 5 and Wt = Lt = 15, so Ab = 5 * 5 = 2 5 and At = 15 * 15 = 225, and D = 5, Therefore, the volume is: = 542 cf or 20.0 cy. This is 1.5 cy more than the 18.5 cy we calculated using the average width and length, or 8% more. So, it was close but not correct to use the average width for a pyramidal frustum. The formula can be: Or, to replace and with the calculated values based on slope, where the slope factor is (1:1 is 1, 0.5:1 is 0.5, etc.): In this formula, all we need to know are the length and width of the pit bottom, the depth, and the slope factor. In estimating, approximations are acceptable. We could also argue that the excavation will not actually be done so exactingly and we cannot know the actual excavated quantity.

But we have an interest in improving the quality of estimates by eliminating errors that are under our control. Using the average width to calculate the volume of a sloped sided pit is an incorrect calculation of the quantity we want, not an approximation. Some will say, “But that’s a more complex formula and I won’t remember it.” This is where there is added value in a knowledgebase that already has the formula built in to produce the calculation for you – the same way – every time.

You don’t have to remember the formula or perform the calculation. You just provide the dimensions and you get the correct answer – every time.

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## What does it mean to excavation?

Transitive verb. : to form a cavity or hole in. : to form by hollowing out.3. : to dig out and remove.

### What is excavation and types of excavation?

Types of Excavation | Engineersdaily | Free Engineering Database Earthwork involves movement of a portion of the earth’s surface from one location to another and, in its new position, creation of a desired shape and physical condition. Occasionally, the material moved is disposed of as spoil.

Types of Excavation According to Type of Material Excavated A common method of classifying excavation is by type of excavated material: topsoil, earth, rock, muck, and unclassified. Topsoil excavation is removal of the exposed layer of the earth’s surface, including vegetation. Since the topsoil, or mantle soil, supports growth of trees and other vegetation, this layer contains more moisture than that underneath.

So that the lower layer will lose moisture and become easier to handle, it is advantageous to remove the topsoil as soon as possible. When removed, topsoil usually is stockpiled. Later, it is restored on the site for landscaping or to support growth of vegetation to control erosion.

• Earth excavation is removal of the layer of immediately under the topsoil and on top of rock.
• Used to construct embankments and foundations, earth usually is easy to move with scrapers or other types of earthmoving equipment.
• Rock excavation is removal of a formation that cannot be excavated without drilling and blasting.

Any boulder larger than 1⁄2 yd3 generally is classified as rock. In contrast, earth is a formation that when plowed and ripped breaks down into small enough pieces to be easily moved, loaded in hauling units, and readily incorporated into an embankment or foundation in relatively thin layers.

Rock, when deposited in an embankment, is placed in thick layers, usually exceeding 18 in. Muck excavation is removal of material that contains an excessive amount of water and undesirable soil. Its consistency is determined by the percentage of water contained. Because of lack of stability under load, muck seldom can be used in an embankment.

Removal of water can be accomplished by spreading muck over a large area and letting it dry, by changing soil characteristics, or by stabilizing muck with some other material, thereby reducing the water content. Unclassified excavation is removal of any combination of topsoil, earth, rock, and muck.

1. Contracting agencies frequently use this classification.
2. It means that earthmoving must be done without regard to the materials encountered.
3. Much excavation is performed on an unclassified basis because of the difficulty of distinguishing, legally or practically, between earth, muck, and rock.
4. Unclassified excavation must be carried out to the lines and grades shown on the plans without regard to percentage of moisture and type of material found between the surface and final depth.

According to Purpose of Work Excavation also may be classified in accordance with the purpose of the work, such as stripping,, drainage, bridge, channel, footing, borrow. In this case, contracting agencies indicate the nature of the excavation for which materials are to be removed.

Excavation designations differ with agencies and locality. Often, the only reason a certain type of excavation has a particular designation is local custom. Stripping usually includes removal of all material between the original surface and the top any material that is acceptable for permanent embankment.

Roadway excavation is that portion of a highway cut that begins where stripping was completed and terminates at the line of finished subgrade or bottom of base course. Often, however, stripping is made part of roadway excavation. Drainage excavation or structure excavation is removal of material encountered during installation of drainage structures other than bridges.

1. Those structures are sometimes referred to as minor drainage structures and include roadway pipe and culverts.
2. A culvert is usually defined as any structure under a roadway with a clear span less than 20 ft, whereas a bridge is a structure spanning more than 20 ft.
3. After a pipe or culvert has been installed, backfilling must be done with acceptable material.

This material usually is obtained from some source other than drainage excavation, which generally is not acceptable or workable. Often, culvert excavation does not include material beyond a specified distance from the end of a culvert. Bridge excavation is removal of material encountered in digging for and abutments.

• Often, bridge excavation is subdivided into wet, dry, and rock excavation.
• The dividing line between wet and dry excavation usually is denoted by specification of a ground elevation, above which material is classified as dry and below which as wet.
• A different elevation may be specified for each foundation.

Channel excavation is relocation of a creek or stream, usually because it flows through a right-ofway. A contracting agency will pay for any inlet or outlet ditch needed to route water through a pipe as channel excavation, to the line where culvert excavation starts.

• Footing excavation is the digging of a column or wall foundation for a building.
• Thiswork usually is done to as neat a line and grade as possible, so that concrete may be cast without forms.
• Although elimination of forms saves money, special equipment and more-than-normal handwork are usually required for this type of excavation.

Borrow excavation is the work done in obtaining material for embankments or fills from a source other than required excavation. In most instances, obtaining material behind slope lines is classified as borrow, although it commonly is considered as getting material from a source off the site.

1. Most specifications prohibit borrow until all required excavation has been completed or the need for borrow has been established beyond a reasonable doubt.
2. In some cases, need for a material not available in required excavation makes borrow necessary.
3. A borrow pit usually has to be cleared of timber and debris and then stripped of topsoil before desired material can be excavated.

is the removal of material from under water. : Types of Excavation | Engineersdaily | Free Engineering Database

## What is basic excavation?

1.2 What is excavation work? – Excavation work generally means work involving the removal of soil or rock from a site to form an open face, hole or cavity, using tools, machinery or explosives. Excavation work can occur anywhere, including:

• on construction sites