To standardize the storage, handling and stacking process for pipes and pipe fittings, CPWD publishes specifications which are followed by PWDs, PSUs, engineering departments, architects and builders across the country. – Team ProductLine Use of pipes and materials used to manufacture them In the building and construction industry, pipes and fitting materials play an important role in performing the task of conveying fluids. Materials used for manufacturing pipes depend on the type of fluid and the conditions under which they are conveyed.
Fluids can be hazardous, reactive, volatile, corrosive or flammable. Fluids need to maintain their integrity when they are conveyed under process conditions such as different temperatures and pressures and hence, require pipe materials suitable for conveyance under such conditions. Typically, fluids fall into corrosive or non-corrosive categories.
For instance, while seawater is corrosive lube oil is not. Similarly, ammonia and acids are corrosive while air and nitrogen are not. Thus, different types of materials are required to make pipes convey different types of fluids. The common materials used to make pipes include ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and non-metals.
- Stainless steel, alloy steel and carbon steel are ferrous metals.
- Among non-ferrous metals, copper, zirconium, titanium, aluminium, nickel, copper and their alloys are popular materials used for making pipes.
- Non-metal pipes include cement, GRE/GRP, HDPE and PVC/CPVC pipes.
- Pipe fittings and their applications A pipe system not only involves pipes but also other components such as pipe fittings, expansion and flexible joints, strainers, valves, bolts, flanges, gaskets and supports.
Pipe fittings serve several purposes that mainly involves joining two pipes through appropriate fittings to alter the flow of the fluids or distribute them to other pipes. Here’s a list of some commonly used pipe fittings and their application:
Collar – Joins two pipes to increase its length Gasket – Seals flange joints Elbow – Changes the direction of fluid flow Union – Joins the ends of two pipes Nipple – A small piece of pipe with threading on both sides Reducer – Connects pipes of different diameters Trap – Restricts the entry of sewer gases into the building Tee – Connects pipes of different diameters and changes the direction of flow of the fluid Offset – Connects parallel sections in a pipeline Cross – Conveys fluids from one inlet in three different directions
The materials used for pipe fittings also depend on the type of fluid and conditions under which they are being conveyed. Typically, they mirror the materials used in the pipes they help to join. Some common materials used to make fittings include PVC, PE, ABS, PP, nylon, aluminium, stainless steel, steel, copper, cast iron and brass.
Reach out to Top Pipe Fittings dealers near you and get free quotes Standards for stacking and storage of pipes and fitting materials In order to standardize the storage, handling and stacking process for pipes and pipe fittings, the Central Public Works Department ( CPWD ), Government of India, publishes and updates ‘CPWD Specifications’ regularly.
These specifications are very comprehensive and include not only standards for building materials but also provide instructions for the execution and measurement of works and to determine rates. These standards are followed by PWDs, PSUs, engineering departments, architects and builders across the country.
Unloading – Pipes should be unloaded when trenches have been dug and they are ready to place the pipes. Storage area – They should be stored on a clear ground which is firm and even. To keep the stack stable, wedges should be provided to support the bottom layer. Storage stack – The stack should not be higher than 1.5 m. The stack can either follow a length-wise and cross-wise pattern or have a pyramid shape. This would help save storage space. Composition of stack – Each stack should comprise pipes having the same class and size. As far as possible, identity should be established with batch or consignment number and supplier name recorded on the stack. Storage of joints and fittings – Detachable joints and fittings made of cast iron should be covered and stacked away from asbestos cement pipes and fittings. Storage of rubber rings – These should be kept away from light, heat, oil and grease so that they remain clean.
Guidelines for stacking and storage of polyethylene pipes
Storage of natural polyethylene pipes – Pipes other than black polythene pipes should be protected from direct sunlight by keeping them under covers. Black polythene pipes could be stored in the open if not possible to cover. Storage of coils – These can be stacked flat on top of each other or on edges with care being taken to keep them away from heat sources such as steam pipes or hot water. Storage of straight lengths – These should be stored on horizontal racks with continuous support to avoid permanent set. Storage of pipes – These should be stored in areas where the temperature does not exceed 27°C.
Guidelines for stacking and storage of unplasticized PVC pipes
Support and storage – These pipes should be stored on level grounds devoid of sharp objects and stones to ensure that they are supported throughout their lengths. They are also prone to distortion when kept under warm conditions causing difficulty in jointing and hence, storage in such conditions should be avoided. Further, large piles should be avoided. Spigot and socket pipes should be stored in layers with sockets placed on alternate ends to avoid imbalance in stacking. Storage of smaller pipes inside larger pipes – This type of storage should be avoided. Storage conditions – Pipes should neither be stored near a heat source nor in bent or stressed conditions. Storage height – The height of the stack should not exceed 1.5 m. Only pipes of same size and class should be stacked together. Abrasion prevention – To prevent damage due to abrasion, ends of pipe should be protected. This is to be ensured specifically for pipes shouldered for use with couplings or prepared for jointing either spigot or socket solvent welded joints. Storage in adverse climatic conditions – Pipes should be stored under shades in areas with tropical climatic conditions. While handling pipes stored in very cold conditions, more care should be taken as pipes, especially PVC pipes, could lose their impact strength and become brittle due to cold temperatures. Non-use of damaged pipes – If unsatisfactory storage leads to kinking (happens more in cases of very thin-walled pipes), the damaged portion should be cut out.
Reach out to Top Pipe Fittings dealers near you and get free quotes Disclaimer : The above content is non-editorial and produced by a third party advertiser. Times Internet Limited/ Economic Times does not guarantee, vouch for or endorse any of the content or its genuineness.
What are the different types of pipes used in construction?
Key Takeaway – The many types of pipes used in can be classified into the following: PVC pipes, carbon steel pipes, concrete pipes, galvanized iron, or galvanized steel pipes. Most of these applications are focused on the pipes’ capabilities of transmitting fluid without changing its appearance and functionality.
Nowing this, some pipes are more suitable for this purpose, while some have a broader, more general structural use. If you’re in need of piping materials, make sure that you determine your requirements before choosing among different pipes. It’s also advisable to think about each pipe’s advantages and disadvantages for practicality.
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What are steel pipes made of?
Selection of Material of Construction for steel pipes depends on their Design Temperature, and Fluid Properties. Pipes made from carbon steel lose strength at high temperatures. Electric-resistance-welded pipe is not considered satisfactory for service above 750 F, whereas furnace-buttwelded pipes are not good above 650 F. For higher temperatures, pipe made from stainless steels or other alloys should be considered.
- Pressure ratings for steel pipe at different temperatures are calculated according to the ANSI B31.3 Code for Pressure Piping.
- ANSI B31.3 gives stress temperature values for the various steels from which pipe is fabricated.
- Seam Welded Pipes are made using plates while Seamless pipes are made using dies.
Steel pipes are commonly made with Black Finish or Galvanized. Proper selection of steel pipe material is critical for strength and durability required for application and ductility and machinability required to join it and form into piping. The selected pipe must withstand the conditions of use, especially pressure, temperature and corrosion conditions.
How are materials selected for piping construction?
Selection Criteria –
- Big bore flanged valves and components are mostly manufactured by Casting.
- Small bore flanged valves, socket welded and threaded components are mostly forged.
- Components like spectacle blind, Strainers etc. are made using plates.
- Materials are selected based on their mechanical and metallurgical properties.
- Mechanical properties: strength, ductility, hardness, brittleness, toughness
- Metallurgical properties: Chemical composition, weldability.
- Carbon increases strength of steel but decreases weldability.
- Carbon steel used in piping has carbon content between 0.15% to 0.30%.
What are the different types of carbon steel pipes?
Carbon Steel Pipes – One of the sturdiest and most is carbon steel. As the name suggests, this type of pipe is characterized as having a high level of carbon content. Carbon steel pipes can be further categorized depending on their fabrication — i.e. seamless, ERW, or welded (seamed) pipe.
- Carbon steel pipes make a great choice for plumbing works and other processes that require the transfer and conveyance of different types of fluids.
- It can be found in petrochemical plants, scaffolding, boiler systems, sewage, as well as a wide range of industrial uses.
- These pipes are wholly capable of withstanding extreme temperature and pressure conditions.
So if you’re looking to find high-grade carbon steel pipes, make sure that you get them only from Metal Exponents. Our carbon pipes come in a wide range of sizes and dimensions that can suit any construction project and industrial use.