Bases of curriculum. The instructional bases of curriculum planning include planning domains, the context or characteristics of the school situation, the impact of current trends and issues, and the use of strategic planning.
What are the steps of curriculum construction?
“Every Journey Begins With The First Step.” The curriculum development process systematically organizes what will be taught, who will be taught, and how it will be taught. Each component affects and interacts with other components. For example, what will be taught is affected by who is being taught (e.g., their stage of development in age, maturity, and education).
issue/problem/need is identified ( issue what ), characteristics and needs of learners ( target audience who ), changes intended for learners ( intended outcomes /objectives what the learners will be able to do ), the important and relevant content ( what ), methods to accomplish intended outcomes ( how ), evaluation strategies for methods, content, and intended outcomes ( What works? ).
The CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODEL on the next page ( Figure 1 ) shows how these components relate to each other and to the curriculum development process. It begins when an issue, concern, or problem needs to be addressed. If education or training a segment of the population will help solve the problem, then curriculum to support an educational effort becomes a priority with human and financial resources allocated.
- The next step is to form a curriculum develop-ment team.
- The team makes systematic decisions about the target audience (learner characteristics), intended out-comes (objectives), content, methods, and evaluation strategies.
- With input from the curriculum development team, draft curriculum products are developed, tested, evaluated, and redesigned -if necessary.
When the final product is produced, volunteer training is conducted. The model shows a circular process where volunteer training provides feedback for new materials or revisions to the existing curriculum. An Example: 1n the case of population education, a need rural out-of-school youth with information on how population relates to the total environment as well as their personal lives. Figure 1 Figure 2 PHASES AND STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT (See Figure 2 on the previous page) further illustrates how the 12 essential steps progress from one to the next. It also shows the interaction and relationships of the four essential phases of the curriculum development process: ( I) Planning, (II) Content and Methods, (III) Implementation, and (IV) Evaluation and Reporting.
- It is important to acknowledge that things do not always work exactly as depicted in a model! Each phase has several steps or tasks to complete in logical sequence.
- These steps are not always separate and distinct, but may overlap and occur concurrently.
- For example, the curriculum development team is involved in all of the steps.
Evaluations should occur in most of the steps to assess progress. The team learns what works and what does not and determines the impact of the curriculum on learners after it is implemented. Each step logically follows the previous. It would make no sense to design learning activities before learner outcomes and content are described and identified.
- Similarly, content cannot be determined before learner outcomes are described.
- In the experience of the author, and confirmed by other curriculum specialists, the following curriculum development steps are frequently omitted or slighted.
- These steps are essential to successful curriculum development and need to be emphasized.
Essential Curriculum Development Steps Needing Emphasis
Needs assessment : if not conducted, wonderful curriculum could be developed, but the appropriate needs of the target audience may not be met. Involving youth : the target audience and volunteers (or staff) who will be the implementors of the curriculum must be involved (i.e., they participate as full members of the curriculum development team). Recruiting and training volunteer facilitators: competent and skilled curriculum implementors are critical (the printed word cannot teach experiential group process, it doesn’t provide feedback). Evaluating and reporting on the impact of the curriculum : is critical for securing human and financial support from key policy decision makers and for assessing whether the curriculum has achieved the intended outcome.
Two types of evaluation are included in the Phases and Steps illustration: (1) Formative provides feedback during the process of developing the curriculum, and (2) Summative answers questions about changes (impact) that have occurred in learners because of their learning experiences.
- Summative evaluation provides evidence for what works, what does not work, and what needs to be improved.
- In every step of the curriculum development process, the most important task is to keep the learner (in this case, youth) in mind and involve them in process,
- For example, the curriculum team members, who have direct knowledge of the target audience, should be involved in conducting the needs assessment.
From the needs assessment process, the problem areas are identified, gaps between what youth know and what they need to know are identified, and the scope of the problem is clarified and defined. The results may prompt decision makers to allocate resources for a curriculum development team to prepare curriculum materials.
- A brief description of each of the curriculum development steps is described below.
- After reviewing these descriptions, you should have a very clear idea of how the steps occur in each of the phases and what each step includes.
- Nobody plans to fail but failure results from a failure to plan.” The planning phase lays the foundation for all of the curriculum development steps.
The steps in this phase include: (1) Identify Issue/Problem/Need ↪ (2) Form Curriculum Development Team ↪ (3) Conduct Needs Assessment and Analysis
What are the bases and components of curriculum?
Any curriculum consists of several components: objectives, attitudes, time, students and teachers, needs analysis, classroom activities, materials, study skills, language skills, vocabulary, grammar and assessment.
Which of the following is the basis of curriculum?
Philosophy is important to all aspects of curriculum. It provides educators, particularly curriculum workers, with a framework or base for organizing school and classroom activities. It helps them decide what school materials to use. Almost all elements of curriculum are based on philosophy.
What is curriculum construction?
Free CTET Paper 2 Social Science (महारथी): Mini Live Test 60 Questions 60 Marks 60 Mins Curriculum construction is a specialized area of work which expects a teacher to have a deep understanding of the underlying concept of curriculum and also the skill to systematically design learning experiences to achieve the socially desired goals set by the society we live in.
Curriculum development involves various stages/steps to be followed by those engaged in designing and developing curriculum. Gradation of Content: Grading of content is a task in which experts divide the content as per the levels and needs of students. In this, the expert consciously presents the principles of teaching-learning on which the content is based.
The following are the four criteria on which the content is graded.
The criterion of academic discipline structure- gradation of syllabus content follows a subject-specific syllabus. The criterion of usefulness – syllabus content is graded by the principle of the usefulness of materials i.e. the most useful material is exploited at the commencement of the course even if they are complex and boring. The criterion of motivation – grades the content according to its attractiveness for students. The criterion of language acquisition – the gradation of content follows the principle from simple components of the syllabus to more complex ones.
Selection of content: The content selected should aim at helping the learners to attain self-sufficiency in the most economical manner economy of teaching efforts and educational resources, the economy of learning efforts, and economy of the generalisability of the subject matter. The organization of content primarily depends on the target group. Unless we are sure of the prior knowledge background experiences of the prospective learner we cannot identify the scope and relevance of the content. Classification of content in which the weightage given to particular subjects in a document determines the class to which the document is assigned.
Hence, we can conclude that In curriculumconstruction, the act of dividing content as per the class levels will come under the Gradation of content, Last updated on Dec 1, 2022 The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS) has released the official detailed notification for the KVS Recruitment 2022 for the posts of TGT, PGT, PRT, Librarian, Stenographer, etc on 2nd December 2022.
What are the four basic components of curriculum?
Learning goals • Instructional materials • Instructional methods • Assessment – This wheel-shaped graphic illustrates the relationships between UDL’s four main curricular components. At the center of the wheel is a hub labeled “Learning Goals.” It reads, “A description of what students are expected to learn.” Surrounding this hub are “Instructional materials: The media and tools used for teaching content,” “Instructional methods: The manner in which the content is taught,” and “Assessments: The methods for measuring student learning.” By applying the UDL principles to each of these components, the teachers at Sycamore Middle School hope to meet the learning needs of all students in the general education classroom.
As the illustration above depicts, learning goals are central to the UDL process. Teachers must know what they expect the students to learn before addressing the other curricular components. David Rose describes the interconnected relationships between the four main curricular components (time: 0:49).
Transcript: David Rose From a UDL perspective, we think of four components to a curriculum: the goals, the methods, the materials, and the assessment. They are very closely interrelated in that the goal is the primary thing with which a lesson begins and the others line up to achieve that goal.
Choose the methods, choose the materials, and choose the method of assessment that will allow you to achieve the goals. UDL is very focused on both how is the student doing, and how are the goals, the methods, materials, all of that working. Are they leading to excellent progress on the part of the student? Though, for the sake of clarity, the application of UDL to these components will be discussed separately on the following pages, in practice these components are interconnected (e.g., the instructional materials and methods that a teacher uses should be tied to the learning goal, which will in turn be reflected in the assessments).
: To meet the needs of the widest range of students, what should teachers consider when planning their instruction?
What are the 4 basic elements of curriculum?
Evaluation Learning E xperiences Content Curriculum Intent Course Title : The T eacher and the School Curric ulum Course Code : Prof, Ed.8 ======================== ========================= ============ ======================= Elements of a Curriculum In general, a curriculum has four important elements.
- These ele ments must be p re sent in all curricul um documents or be for e a document can be called cu rriculum.
- These four elements are curricul um intent, content, lear ning ex periences, and evaluation.
- Curriculum Elements 1.
- Curriculum Intent – is the te rm used by Print (1993) to mean the dir ection that curriculum developers wish to tak e as a r esult of participating in the curriculum.
It includes the aims, goals, and objectives found in any cur riculum documents. Aims – are the br oad statements of social or educational exp ectations. Aims include what is hoped to be achieved by the entir e curri culum. Goals – are statements mor e specific than aims.
- Goals are general statements of what concepts, skills, and values should be lear n ed in the cur riculum.
- Objectives – are specific learnin g outcomes.
- Objectives include what specific concepts, skills, and values should be learned by the students.
- Usually, objectives are used in making decisions or planning about instruction.2.
Contents may include values, concepts, or skills that ar e important for th e learners to lear n.3. Learning Experiences – include all instructional strategies that are useful for the implementation of the curriculum. These may appear in the form of activities, strategies, methods, or approaches that are useful in implementing the cur riculum or in teac hing the content.4.
Evaluation – includes the differ ent ways and tools used for evaluating whether or not the curricul um intents wer e r ealized. Evaluation tools ar e also used to evaluate t he performance of the learners af ter they have under gone the cur riculum. Hilda Taba (1962) observed that all curricula, n o matter what design they have, are composed of certain elements.
A curriculum usually contains a statement of aims and sp ecific objectives. It indicates some selection and or ganization of content. It either implies or m anifests certain patterns of learning and teaching, whether because the objectives demand them or because the conte nt organization r equires them.