What Are The Rules Of Network Construction?

What Are The Rules Of Network Construction
Rules for constructing network – For the construction of a network, generally, the following rules are followed: (i) Each activity is represented by one and only one arrow.(i.e) only one activity can connect any two nodes. (ii) No two activities can be identified by the same head and tail events.

  • (iv) Arrows should not cross each other.
  • (v) Arrows should be kept straight and not curved or bent.
  • (vi) Every node must have atleast one activity preceding it and atleast one activity following it except for the node at the beginning and at the end of the network.

What is meant by Pert discuss the rules for network construction?

PERT is the abbreviated form for Program Evaluation and Review Techniques and CPM for Critical Path Method. Both the techniques were developed in U.S.A. during the late 1950s. PERT was developed by US Navy Engineers to plan and control the huge Polaris Submarine Program. CPM was developed by E.I.

What is network in construction planning?

What is a project network? – A project network is a graph that shows the activities, duration, and interdependencies of tasks within your project.

What are the rules of the network called?

Networking Protocols Networking Protocols A protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network. These rules include guidelines that regulate the following characteristics of a network: access method, allowed physical topologies, types of cabling, and speed of data transfer.

  1. Layered Software and the OSI Model Computers communicate using a layered set of protocols, the primay example of which is the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model,
  2. This is a model that was propsed as a set of standard layers and protocols for communication between different computers around the world and has been in use since 1983.

Although not universally adopted, much of this model is considered the standard and in heavy use. This protocol is different from TCP/IP which will discussed later. Layers provide a division of the work done by a network. Networks are set up with a protocol hierarchy that divides the communication task into several layers.

A protocol is a set of rules for communication within a layer. A service is what the layer provides to the layer above it through an interface, Protocols at one layer are unaware of issues at another layer. The OSI Layers The OSI reference model organizes a network into seven layers (a protocol stack ).

These layers define how networking hardware and software are to hand data and transfer it across a network. Interoperability, the purpose for defining a standard protocol model, exists when there is compatibility between the protocol stack of one workstation or peripheral device and that of another.

Application Layer Application Layer
Presentation Layer Presentation Layer
Session Layer Session Layer
Transport Layer Transport Layer
Network Layer Network Layer
Data Link Layer Data Link Layer
Physical Layer Physical Layer

ul> Physical Layer – has rules for dealing with hardware, such as voltages, bit-rates, frequencies, etc. Note that this is not the actual physical medium (wire or the optic fiber or air space). The medium is below this and not given an actual layer assignment. Despite the fact that this layer is not the communicating hardware per se, the fules can be contained implicitly in the network interface card (NIC) inside the computer, which connects it to the wire. Network Interface Cards (NICs), Repeaters and Hubs operate primarily in the Physical Layer. Data-Link Layer – this layer communicates via chunks of data called frames, The data-link layer can perform error checking and control the rate of flow of information. The data link layer is for a wire with just two ends, one sender and one receiver. An exception is when the sublayer called the Medium Access Sublayer is used. This sublayer is necessary when frames collide as many entities attempt to use the medium at the same time. This sublayer arbitrates collisions to provide intact frames that the rest of the data-link layer can use. (Note: Ethernet is primarily concerned with the Medium Access Sublayer.) Bridges and Switches manipulate data in the Data-Link Layer. Network Layer – The network layer deals with addresses and provides message or packet routing, (Note: packets are like frames, but in the network layer.) Because not all devices are directly connected to each other, some packets may have to take several hops to get from source to destination. Finding a route for packets in a potentially large and changing network is the job of the network layer. IP is a network layer protocol, and IP address is what IP uses to determine where a packet should go. Logical network addressing and routing occur in the Network Layer. Routers and Layer 3 switches are devices that operate at the Network layer. Transport Layer – The transport layer provides reliable, transparent transfer of data between commputers on a network. The transport layer is the lowest layer to provide and end-to-end view of the communication. The transport layer may have to break the data into packets for the network layer. It is then the transport layer’s job to make sure they are reassembled in the right order. The interaction between the end-to-end view of this layer and the machine-to-machine view of the network layer is probably the most critical one in the hierarchy. TCP is a transport protocol. Actually, both TCP and IP are part of the TCP/IP model instead of the OSI model. The TCP/IP model owes its success (and its name) to these two hardworking protocols, despite definitions in other layers in the TCP/IP model that are weaker than those in the OSI model. TCP/IP and IPX/SPX Protocols are active at the Transport Layer. Session Layer – The session layer provides remote logons and some other things. May software developers have considered this layer fairly useless and simply absorb any needed functions into their application programs. Different network operating systems (Novell,WindowsNT) utilize this layer for different purposes. Presentation Layer – The presentation layer is also frequently bypassed, but it can provide translation of data transferred between applications. If data from a spreadsheet needs to be converted to data for a database, this happens at the presentation layer. Application Layer – The application layer contains communication services that include file transfer and message handling like Telnet, FTP, and email. These services then interact with other applications such as word processing, databases, and World Wide Web browsers.

The OSI model related to both IPX/SPX (Novell Netware) and TCP/IP (WindowsNT & UNIX) Protocol Models

IPX/SPX (Novell Netware) What Are The Rules Of Network Construction Netware Lower-Layer Protocols Netware normally runs over standard lower-layer protocols, such as Ethernet (IEEE 802.3). The lower-layer protocol briefly discussed here, MLID, is a proprietary standard for network interface card drivers. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – operates at the Medium Access Sublayer of the Data-Link Layer of the OSI model.

IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) : Used for transfering packets RIP (Routing Information Protocol) and NLSP (Network Link Services Protocol) : Routing protocols SPX (Sequence Packet Exchange) : Runs at the transport layer and addes connection oriented service

Netware Upper-Layer Protocols

NCP (NetWare Core Protocols): At the transport level, it provides connection services; at the session layer, it handles session administration for data transfer; at the presentation layer, is is responsible for translation; and at the application layer, it deals with service use by providing operating system redirection. SAP (Service Advertising Protocol): provides session administration for file transfer.

TCP/IP (MicrosoftNT and UNIX) What Are The Rules Of Network Construction Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) The Internet Protocol suite is unique in that it is made up of non-proprietary protocols. This means that they do not belong to any one company and that the technology is available for anyone to use them. The above diagram only roughly maps the comparison of the two models.

  • As you may notice, the Internet model does not cover the two layers of the OSI model.
  • This means that TCP/IP is hardware independent.
  • Since TCP/IP does not include lower level protocols, we’ll start with the middle level protocols.
  • Internet Middle-Layer Protocols OSI model’s network and transport layers are concerned with transporting packets across the internetwork.
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TCP/IP and other Internet protocols use three types of addresses for network addressing:

Hardware or physical addresses used the data link and physical layers IP addresses the provide logical node IDs. IP addresses are unique addresses assigned by an administrator according to certain guidelines. They are expressed in four-part dotted-decimal notation-i.e.123.144.131.12 Logical node names, which an administrator can assign, such as SELU.EDU

IP (Internet Protocol) – works at the network layer. It handles addressing, packet-switching, route selection and error control for communication. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – the Internet protocol’s main transport layer protocol. It also provides addressing services at the network layer.

DNS (Domain Name System) – a distributed database system that works at the transport layer to provide name-to-address mapping for client applications. DNS servers maintain databases that consist of hierarchical name structures of the various domains in order to use logical names for device identification.

Internet Upper-Layer Protocols FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – used for file transfer between internetwork nodes. It also allows users to initiate processes on a remote host. It funtions at the top three layers of the OSI model: at the session layer, FTP provides session adminisrtation; at the presentation layer, FTP is concerned with translation using machine independent file translation; and at the application layer, FTP supplies network services such as file services.

  1. FTP is a peer-to-peer protocol.
  2. Telnet – used for remote terminal emulation.
  3. It enables users to access host-based applications by emulating one of the host’s terminals.
  4. Telnet provides connectivity between dissimilar operating systems.
  5. At the session layer, it provides dialog control; at the presentation layer, telnet provides translation using byte order and character codes; and at the application layer, telnet provides the services for remote operations.

SMPT (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) – a protocol for routing email messages. It works at the application layer to provide message service. Miscellaneous Protocols Serial Line Internet Protocol – SLIP – Used with dial up connections to the Internet. Works exclusively at the Physical Layer of the OSI model.

  • An older protocol that was improved upon with PPP.
  • Point-to-Point Protocol – PPP – Provides dial up connectivity to the Internet.
  • Operates at the Physical and Data-Link Layer of the OSI model.
  • It provides physical device addressing and error control.
  • Integrated Services Digital Network – ISDN – a set of standards to provide voice, video and data transmission over digital telephone lines.

ISDN operates at the Physical, Data-Link, Network and Transport layers of the OSI model. : Networking Protocols

What are the rules for drawing network diagram?

F) The flow of the diagram should be from left to right. g) Two events are numbered in such a way that the event of higher number can happen only after the event of lower number is completed. h) Arrows should be kept straight and not curved. Avoid arrow which cross each other.

What is the first rule of networking?

The 8 Networking Rules You Should Never Break Networking is equal parts art and science – and it gets much easier with practice. I’ve been networking since I was a kid, and I’m still learning what works and doesn’t work. (Yes, I’d like to think my networking has developed some sophistication since third grade.) While it’s impossible to make any guarantees, I’ve discovered that the following rules always hold true.1.

  1. Give and you shall receive – Before you ask anything of anyone, make it a point to help that person first.
  2. Influencers and higher-ups are constantly being asked for favors and advice.
  3. As a result, your first impression will be stellar if you’re actually providing value.
  4. Find out what the person needs and genuinely try to help him or her.2.

Behave yourself at conferences – What happens in Vegas doesn’t stay in Vegas anymore. Having a few drinks while networking makes sense, but don’t go crazy. There’s a good chance your antics could end up on, Twitter, or even “Tosh.O” (if you really go wild).

  1. Doesn’t take your personal feelings into account as it compiles its search rankings, and you could end up with some undesirable results attached to your name.3.
  2. Prepare yourself – Never come unprepared to a networking event, a conference, or even a phone call with a potential connection.
  3. The more information you have about a person, the better you’ll be able to relate to him or her.

At a minimum, look at the person’s LinkedIn profile so you can get a feel for the different ways you could work together. Make it a point to ask targeted questions based on what you know, so you can aim for the outcome you want.4. Ethics above all – Every once in a while, you can find yourself in a networking situation with the potential to cross moral lines.

  • Save yourself a world of trouble, and don’t let yourself be tempted.
  • I’ve made a lot of good deals in business, and I haven’t had to cheat on my wife, screw over a business partner, or do anything else I’m not proud of to make those connections.5.
  • Influencers matter – Always try to develop a relationship with the organizers or influencers at different events.

They’re the ones who run the show and know the inner workings, and they probably have many valuable connections. It’s very easy to find a way to help them out and get on their radar. Making these connections at events could lead to VIP party invitations, speaking engagements, and many more opportunities.6.

  1. Flashback to high school – Consistently make an effort to introduce people to each other and make people feel included.
  2. Invite people to dinner before or after an event, or share a few drinks and stories.
  3. Some of my best relationships, to this day, are with people who made me feel included back in high school.

Apply that same principle to business – people remember you when you make the effort to include them.7. Pay attention – If you want to burn a bridge quickly, start looking over someone’s shoulder when he or she is talking to you. Looking for someone better to talk to is the best way to doom a good relationship from the start.

  • Give everyone your full attention and be truly present in conversations.
  • If you find yourself nodding without knowing what the person is talking about, that’s a sign you’re drifting.
  • You never know who that person knows and how you could partner together in the future.
  • Simply put: every person matters.8.

Promises, promises – Seriously, if you tell someone, “Yeah, I’ll give you a call when I get back to the office,” you’d better actually do it. Remember that date from college? You gave her your number, and then she never called you back. There’s no reason to play hard to get with a potential connection, and keeping your promises is one way to prove you’ll be a good partner in the future.

As you’re networking, write notes on people’s business cards. Include things like “Promised I would send info packet” so you can actually follow through with your commitments. Like I said, there’s no surefire way to guarantee a good networking experience, and that’s a good thing – being too confident or lazy never enhances a connection.

Each person you talk to will expect something different, just as each personality leads to a different type of conversation. However, having the basics down can lead to better and more frequent connections. Try following these rules during your next conference, workshop, or meeting – and seriously, don’t drink too much at those happy hours.

What are rules and protocols?

This is a deep dive into supremely nerdy territory, but being a stickler for detail, I think it’s worth clarifying: algorithms and protocols are not the same thing. And in the bitcoin-blockchain world, the difference is important. Which is surprising, since they seem to be used interchangeably.

  • I certainly have used them as if they were the same thing, as have people much more knowledgeable than myself.
  • And my inner Thesaurus desperately wants it to be so, to avoid over-using one word or the other.
  • But a niggling doubt at the back of my mind pushed me to look into it a bit, and here is what I found: That our confusion in this respect is holding us back.
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So in this article, I hope to clarify the differences, and to show how a deeper understanding of this can lead to new breakthroughs. In part, it’s my fondness for the pedantic, but mainly it’s because I firmly believe that if we can understand something more profoundly, it’s more likely that we can come up with useful variations, innovations and use cases.

Here goes: A protocol is a set of rules that governs how a system operates. The rules establish the basic functioning of the different parts, how they interact with each other, and what conditions are necessary for a healthy implementation. The different parts of a protocol are not sensitive to order or chronology – it doesn’t matter which part is enacted first.

And a protocol doesn’t tell the system how to produce a result. It doesn’t have an objective other than a smooth execution. It doesn’t produce an output. It’s like the engine of a car, how a car works. An algorithm, on the other hand, is a set of instructions that produces an output or a result.

It can be a simple script, or a complicated program. The order of the instructions is important, and the algorithm specifies what that order is. It tells the system what to do in order to achieve the desired result. It may not know what the result is beforehand, but it knows that it wants one. It’s what you need to do to drive the car, the actions that the driver performs.

The protocol is a set of rules that determines how the system functions. The algorithm tells the system what to do. The protocol is, The algorithm does, In the kitchen, the protocol would be a set of conditions and instructions such as:

The knife cuts The flame heats Olive oil is delicious Frying pans are good for sautéing onions Wash your hands before handling food Burnt food tastes bad

An algorithm in the same kitchen could be:

First, chop the onion Then, heat up the olive oil in the pan Put the onion in the pan, add some salt, and stir until the onion is translucent

(photo by Matthew Wiebe for Unsplash – the bridge is a protocol, the bike is a protocol, the rider is an algorithm) How is any of this applicable to the blockchain? Because the blockchain needs both protocols and algorithms, and each have a distinct role. In blockchains, the protocol:

tells the nodes how to interact with each other (without telling them to do so) determines how data gets routed from one node to the next (without telling the data to move) defines what the blocks have to look like stipulates who decides which transactions are valid establishes how consensus is determined (without dictating the procedure) identifies who maintains the ledger delegates who determines how the rules of the system change decides if identities are needed determines who can create new coins (but not how) triggers procedures in case of error

The algorithm, on the other hand:

verifies signatures confirms balances decides if a block is valid determines how miners validate a block establishes the procedure for telling a block to move establishes the procedure for creating new coins tells the system how to determine consensus

So far so good, right? Now here’s the truly befuddling part: are ” Proof of Work ” and ” Proof of Stake ” protocols or algorithms? In crypto journalism they tend to get used interchangeably, with frequency coming down on the side of algorithms, but with protocols getting a relatively high score (check out “proof of work algorithm” vs “proof of work protocol” in Google).

So I’ve been furrowing my brow and staring into my empty cup of coffee and I’ve concluded: They’re algorithms. Not protocols. Both Proof of Work and Proof of Stake tell the miners how to go about validating a block. They establish conditions, like protocols do, but the instructions are fundamental, and there is definitely a desired outcome: to process transactions, to determine which blocks enter the chain, and to provide a consensus as to which chain is the correct one.

Both use the underlying protocol to achieve those goals. Continuing along this brain-wrinkling train of thought, are Bitcoin and Ethereum algorithms or protocols? They’re protocols. Not algorithms. They establish the ground rules, set up the “engines” and determine who does what and how.

  1. We, the users, then play around with algorithms to get coins sent, to execute smart contracts and to create new business models.
  2. The algorithms are what make the protocols useful.
  3. So, if we understand that the rules are one thing and the instructions are another, we can get creative.
  4. What is our desired outcome? And what algorithms, using the rules of the protocol, can we come up with to get us those desired outcomes? That is why the difference is important.

We need to understand the distinction between the state and the action. Between the rules and the procedure. Between what we can and can’t do. We can’t change the rules (if you want to, go ahead and set up a new blockchain). But we can create a series of actions, instructions and processes that can get us to where we need to be.

What are the 4 main components of a network?

Basic Components of Networks Published: November 20, 2011 A network has 5 basic components viz. clients, servers, channels, interface devices and operating systems. A brief intro:

  1. Servers: Servers or Host computers are are powerful computers that store data or applications and connect to resources that are shared by the users of a network.
  2. Clients: Client is the computer used by the users of the network to access the servers and shared resources (such as hard disks and printers). So, a personal computer is a client.
  3. Channels: The technical name of channels is network circuit. It is the pathway over which information travels between the different computers (clients and servers) that comprise the network.
  4. Interface devices: The devices that connect clients and servers (and sometimes other networks) to the channel are called interface devices. The common examples are modems and network interface cards.
  5. Operating systems: This is the Network Software. It serves purpose that the operating system serves in a stand-alone computer.

Channel Dimensions There are a number of varieties of the types, speeds and capabilities of network channels. These may be Transmission medium such as wireless or wire line, Transmission rate or bandwidth, Transmission directional capability and the Type of the Signal.

  • Transmission medium is the physical medium of the channel, which can be either wire line or wireless. The wire line is called the guided media or line based media. The wire line are of several kinds such as twisted pair wire, coaxial cable and fiber optic cable. The wireless media there is no physical wire along which information travels and the information is transmitted without wires from one transmission station to the next. Common examples are radio, mobile networks, microwave and satellite.
  • Transmission rate or bandwidth shows how fast information can be transmitted over the channel. It is measured in bits per second (bps).
  • Transmission directional capability refers to the direction in which information can be transmitted over a channel; It can be simplex, half-duplex or full-duplex. Simplex means that information can be transmitted only in one direction, Half-duplex means that information can be transmitted in both directions, but only in one direction at a time. Full-duplex means that Information can be transmitted in both directions simultaneously.
  • Signal type can be analog and digital. Analog signals are ‘continuous’ (they take on a wide range of values) and digital signals are ‘discrete’, and binary (take on only two values). So, Digital signals are more suitable for computer networks because, computers represent all information in binary.
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« » : Basic Components of Networks

Why do we need network rules?

About network rules Network rules are allowed or blocked actions that are performed by Firewall on detecting a network connection attempt. Firewall provides protection against network attacks of different kinds at two levels: the network level and the program level.

Network packet rules, Network packet rules impose restrictions on network packets, regardless of the program. Such rules restrict inbound and outbound network traffic through specific ports of the selected data protocol. Firewall specifies certain network packet rules by default. Application network rules, Application network rules impose restrictions on the network activity of a specific application. They factor in not only the characteristics of the network packet, but also the specific application to which this network packet is addressed or which issued this network packet. Such rules make it possible to fine-tune network activity filtering: for example, when a certain type of network connection is blocked for some applications but is allowed for others.

Network packet rules have a higher priority than network rules for applications. If both network packet rules and network rules for applications are specified for the same type of network activity, the network activity is handled according to the network packet rules.

  1. You can specify an execution priority for each network packet rule and each network rule for applications.
  2. Network packet rules have a higher priority than network rules for applications.
  3. If both network packet rules and network rules for applications are specified for the same type of network activity, the network activity is handled according to the network packet rules.

Network rules for applications work as follows: a network rule for applications includes access rules based on the network status: public, local, or trusted, For example, applications in the High Restricted trust group are not allowed any network activity in networks of all statuses by default.

If a network rule is specified for an individual application (parent application), then the child processes of other applications will run according to the network rule of the parent application. If there is no network rule for the application, the child processes will run according to network access rule of the application’s trust group.

3. Rules to Draw a Network Diagram | Network Construction | Complete Concept

For example, you have prohibited any network activity in networks of all statuses for all applications, except browser X. If you start browser Y installation (child process) from browser X (parent application), then browser Y installer will access the network and download the necessary files.

What are the 3 basic types of network?

Types of Networks – According to the communication requirements, multiple types of network connections are available. The most basic type of network classification depends on the network’s geographical coverage. Below mentioned are different types of networks:

PAN (Personal Area Network) LAN (Local Area Network) MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) WAN (Wide Area Network)

Let’s look into each of the network types in detail.

What are the 4 basic requirements of a network protocol?

Four Fundamental Elements of a Network The modern data network has become a critical asset for many industries. Most basic data networks are designed to connect users and enable them to access various resources, like the Internet and other computers connected to the network.

What is the first rule of networking?

The 8 Networking Rules You Should Never Break Networking is equal parts art and science – and it gets much easier with practice. I’ve been networking since I was a kid, and I’m still learning what works and doesn’t work. (Yes, I’d like to think my networking has developed some sophistication since third grade.) While it’s impossible to make any guarantees, I’ve discovered that the following rules always hold true.1.

Give and you shall receive – Before you ask anything of anyone, make it a point to help that person first. Influencers and higher-ups are constantly being asked for favors and advice. As a result, your first impression will be stellar if you’re actually providing value. Find out what the person needs and genuinely try to help him or her.2.

Behave yourself at conferences – What happens in Vegas doesn’t stay in Vegas anymore. Having a few drinks while networking makes sense, but don’t go crazy. There’s a good chance your antics could end up on, Twitter, or even “Tosh.O” (if you really go wild).

  • Doesn’t take your personal feelings into account as it compiles its search rankings, and you could end up with some undesirable results attached to your name.3.
  • Prepare yourself – Never come unprepared to a networking event, a conference, or even a phone call with a potential connection.
  • The more information you have about a person, the better you’ll be able to relate to him or her.

At a minimum, look at the person’s LinkedIn profile so you can get a feel for the different ways you could work together. Make it a point to ask targeted questions based on what you know, so you can aim for the outcome you want.4. Ethics above all – Every once in a while, you can find yourself in a networking situation with the potential to cross moral lines.

  • Save yourself a world of trouble, and don’t let yourself be tempted.
  • I’ve made a lot of good deals in business, and I haven’t had to cheat on my wife, screw over a business partner, or do anything else I’m not proud of to make those connections.5.
  • Influencers matter – Always try to develop a relationship with the organizers or influencers at different events.

They’re the ones who run the show and know the inner workings, and they probably have many valuable connections. It’s very easy to find a way to help them out and get on their radar. Making these connections at events could lead to VIP party invitations, speaking engagements, and many more opportunities.6.

  1. Flashback to high school – Consistently make an effort to introduce people to each other and make people feel included.
  2. Invite people to dinner before or after an event, or share a few drinks and stories.
  3. Some of my best relationships, to this day, are with people who made me feel included back in high school.

Apply that same principle to business – people remember you when you make the effort to include them.7. Pay attention – If you want to burn a bridge quickly, start looking over someone’s shoulder when he or she is talking to you. Looking for someone better to talk to is the best way to doom a good relationship from the start.

Give everyone your full attention and be truly present in conversations. If you find yourself nodding without knowing what the person is talking about, that’s a sign you’re drifting. You never know who that person knows and how you could partner together in the future. Simply put: every person matters.8.

Promises, promises – Seriously, if you tell someone, “Yeah, I’ll give you a call when I get back to the office,” you’d better actually do it. Remember that date from college? You gave her your number, and then she never called you back. There’s no reason to play hard to get with a potential connection, and keeping your promises is one way to prove you’ll be a good partner in the future.

  1. As you’re networking, write notes on people’s business cards.
  2. Include things like “Promised I would send info packet” so you can actually follow through with your commitments.
  3. Like I said, there’s no surefire way to guarantee a good networking experience, and that’s a good thing – being too confident or lazy never enhances a connection.

Each person you talk to will expect something different, just as each personality leads to a different type of conversation. However, having the basics down can lead to better and more frequent connections. Try following these rules during your next conference, workshop, or meeting – and seriously, don’t drink too much at those happy hours.