What is Analysis of Rates or Rate Analysis of Civil Works? – Every construction project is divided into number of activities. Each activity consists of different types of civil or construction works. For example, the in the construction of a building, the activities can be excavation or earthwork, Concrete work, masonry work, Wood work such as doors and windows, plumbing, flooring, waterproofing, finishing work such as plastering, painting and distempering.
- The Activity earthwork can be divided into many types based on depth and type of soil.
- For example, an excavation of 1.5m deep in soft soil, an excavation of 3m deep in hard soil.
- Likewise, concrete work can be divided into many types based on its mix proportions and its placement.
- For example, M25 reinforced concrete work in foundation, M30 reinforced concrete work in columns, slabs etc.
Likewise, there can be many small civil works in every construction project. The cost of any construction project is calculated based on each works associated with every construction activity. Thus it is essential to calculate cost of each small works.
Rate analysis of Civil Works or Building Works is the determination of cost of each construction work per unit quantity. This cost includes the cost of materials, labours, machinery, contractors profit and other miscellaneous petty expenses required for the particular work to be complete in unit quantity.
For example, cost of 1 cubic meter of M20 RCC work in slab, Cost of 1 cubic meter of excavation in soft soil of 1.5m depth, cost of 1 square meter of plastering of 20mm, cost of 1 square meter of painting work with specified paint in 2 layers or 3 layers as required.
The cost of materials in rate analysis is calculated as combination of cost of material at origin, its transportation costs, taxes. The rate of labour is based on skill of the labour, such as skilled labour, semi-skilled and unskilled labour. The cost of materials and labours vary from place to place.
Thus, the cost of each construction work varies from place to place.
- 0.1 What are the benefits of rate analysis?
- 1 What are the 5 factors that affect rate?
- 2 What is basic rate in construction?
- 3 What is the role of rate analysis?
- 4 What are the three types of rate?
- 5 What is the best meaning of analysis?
- 6 What is the concept of analysis?
- 7 What is rate analysis contingency?
What is the meaning of rate analysis?
What is rate analysis? Rate analysis is the basis for arriving at a correct rate per unit work or supply of work specifications such as labor, materials, and equipment. It can also be defined as the analytical study that leads to the definition of unit rates of work by identifying the basic requirements.
What is the purpose of rate?
Synonyms – Choose the Right Synonym for rate estimate, appraise, evaluate, value, rate, assess mean to judge something with respect to its worth or significance. estimate implies a judgment, considered or casual, that precedes or takes the place of actual measuring or counting or testing out.
- Estimated the crowd at two hundred appraise commonly implies the fixing by an expert of the monetary worth of a thing, but it may be used of any critical judgment.
- Having their house appraised evaluate suggests an attempt to determine relative or intrinsic worth in terms other than monetary.
- Evaluate a student’s work value equals appraise but without implying expertness of judgment.
a watercolor valued by the donor at $500 rate adds to estimate the notion of placing a thing according to a scale of values. a highly rated restaurant assess implies a critical appraisal for the purpose of understanding or interpreting, or as a guide in taking action.
What are the benefits of rate analysis?
Purpose of Rate Analysis: – Following are the two main purposes of carrying out the rate analysis an item:
To determine the actual cost per unit of items. To examine the item for economic processes and economic uses of materials involve in making the item.
What are the 5 factors that affect rate?
Learning Objectives – By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Describe the effects of chemical nature, physical state, temperature, concentration, and catalysis on reaction rates
The rates at which reactants are consumed and products are formed during chemical reactions vary greatly. We can identify five factors that affect the rates of chemical reactions: the chemical nature of the reacting substances, the state of subdivision (one large lump versus many small particles) of the reactants, the temperature of the reactants, the concentration of the reactants, and the presence of a catalyst.
The rate of a reaction depends on the nature of the participating substances. Reactions that appear similar may have different rates under the same conditions, depending on the identity of the reactants. For example, when small pieces of the metals iron and sodium are exposed to air, the sodium reacts completely with air overnight, whereas the iron is barely affected.
The active metals calcium and sodium both react with water to form hydrogen gas and a base. Yet calcium reacts at a moderate rate, whereas sodium reacts so rapidly that the reaction is almost explosive. Except for substances in the gaseous state or in solution, reactions occur at the boundary, or interface, between two phases.
Hence, the rate of a reaction between two phases depends to a great extent on the surface contact between them. A finely divided solid has more surface area available for reaction than does one large piece of the same substance. Thus a liquid will react more rapidly with a finely divided solid than with a large piece of the same solid.
For example, large pieces of iron react slowly with acids; finely divided iron reacts much more rapidly ( Figure 1 ). Large pieces of wood smolder, smaller pieces burn rapidly, and saw dust burns explosively. Figure 1. (a) Iron powder reacts rapidly with dilute hydrochloric acid and produces bubbles of hydrogen gas because the powder has a large total surface area: 2Fe( s ) + 6HCl( aq ) ⟶ 2FeCl 3 ( aq ) + 3H 2 ( g ). (b) An iron nail reacts more slowly. Watch this video to see the reaction of cesium with water in slow motion and a discussion of how the state of reactants and particle size affect reaction rates. Chemical reactions typically occur faster at higher temperatures. Food can spoil quickly when left on the kitchen counter.
However, the lower temperature inside of a refrigerator slows that process so that the same food remains fresh for days. We use a burner or a hot plate in the laboratory to increase the speed of reactions that proceed slowly at ordinary temperatures. In many cases, an increase in temperature of only 10 °C will approximately double the rate of a reaction in a homogeneous system.
The rates of many reactions depend on the concentrations of the reactants. Rates usually increase when the concentration of one or more of the reactants increases. For example, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) deteriorates as a result of its reaction with the pollutant sulfur dioxide.
The rate of this reaction depends on the amount of sulfur dioxide in the air ( Figure 2 ). An acidic oxide, sulfur dioxide combines with water vapor in the air to produce sulfurous acid in the following reaction: \text _2(g)\;+\;\text _2\text (g)\; \;\text _2\text _3(aq) Calcium carbonate reacts with sulfurous acid as follows: \text _3(s)\;+\;\text _2\text _3(aq)\; \;\text _3(aq)\;+\;\text _2(g)\;+\;\text _2\text (l) In a polluted atmosphere where the concentration of sulfur dioxide is high, calcium carbonate deteriorates more rapidly than in less polluted air.
Similarly, phosphorus burns much more rapidly in an atmosphere of pure oxygen than in air, which is only about 20% oxygen. Figure 2. Statues made from carbonate compounds such as limestone and marble typically weather slowly over time due to the actions of water, and thermal expansion and contraction. However, pollutants like sulfur dioxide can accelerate weathering. As the concentration of air pollutants increases, deterioration of limestone occurs more rapidly. (credit: James P Fisher III) Phosphorous burns rapidly in air, but it will burn even more rapidly if the concentration of oxygen in is higher. Watch this video to see an example. Hydrogen peroxide solutions foam when poured onto an open wound because substances in the exposed tissues act as catalysts, increasing the rate of hydrogen peroxide’s decomposition.
However, in the absence of these catalysts (for example, in the bottle in the medicine cabinet) complete decomposition can take months. A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy without itself being consumed by the reaction. Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed in the forward direction.
A catalyst increases the reaction rate by providing an alternative pathway or mechanism for the reaction to follow ( Figure 3 ). Catalysis will be discussed in greater detail later in this chapter as it relates to mechanisms of reactions. Figure 3. The presence of a catalyst increases the rate of a reaction by lowering its activation energy. Chemical reactions occur when molecules collide with each other and undergo a chemical transformation. Before physically performing a reaction in a laboratory, scientists can use molecular modeling simulations to predict how the parameters discussed earlier will influence the rate of a reaction.
Use the PhET Reactions & Rates interactive to explore how temperature, concentration, and the nature of the reactants affect reaction rates. The rate of a chemical reaction is affected by several parameters. Reactions involving two phases proceed more rapidly when there is greater surface area contact.
If temperature or reactant concentration is increased, the rate of a given reaction generally increases as well. A catalyst can increase the rate of a reaction by providing an alternative pathway that causes the activation energy of the reaction to decrease.
What 3 factors affect the rate?
Chapter 17. Kinetics Jessie A. Key
- To gain an understanding of collision theory.
- To gain an understanding of the four main factors that affect reaction rate.
Reaction kinetics is the study of the rate of chemical reactions, and reaction rates can vary greatly over a large range of time scales. Some reactions can proceed at explosively fast rates like the detonation of fireworks (Figure 17.1 “Fireworks at Night Over River”), while others can occur at a sluggish rate over many years like the rusting of barbed wire exposed to the elements (Figure 17.2 “Rusted Barbed Wire”). Figure 17.1 “Fireworks at Night Over River.” The chemical reaction in fireworks happens at an explosive rate. Figure 17.2 “Rusted Barbed Wire.” The rusting of barbed wire occurs over many years. To understand the kinetics of chemical reactions, and the factors that affect kinetics, we should first examine what happens during a reaction on the molecular level. Figure 17.3 “Collision Visualizations.” This visualization shows an ineffective and effective collision based on molecular orientation. During a molecular collision, molecules must also possess a minimum amount of kinetic energy for an effective collision to occur. Figure 17.4 “Potential Energy and Activation Energy.” This potential energy diagram shows the activation energy of a hypothetical reaction. There are four main factors that can affect the reaction rate of a chemical reaction:
- Reactant concentration. Increasing the concentration of one or more reactants will often increase the rate of reaction. This occurs because a higher concentration of a reactant will lead to more collisions of that reactant in a specific time period.
- Physical state of the reactants and surface area. If reactant molecules exist in different phases, as in a heterogeneous mixture, the rate of reaction will be limited by the surface area of the phases that are in contact. For example, if a solid metal reactant and gas reactant are mixed, only the molecules present on the surface of the metal are able to collide with the gas molecules. Therefore, increasing the surface area of the metal by pounding it flat or cutting it into many pieces will increase its reaction rate.
- Temperature, An increase in temperature typically increases the rate of reaction. An increase in temperature will raise the average kinetic energy of the reactant molecules. Therefore, a greater proportion of molecules will have the minimum energy necessary for an effective collision (Figure.17.5 “Temperature and Reaction Rate”). Figure 17.5 “Temperature and Reaction Rate.” Effect of temperature on the kinetic energy distribution of molecules in a sample
- Presence of a catalyst, A catalyst is a substance that accelerates a reaction by participating in it without being consumed. Catalysts provide an alternate reaction pathway to obtain products. They are critical to many biochemical reactions. They will be examined further in the section “Catalysis.”
- Reactions occur when two reactant molecules effectively collide, each having minimum energy and correct orientation.
- Reactant concentration, the physical state of the reactants, and surface area, temperature, and the presence of a catalyst are the four main factors that affect reaction rate.
What is basic rate in construction?
The basic rates are calculated by adding transportation cost, national and loacal taxes on the base rate inwhich the material is purchased from the original source.
What is the role of rate analysis?
Definition: In order to determine the rate of a particular item, the factors affecting the rate of that item are studied carefully and then finally a rate is decided for that item. This process of determining the rates of an item is termed as analysis of rates or rate analysis.
What are 3 examples of rates?
Here are some examples of common rates: Speed limit, interest rate, crime rate, profit rate, birth rate, death rate, etc.
What are the three types of rate?
Types of interest rates – There are essentially three main types of interest rates: the nominal interest rate, the effective rate, and the real interest rate. The nominal interest of an investment or loan is simply the stated rate on which interest payments are calculated.
- Essentially, this is the rate on which savings accrue interest over a period of time.
- For example, an investment of EUR 10,000, at a nominal interest rate of 5% over 1 year, would earn the investor EUR 500.
- The effective interest rate (AER) takes into account compounding over the full term of the investment.
It is often used to compare the annual interest rates with different compounding terms (daily, monthly, annually, etc.). This means that a nominal interest rate of 5% compounded quarterly would equate to an effective rate of 5.095%, compounded monthly at 5.116%, and daily at 5.127%.
What is BBS in civil engineering?
Important Usage of Bar Bending Schedule –
Bar Bending Schedule (BBS) helps to determine the quantity of steel required in construction of your house. This helps to get the accurate estimation of steelOnce the calculation of cutting and bending is done it reduces the wastage of steel and it becomes economicOnce you get the reinforcement drawings, cutting and bending can be done at warehouse before transportation. It increases the speed of construction and the transportation cost also reduces.Before placing the concrete if the bending and cutting length of TMT Steel bars are measured it becomes easier for site engineers.
To know more about home building be in touch with our experts : What is Bar Bending Schedule (BBS) of TMT Bar?
What is schedule of rates in construction?
Schedule of Rates means any schedule included in the Contract which, in respect of any section or item of the Services to be carried out, shows the respective rate (Fee) of payment for performance of that service and which may also include lump sums, other sums, quantities and prices.
How do you calculate cost of brickwork?
Brick Work Labour Rate Per m 3 –
|The calculation for Brick Work Labour Rate per m 3||Unit||Qty.||Rate||Amount|
|Mason 1st Class||day||0.4||750||300|
|Mason 2nd Class||day||0.4||750||300|
Brick Work Labour Rate per m 3 Total Labour Cost for Brickwork, as calculated from the above example is 1578 INR, which is 1578/6957=22% of the total project cost. The Brick Work Labour Rate Per m 3 is 1500-1800 INR depending on the availability of labour and the location. Also Read:- Cement Mortar Calculation in Brick Masonry
What is the best meaning of analysis?
Plural analyses ə-ˈna-lə-ˌsēz. : a detailed examination of anything complex in order to understand its nature or to determine its essential features : a thorough study. doing a careful analysis of the problem. : a statement of such an examination. : separation of a whole into its component parts.
What is the concept of analysis?
Analysis is the breaking down of a problem into smaller easier to solve problems. Wikipedia has a longer definition: Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle (384–322 B.C.), though analysis as a formal concept is a relatively recent development.
What is rate in water analysis?
Water charges = 1.5 to 2 % 0f total cost.
What is rate analysis contingency?
Contingency – Contingency is defined as “An amount added to an estimate to allow for items, conditions, or events for which the state, occurrence, or effect is uncertain and that experience shows will likely result, in aggregate, in additional costs”,
Contingency is described in many different ways across the industry but the common purpose of determining contingency is to account for the uncertainty or unexpected. Contingency has an inverse relationship with risk. A risk averse person may try to add more contingency and a risk tolerant person will opt for lowering it.
The higher the risk, the lower the contingency will be and vice versa.