What Is Surface Dressing In Road Construction?

What Is Surface Dressing In Road Construction
Surface Dressing is a mixture of polymer modified bitumen emulsion and a layer of chippings. It will seal the surface, improve surface texture and prolong the life of the road by many years.

What do you mean by surface dressing?

Why do we use surface dressing? – Surface dressing has three main purposes:

To provide a safer, non-skid road surfaceTo seal and waterproof the roadTo extend the life of the road surface, it could prolong the life of a road by over 10 years.

In addition:

it is a relatively quick treatment as 1km of road can be completed in about 2 hours, which minimises delays to traffic;it is more environmentally friendly, as we re-use materials to conserve natural resources wherever possible;it is up to three to four times cheaper than alternative ways of maintaining a road;it can improve the appearance of heavily patched roads.

How do you lay surface dressing?

Surface dressing – Roads and transport Surface dressing is a cost-effective way of restoring the road surface and sealing it in one process. Surface dressing also:

improves skidding resistance which makes the roads safer helps to make a road waterproof protects the road against frost and water damage.

We spray the road with bitumen binder, followed by a layer of stone chippings. The chippings are pressed into the surface by a roller. To ensure a uniform coating of the emulsion, more chippings are deliberately applied to the surface than are actually required to complete the dressing process.

Advisory speed limits are used to keep traffic speeds to 15 mph until we are confident the dressing has settled down.We treat roads between April and September because the process needs warm, dry weather to allow the dressing to become established.If your road is scheduled for surface dressing, please see further information,

What is the thickness of surface dressing?

3.5 The nominal sizes of chippings normally used for surface dressing are 6, 10, 14 and 20 mm. Flaky chippings are those with a thickness (smallest dimension) less than 0.6 of their nominal size.

What is the difference between surface dressing and surface excavation?

Discussion :: Estimating and Costing – Section 1 ( Q.No.43 ) –

SAURABH said: (Oct 31, 2015)
What is the difference between excavation and cutting?


Manish said: (Feb 23, 2017) The answer is wrong. It should be “B” surface dressing.


Roy said: (Sep 17, 2017) Surface dressing upto 15 cm depth and surface excavation upto 30 cm depth. So given answer is correct.


Manish said: (Mar 14, 2018) Here depth is less than 30cm so the right answer may be B.


Sumit Kumar Prajapati said: (Apr 13, 2021) Surface Excavation. Excavation exceeding 1.5 m in width as well as 10 m2 on plan but not exceeding 300 mm in the depth shall be described as ‘surface excavation’ and measured in square metres. Surface Dressing: Trimming of natural ground, excavated surface and filled up area to remove vegetation and/or small inequalities not exceeding I50 mm deep shall be described as surface dressing and measured in square metres.

Civil Engineering – Estimating and Costing – Discussion

How long does surface dressing?

How long does it take? Surface dressing is a fast moving operation and we usually complete the work in one day, although larger sites may take up to three days. But don’t forget we go back to sweep the road and return when the chippings have bedded in to put back the road markings and any road studs.

What is bituminous surface dressing?

A bituminous surface treatment (BST), also known as a seal coat or chip seal, is a thin protective wearing surface that is applied to a pavement or base course, BSTs can provide all of the following:

  • A waterproof layer to protect the underlying pavement.
  • Increased skid resistance.
  • A filler for existing cracks or raveled surfaces.
  • An anti-glare surface during wet weather and an increased reflective surface for night driving.
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Historically, BSTs have been in use since the 1920s, primarily on low volume gravel roads. BSTs are increasingly in use as a preventative maintenance procedure on flexible pavements of good structure.

What is used to surface roads?

Hot mix asphalt – This is the most common road surface. It is used on all new roads, roads throughout developments, mainline roads, and highways. The typical county residential roadway section is 4″ of asphalt placed over 8″ of stone. The typical county business roadway section is 5″ of asphalt placed over 10″ of stone.

What is the difference between asphalt and bitumen?

Bitumen and asphalt, what’s the difference? – When people talk about asphalt and bitumen in Australia, the words are often used to describe the same thing, which is not correct. To set the record straight we offer an explanation of the difference below.

  • Bitumen is the liquid binder that holds asphalt together.
  • A bitumen-sealed surface is a layer of bitumen sprayed and then covered with an aggregate.
  • This is then repeated to give a two-coat seal.
  • Asphalt is produced in a plant that heats, dries, and mixes aggregate, bitumen, and sand into a composite.
  • This is then installed across a surface, for example, an asphalt driveway,

It’s all good to understand the difference between the two. However, which one is the best option for you?

What is bitumen binder?

Bituminous binders are adhesive materials that contain bitumen, which may be in the form of conventional bitumen, modified bitumen or bitumen emulsion.

What is tack coat in road construction?

Note: This section is largely a synthesis of the following two tack coat publications:

Flexible Pavements of Ohio. (May 2001). Technical Bulletin: Proper Tack Coat Application, Flexible Pavements of Ohio. Columbus, OH. Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). (2001). Technical Advisory: Proper Use of Tack Coat, Technical Advisory 2001-1. Texas Department of Transportation. Austin, TX.

A tack coat is a thin bituminous liquid asphalt, emulsion or cutback layer applied between HMA pavement lifts to promote bonding. Adequate bonding between construction lifts and especially between the existing road surface and an overlay is critical in order for the completed pavement structure to behave as a single unit and provide adequate strength.

What Is Surface Dressing In Road Construction Figure 1. Good tack coat coverage. What Is Surface Dressing In Road Construction Figure 2. Poor tack coat coverage.

img class=’aligncenter wp-image-189362 size-full’ src=’https://www.ammacement.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/vihufulalibohelawigy.jpg’ alt=’What Is Surface Dressing In Road Construction’ /> Figure 3. Poor tack coat (shown in the left half of the photo) vs. a good tack coat (shown in the right half of the photo). Notice the streaky coverage of the poor tack coat and the near complete coverage of the good tack coat.

What is thickness of road?

Why thickness measurement in road construction is essential for the quality of the road In road construction, there is an infinite number of pinwheels to make the process as perfect as possible. Everything has to be considered and taken into account, starting with the planning, the tendering process, the specification of machines and staff, the choice of material and of course the paving process.

Looking at the process, I would like to go a little deeper into the different asphalt layers, because they have a significant impact on the resilience and many other characteristics that are often marginally mentioned. The different asphalt layers and their tasks First, I would like to give a short introduction into the different layers and their functions.

Every layer is important for the reliability of the road. I. Base course The base course, as the name implies – along with the binder course – is the load carrying element of the road and gives the binder and top layer a consistent hold. Furthermore, the base course protects quickly and effectively from rainfall and other environmental conditions.

Exposed traffic forces are removed and evenly distributed on the base. The layer thickness should be selected in such a way that the required compaction is achieved at each point of the street. Often, with base course thicknesses of more than 15cm, the layer is paved in two production steps. II. Binder course The binder course ensures that shear stresses are absorbed and thus deformations in the road are prevented.

Uneven surfaces remaining from the base course are further optimized in the binder installation, so that the perfect smoothness is achieved as soon as possible after the binder installation. The layer thicknesses stagger depending on the material and type of the road between 5cm – 12cm.

III. Top layer The top layer is the most heavily used layer of the road, because it is subject to the direct influence of traffic, weather and thawing agents. Thus, the top layer must be particularly resistant to wear and deformation. Durable evenness, grip, environmental friendliness and low noise are other properties required by the top layer.

In addition, the layer must be designed with structures, textures, colors and shapes. The specified layer thicknesses can be very different, depending on the requirement and the type of material. The classification of the road in its different asphalt layers and their components has an economic as well as a technical background.

  • Every single layer has its own special task as described above.
  • Its position, strength and material composition make it a part of the load-bearing capacity and resilience of the finished road.
  • The individual layers are combined into a compact structure in order to fulfill the desired specification, which is essential for the durability of the entire construction.
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Not to be forgotten is the infrastructure aspect of every street, because the users of the road are also very interested in a stable road that meets the requirements. How do unstable or even too low layer thicknesses affect the overall road? 1. Lifetime of the road Unstable layer thicknesses prevent the individual layers from fulfilling their function.

F or example, if a road has changing thicknesses in the binder layer, it will absorb the resulting shear stresses better and worse. Early road damage is the result. However, if the binder course is made uniformly and consistently, the building structure will be evenly stressed and will be able to maintain its originally specified lifespan.

If there are irregular layer thicknesses in the top layer, premature road damage will be the result. Especially in the top layer you need to have a consistent layer thicknesses in order to avoid cracks or waves. If you are able to ha ve perfectl y leveled layers, stable thicknesses can much easier be achieved. It gets more critical if the layer thicknesses are irregular across all layers. Critical points over the entire course of the road are the result. There will be spots where the road will take early damage and not reach the desired lifespan. In the following sketch you can see, even as a layman, that something is wrong.

  • What is not critical in the base course, changes dramatically with the binder and even more in the top layer.
  • If the binder course is irregular and even too thin in some places, it can no longer fulfill its task as a tension absorber.
  • This problem gets even bigger in the base course, because in this case the problem becomes visible first.

Cracks and holes are the result of too thin and irregular layers. The durability of the road decreases significantly. 2. Economic and infrastructure aspects The economic aspect is especially important for the contractor because he has a great interest that the completed project achieves the quality to reach the specified and planned lifespan. The contractor will not have any warranty claims.

  • Especially contractors, but also road owners and we as the tax-payers are interested in roads with high quality and a long lifespan.
  • One particularly essential basis for this are constant layer thicknesses, which are paved exactly as required.
  • Furthermore, by working on the tolerance limits, the contractor gets the opportunity to save material and thus costs.

If one considers that with a material price of 80.00 EUR per ton, a paving scope of 100km with an average screed width of 6m can result in a saving of 80,000.00 EUR for every saving of 0.1cm layer thickness, the cost savings for a year can easily be calculated.

Even if the guidelines and specifications all over the world vary: At some point the road construction project and thus the paving material has to be paid. At the end of the day, after each project, there are people using the street. No matter if it´s on two-wheeled vehicles, cars, trucks or others. Whether business or private purposes.

We all have a great interest in traveling safe and relaxed but still quick to reach our destination. : Why thickness measurement in road construction is essential for the quality of the road

Which type of emulsion is suitable for surface dressing?

Bitumen Emulsion Application –

  • Emulsions are used in bituminous road construction work. They are especially helpful for maintenance and patch repair works.
  • The emulsion can be used in wet weather even when it is raining.
  • Also, emulsions have been used in soil stabilization, particularly for stabilization of sands in desert areas.
  • A rapid setting type emulsion is suitable for surface dressing and penetration macadam type of construction.
  • Medium setting type is used for premixing with coarse aggregates.
  • In the case of fine aggregates, the surface area of aggregate is more and as a result, a long duration of time is required to mix the emulsion. Therefore slow-setting emulsion is preferred which gives sufficient time for uniform blending of the mix.
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The first asphalt (bitumen) emulsions used in road construction were prepared in the early part of the 20th century. Today approximately 3 million tons of emulsions are produced in the United States representing about 5% to 10% of asphalt consumption.

What is the minimum thickness used in bituminous macadam?

It is an open graded mixture suitable for base course. It is laid in a single course or in a multiple layers on a previously prepared base. Thickness of the single layer shall be 50 mm to 100 mm.

What is the depth limit for surface excavation?

Surface excavation is simply the excavation of surface soil up to a depth of 150 to 200 CM. Surface excavation is mainly used for civil construction and geotechnical purposes.

Is asphalt a bitumen?

What’s the difference between Asphalt and Bitumen? Should I use Bitumen or Asphalt? – Bitumen is actually the liquid binder that holds asphalt together. The term bitumen is often mistakenly used to describe asphalt. A bitumen-sealed road has a layer of bitumen sprayed and then covered with an aggregate. What Is Surface Dressing In Road Construction

What is double surface dressing?

Construction dictionary Información importante sobre cookies : Utilizamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios. Si continuas navegando, consideramos que aceptas su uso. | This is the application of two simple surface dressings, the second of these being made with a smaller sized aggregate than that used in the first.

A simple surface dressing consisting in the application of a bituminous binder to a surface, followed by spreading and tamping the aggregate layer. The following operations should be carried out in this case: – Preparation of the existing surface. – Application of the bituminous binder. – Spreading and tamping the aggregate.

It is called double surface dressing when two simple surface dressings are applied that are normally of different characteristics. The following should be carried out in this second case as well as the previously mentioned operations: – A second layer of bituminous binder will be applied.

How long does a road surface last?

What is the average lifespan of a sealed road? – On average, a sealed road surface will last around 25 years. However, during this time it is likely that it will need to be resealed every 10-13 years to ensure it remains usable. Depending on the factors listed above, a complete rebuild of a road will have to be undertaken every 30-35 years.

How do they resurface roads?

How Long Does Resurfacing Take? – The time it takes to resurface a road surface can vary greatly. It usually takes longer than surface dressing treatments as it involves more extensive structural maintenance involving removing the worn-out road surface and replacing it.

  1. During this time, a diversion is put into place to allow for the work to be carried out.
  2. Resurfacing involves clearing the area of pedestrians, vehicles and debris before removing some (or all) of the existing road surface.
  3. Once this part of the resurfacing process is complete, a bitumen spray coat is applied using a spray tanker before the new surface is laid.

As asphalt needs to installed in optimal conditions for it to be effective, resurfacing works may be delayed due to bad weather. This is especially common during the autumn and winter months, when rain, snow or some combination wherein can be a constant in the weather pattern.

What is the meaning of surface cover?

SURFACE COVER means a solid structure or combination of structures, made of an impervious material that is designed to cover at least 75% of the open surface area of a continuous electrolytic process tank.

What is the function of wearing surface?

The wearing surface (also called wearing course or deck overlay) for a structure is designed to resist traffic wear and, with periodic maintenance, to provide a smooth riding surface.

What is bituminous surface dressing?

A bituminous surface treatment (BST), also known as a seal coat or chip seal, is a thin protective wearing surface that is applied to a pavement or base course, BSTs can provide all of the following:

  • A waterproof layer to protect the underlying pavement.
  • Increased skid resistance.
  • A filler for existing cracks or raveled surfaces.
  • An anti-glare surface during wet weather and an increased reflective surface for night driving.

Historically, BSTs have been in use since the 1920s, primarily on low volume gravel roads. BSTs are increasingly in use as a preventative maintenance procedure on flexible pavements of good structure.

What is surface excavation?

Surface excavation involves the removal of the exposed layer of the earth surface, including any vegetation or decaying matter which could make the soil compressible and therefore unsuitable for bearing structural loads. Hence the depth will be vary from site to site, usually range of 150-300 mm.