What Is The Plural Of Roof?

What Is The Plural Of Roof
Which is correct? Because black absorbs light (which equates to heat) and white reflects it, white is a better option for data center _.a. roofs b. rooves Answer: Either, depending on where you are. Explanation: In the U.S., roofs is the standard plural of roof ; elsewhere rooves is fairly common but becoming less so.

Singular Plural
calf calves
elf elves
half halves
hoof hooves
knife knives
leaf leaves
life lives
loaf loaves
shelf shelves
thief thieves
wife wives
wolf wolves

The rule on “roofs” has changed so completely in the U.S. that Merriam-Webster no longer even has an entry for “rooves.” Although the standard rule for most words ending in “f” still holds, in casual speech and writing words like “calfs,” “elfs” and “loafs” are appearing more and more.

  1. What that means, in all likelihood, is that more will follow and the old rule will change, so that words ending in “f” just take an “s” for pluralization, like most words ending in a consonant.
  2. And there’s nothing wrong with that, other than that in the transitional period, people who say “calfs,” “elfs” and “loafs” may be ridiculed by those of us clinging to the old rule.

That being the case, stick to the standard for formal writing. Writers on the Net provides resources on irregular plurals. A tip of the editor’s visor to @Guy_in_PEI for the inspiration for this post. (What, no one’s wearing those green eyeshades any more? Oh, I AM behind the times.) Follow me on Twitter @tao_of_grammar

Which is correct roofs or rooves UK?

Roofs vs. rooves Roofs is the plural of roof in all varieties of English. Rooves is an old secondary form, and it still appears occasionally by analogy with other irregular plurals such as hooves, but it is not common enough to be considered standard. Also see the proper usage of, : Roofs vs. rooves

When did rooves change to roofs?

The current correct plural of ‘roof’ has been ‘roofs’ since at least the 18th century. The form ‘rooves’ may have been used by some people in the past, by analogy with some other words that change ‘-f’ to ‘-ves’ in the plural, such as ‘calf/calves’, and is accepted by some – but not all – dictionaries.

How do you say the plural of roof?

While the spelling is clearly roofs, as outlined below, those who pronounce roof with the -oo- vowel seem to often pronounce the plural as rooves. Those who use the PUT vowel in my experience use a pronunciation closer to roofs with that same vowel.

What is the singular and plural of roof?

Singular. roof. Plural. roofs. The plural form of roof; more than one (kind of) roof.

Can you say roofs?

Which is correct? Because black absorbs light (which equates to heat) and white reflects it, white is a better option for data center _.a. roofs b. rooves Answer: Either, depending on where you are. Explanation: In the U.S., roofs is the standard plural of roof ; elsewhere rooves is fairly common but becoming less so.

Singular Plural
calf calves
elf elves
half halves
hoof hooves
knife knives
leaf leaves
life lives
loaf loaves
shelf shelves
thief thieves
wife wives
wolf wolves

The rule on “roofs” has changed so completely in the U.S. that Merriam-Webster no longer even has an entry for “rooves.” Although the standard rule for most words ending in “f” still holds, in casual speech and writing words like “calfs,” “elfs” and “loafs” are appearing more and more.

What that means, in all likelihood, is that more will follow and the old rule will change, so that words ending in “f” just take an “s” for pluralization, like most words ending in a consonant. And there’s nothing wrong with that, other than that in the transitional period, people who say “calfs,” “elfs” and “loafs” may be ridiculed by those of us clinging to the old rule.

That being the case, stick to the standard for formal writing. Writers on the Net provides resources on irregular plurals. A tip of the editor’s visor to @Guy_in_PEI for the inspiration for this post. (What, no one’s wearing those green eyeshades any more? Oh, I AM behind the times.) Follow me on Twitter @tao_of_grammar

Is it the sky or sky?

  1. the space above the earth that you can see when you look up, where clouds and the sun, moon and stars appear You usually say the sky, When sky is used with an adjective, use a sky, You can also use the plural form skies, especially when you are thinking about the great extent of the sky.
    • The sky suddenly went dark and it started to rain.
    • in the sky What’s that in the sky?
    • The sun was shining brightly and there was not a single cloud in the sky.
    • across the sky White clouds moved swiftly across the sky.
    • the night sky
    • a cloudless sky
    • cloudless skies
    • a land of blue skies and sunshine
    • Clear skies could well mean temperatures plummeting tonight.
    • under a sky A crowd had gathered in the square under an overcast sky.
    • meteors falling from the sky
    • sky over/above something The skies above London were ablaze with a spectacular firework display.

    Collocations The weather The weather Good weather

    • be bathed in/​bask in/​be blessed with/​enjoy bright/​brilliant/​glorious sunshine
    • the sun shines/​warms something/​beats down (on something)
    • the sunshine breaks/​streams through something
    • fluffy/​wispy clouds drift across the sky
    • a gentle/​light/​stiff/​cool/​warm/​sea breeze blows in/​comes in off the sea
    • the snow crunches beneath/​under somebody’s feet/​boots

    Bad weather

    • thick/​dark/​storm clouds form/​gather/​roll in/​cover the sky/​block out the sun
    • the sky darkens/​turns black
    • a fine mist hangs in the air
    • a dense/​heavy/​thick fog rolls in
    • the rain falls/​comes down (in buckets/​sheets)/pours down
    • snow falls/​comes down/​covers something
    • the wind blows/​whistles/​howls/​picks up/​whips through something/​sweeps across something
    • strong/​gale-force winds blow/​gust (up to 80 mph)
    • a storm is approaching/​is moving inland/​hits/​strikes/​rages
    • thunder rolls/​rumbles/​sounds
    • (forked/​sheet) lightning strikes/​hits/​flashes
    • a (blinding/​snow) blizzard hits/​strikes/​blows/​rages
    • a tornado touches down/​hits/​strikes/​destroys something/​rips through something
    • forecast/​expect/​predict rain/​snow/​a category-four hurricane
    • (North American English) pour (down)/ (British English) pour (down) with rain
    • get caught in/​seek shelter from/​escape the rain
    • be covered/​shrouded in mist/​a blanket of fog
    • be in for/​brave/​shelter from a/​the storm
    • hear rolling/​distant thunder
    • be battered/​buffeted by strong winds
    • (British English) be blowing a gale
    • battle against/​brave the elements

    The weather improves

    • the sun breaks through the clouds
    • the sky clears/​brightens (up)/lightens (up)
    • the clouds part/​clear
    • the rain stops/​lets up/​holds off
    • the wind dies down
    • the storm passes
    • the mist/​fog lifts/​clears

    see also blue-sky Extra Examples

    • Astronomers scan the night skies for asteroids.
    • Black clouds spread across the sky.
    • Flocks of flamingoes fill the sky.
    • Some vintage aircraft will be taking to the skies (= flying) at this weekend’s fair.
    • The afternoon sky turned orange.
    • The eagle was black against the early morning sky.
    • The rain stopped and the skies cleared.
    • We slept under the open sky.
    • the vast desert skies
    • to patrol the skies over the Atlantic
    • The early morning sun rose into the sky.
    • The moon is a little higher in the sky now.

    Topics Weather a2 Oxford Collocations Dictionary adjective

    • big
    • vast
    • wide

    of sky

    • patch

    verb + sky

    • illuminate
    • light up
    • fill

    sky + verb

    • clear
    • clear up
    • lighten


    • across the sky
    • against the sky
    • beneath a sky


    • high in the sky
    • low in the sky
    • the sky above

    See full entry Word Origin Middle English (also in the plural denoting clouds), from Old Norse ský ‘cloud’. The verb dates from the early 19th cent.


  1. (humorous) used to refer to where a particular person is imagined to go when they die or a thing when it is no longer working, similar to the place they were connected with on earth
    • Their pet rabbit had gone to the great rabbit hutch in the sky.
  1. (informal) an event that somebody talks about that seems very unlikely to happen
    • This talk of moving to Australia is all just pie in the sky.

praise somebody/something to the skies

  1. to praise somebody/something a lot
    • Her manager praised her to the skies.
  1. (informal) there is no limit to what somebody can achieve, earn, do, etc.
    • With a talent like his, the sky’s the limit.

    Topics Success c2

See sky in the Oxford Advanced American Dictionary See sky in the Oxford Learner’s Dictionary of Academic English Check pronunciation: sky

What is the plural of octopus?

Octopuses ✅ – “Octopuses” gives the word an English ending to match its adoption as an English word. Generally, when a noun enters into English, it is pluralized as an English word rather than in its original form. Octopuses may sound peculiar to some, but this is the preferred plural.

What is it called Where 2 roofs meet?

What are the common parts of a roof? –

Roof Ridge: The roof ridge, or ridge of a roof is the horizontal line running the length of the roof where the two roof planes meet. This intersection creates the highest point on a roof, sometimes referred to as the peak. Hip and ridge shingles are specifically designed for this part of a roof. Ridge vent: A ridge vent is an exhaust vent that runs horizontally along the peak of the roof allowing warm, humid air to escape from the attic. Use our ventilation calculator to calculate your attic ventilation requirements and determine how much exhaust ventilation you would need to properly ventilate your roof and attic. Flashing: Flashing is a metal material installed at joint openings, around chimneys, and any dormer windows or skylights to help prevent water intrusion. You may recognize flashing as metal stair steps alongside a chimney or side walls on a roof. Hip: The hip on a roof is the intersection of two roof planes that meet to form a sloping ridge running from the peak to the eave. Hip and ridge shingles are specifically designed for this part of a roof. Roof Deck: The roof deck is the structural foundation base for the roof system and is usually made of wood or plywood. Roofing Underlayment: Roofing underlayment is a layer of material, usually synthetic or felt, that adds extra protection on top of the roof deck and under the shingles. Synthetic underlayment helps repel moisture and provides protection against water infiltration. Synthetic underlayment is becoming a popular material choice over felt due to proven water-resistance performance and long-lasting durability. Roof Valley: The roof valley is the V-shaped intersection between two sloping roofs joining at an angle to provide water runoff. Laminated Architectural Shingles: Laminated architectural asphalt shingles contain more than one layer of tabs to add dimension, performance and durability to a roof. Architectural shingles are sometimes referred to as three-dimensional shingles or laminated shingles. The opposite of architectural shingles are three-tab shingles, which are produced as a single layer of tabs and appear flat or without the dimension of a laminated shingle. Roof Gable: A roof gable is the triangular section of the outer wall at the peak of the roof between a sloping roof and eave. A roof gable is sometimes referred to as a rake. Metal drip edge: Metal drip edge is a narrow strip of noncorrosive metal used at the rake and eave to help manage dripping water by facilitating water runoff to protect the underlying section of a wall. Dormer : A dormer is a raised section of the roof. Dormers commonly contain a window that projects vertically through the slope in the roof. Ice and water barrier: An ice and water barrier is a self-adhered waterproofing material installed along eaves, valleys, side walls, and other sensitive areas to protect against ice damage and wind-driven rain. Eave: An eave is the lower border of the roof that overhangs the wall usually located in the first three feet of a roof. Undereave vent: Undereave vents are intake vents located under the eaves of the roof that help draw cool dry air into the attic. Again, you can use our ventilation calculator to calculate your attic ventilation requirements and determine how much intake ventilation you would need to properly ventilate your roof and attic.

Now that you’re familiar with the basic anatomy of a roof, you’ll start to notice dormers and gables everywhere you turn. More important, you’ll be equipped to have an informed conversation with your roofing contractor when the time comes for you to get a new roof,

What is the plural of fish?

The plural of fish is usually fish. When referring to more than one species of fish, especially in a scientific context, you can use fishes as the plural. The zodiac sign Pisces is also often referred to as fishes.

What is the correct plural?

Plural noun exceptions – photo – photos piano – pianos halo – halos gas – gases ( gasses is also acceptable but less common) With the unique word volcano, you can apply the standard pluralization for words that end in – o or not. It’s your choice! Both of the following are correct: volcanoes volcanos 8 If the singular noun ends in – us, the plural ending is frequently – i,

Cactus – cacti focus – foci 9 If the singular noun ends in – is, the plural ending is – es, analysis – analyses ellipsis – ellipses 10 If the singular noun ends in – on, the plural ending is – a, phenomenon – phenomena criterion – criteria 11 Some nouns don’t change at all when they’re pluralized.

sheep – sheep series – series species – species deer – deer You need to see these nouns in context to identify them as singular or plural. Consider the following sentence: However, when it comes to fish, things can get a little complicated,

What is the singular word for roof?

Roofs is the standard plural form of the noun roof, which is a covering over a building.

What is the plural of roof and hoof?

Q&A: Roofs or rooves? Hoofs or hooves? | Australian Writers’ Centre Each week here at the Australian Writers’ Centre, we dissect and discuss, contort and retort, ask and gasp at the English language and all its rules, regulations and ridiculousness. It’s a celebration of language, masquerading as a passive-aggressive whinge about words and weirdness.

This week, we’re raising the roofs (or is it rooves?) Q: Hi AWC, I was arguing with a friend the other day. A: That’s risky — you don’t have too many. Q: Oh ha ha. Anyway, they said that the plural for “roof” was “rooves” but I said it was “roofs”. But now that I think about hoofs and hooves, I’m a bit confused.

Can you help? A: Yes. And you’re right with “roofs” – it is definitely the accepted plural form, without doubt. Q: Was “rooves” ever a thing? A: It was. But it’s now considered archaic usage. Q: I must admit, it kind of SOUNDS right though. A: Well that’s very true.

In fact, while Macquarie Dictionary only lists “roofs” as the plural, they do note two types of pronunciation – one that’s a V sound even though you still spell it “roofs”. Q: Other dictionaries? A: The Oxford English Dictionary lists “rooves” as an alternative, yet outdated version of “roofs”. Q: So that’s that then.

Only ever use “roofs”? A: Correct. Q: So, I guess the same applies to “hoof” and “hoofs”? A: Not so fast. This is English we’re talking about, and no two words are ever the same. Q: Ugh, of course they aren’t. A: Just like roof, “hoof” also started with two plural forms – “hoofs” and “hooves”.

And just like roof, “hoofs” WAS the dominant one. But “hooves” woke up in the 20th century and by about 1970, it overtook “hoofs” in usage, and that’s where it has stayed. Q: Wait, so you’re saying that for hoof, “hooves” is not only acceptable, but it’s the preferred usage? A: That’s right. In this case, BOTH “hoofs” and “hooves” are accepted, and in the past 40 years or so, “hooves” has led the way.

Today it’s around three times more common than “hoofs”.

  • Q: English sure likes to keep us on our toes.
  • A: Or our hooves.
  • Q: What about a word like “proof” – you can have proofs and proves, yeah?

A: Well, that’s a little different. Proofs are nouns, such as photographic or printing proofs. Whereas “proves” is a verb, such as in: “this proves how annoying English can be”. Q: Actually, “proof” can be a verb too. For example, can you proof my manuscript? A: True, although that shortened form of proofreading is quite recent – about 1950.

  1. Q: What does all this mean? A: Well, there is an interesting relationship between “f” and “v” sounds in many English words – consider also belief/believe, relief/relieve etc.
  2. Many came about in the 13th century as words backformed from Old French or Germanic and Norse languages.
  3. Roof” and “hoof” are certainly both this old.

Q: So, how can I remember to use “hooves” but not “rooves”? A: Hmmm. Well, the V in “hooves” looks just like a hoof. But the V in “rooves” is an upside-down roof – therefore not correct. Q: Nice! Well, I’m glad we could cover these two words under the one roof.

  1. A: Because English.
  2. Q: Ugh.
  3. If you have a grammar gripe or punctuation puzzle that you’d like our Q&A to explore, !

: Q&A: Roofs or rooves? Hoofs or hooves? | Australian Writers’ Centre

What is the past tense of roof?

Roof ​Definitions and Synonyms

present tense
he/she/it roofs
present participle roofing
past tense roofed
past participle roofed

What is correct singular or plural?

Tips for differentiating singular vs. plural nouns – The easiest way to tell if a noun is a singular noun or a plural noun is to look at how much of something it is referring to. If it is only referring to one person or thing, it is a singular noun. If it is referring to more than one person or thing, it is a plural noun,

  1. This tip will help you even if you are dealing with those tricky collective nouns: pile is a singular noun referring to one collective group of things.
  2. Piles is a plural noun referring to more than one group of stuff.
  3. This tip will also help you deal with those uncooperative irregular plural nouns that always break the rules.

For example, the word children looks like a singular noun because it doesn’t end in -s or -es. However, the word children refers to more than one child and so it is in fact a plural noun. This tip will help with especially tough words like mice or bacteria that really don’t look like they should be plural nouns.

We are going out to see a movie. (Movie refers to a single item. It is a singular noun and can use the article a,) Geese swim in the lake by our house. ( Geese is referring to more than one bird. It is a plural noun and uses the plural verb swim, Because it is plural, it can also stand by itself without an article.) She discovered a new species of ant. ( Species is only referring to one thing and so it is a singular noun and can use the article a,) There are many different species of spiders that live in our backyard. ( Species is referring to more than one group of spiders and so it is a plural noun and it uses the plural verb live,)

What is this plural or singular?

This, that, these and those are demonstratives, We use this, that, these and those to point to people and things. This and that are singular. These and those are plural. We use them as determiners and pronouns.

determiners pronouns
What’s in this box? That water tastes strange. I might get myself a pair of those shoes. Come and look at this, That ‘s a very good idea. Can I have one of these ?

What is the sentence of roofs?

Meanings Synonyms Sentences

The houses are built of clay with (generally) flat roofs impervious to fire. He could see the clear starry sky between the dark roofs of two penthouses. Moonlight spilled over triangular roofs into grassy front yards. The roofs are laid out as gardens and preserved for the exclusive use of the women. But here was a fairy forest with black moving shadows, and a glitter of diamonds and a flight of marble steps and the silver roofs of fairy buildings and the shrill yells of some animals. Simple roofs in general use with a double slope are the ” coupled rafter roofs,” the rafters meeting at the highest point upon a horizontal ridge-piece which stiffens the framework and gives a level ridge-line. Such roofs are not suitable for cold climates, for accumulations of snow might overburden the structure and would also cause the wet to penetrate through any small crevices and under flashings. The famous Venetian pozzi, or wells for storing rain-water from the roofs and streets, consisted of a closed basin with a water-tight stratum of clay at the bottom, upon which a slab of stone was laid; a brick shaft of radiating bricks laid in a permeable jointing material of clay and sand was then built. Nearly all the stucco-fronted brick houses, with flat roofs and cornices and wide spreading stoeps, of the early Dutch settlers have been replaced by shops, warehouses and offices in styles common to English towns. The roofs were thatched with bark, straw, reeds or rushes. In the chief towns houses are built of mud bricks with flat roofs, Occasionally curly tongues of flame rose from under the roofs of the houses. The houses, mostly white with coloured roofs, are generally built of wood and iron, and have glazed porches, gay with fuchsias and pelargoniums. Government House, grey, stone-built and slated, calls to mind a manse in Shetland or Orkney. With flat roofs the pressure exerted upon the supports is directly vertical. The advantage claimed for roofs formed with one or two large spans is that they permit the platforms and tracks to be readily rearranged at any time as required, whereas this is difficult with the other type, especially since the British Board of Trade requires the pillars to be not less than 6 ft. Few crowded neighbourhoods are visible, and the characteristic features of the scene which meets the eye are the upturned roofs of temples, palaces, and mansions, gay with blue, green and yellow glazed tiles, glittering among the groves of trees with which the city abounds. The tiles of these roofs are glazed porcelain of the most exquisite deep-blue colour, and add a conspicuous element of splendour to the shrine. At some distance from the shaft a square water-tight wall was built, and the space between it and the shaft was filled in with sand, which was purified of all saline matter by repeated washings; on the ground-level perforated stones set at the four corners of the basin admitted the rain-water, which was discharged from the roofs by lead pipes; this water filtered through the sand and percolated into the shaft of the well, whence it was drawn in copper buckets. On the former occasion little was left uncovered but the roofs of the houses. The custom of dwelling, for part of the day at least, in booths, is still kept up by orthodox Jews, who have temporary huts covered with branches erected in their courtyards, and those who are not in possession of a house with a backyard often go to pathetic extremes in order to fulfil the law by making holes in roofs, across which branches are placed. These constitute the winter residence of the family, reception rooms, &c. The roofs of the houses are all flat, surrounded by parapets of sufficient height to protect them from the observation of the dwellers opposite, and separate them from their neighbours. In the summer the population sleeps and dines upon the roofs, which thus constitute to all intents a third storey. Several of the bazaars are vaulted over with brickwork, but the greater number are merely covered with flat beams which support roofs of dried leaves or branches of trees and grass. A few old Turkish houses, built of plaster, with red-tiled roofs, are left among the ill-paved and insanitary districts bordering upon the rivers, but as the royal residence, the seat of government, and the centre of the import trade, Belgrade was, after 1869, III. It serves for the thatching of roofs, for a papermaking material, for ornamenting small surfaces as a “strawmosaic,” for plaiting into door and table mats, mattresses, &c., and for weaving and plaiting into light baskets, artificial flowers, &c. These applications, however, are insignificant in comparison with the place occupied by straw as a raw material for the straw bonnets and hats worn by both sexes. Electric and compressed air locomotives are durable, easily operated, and can be built to run under the low roofs of thin veins. High-pitched red tiled roofs take the place of the flat roofs of the coast. During this century the first sumptuary edict ordered that the dwellings of all high officials and opulent civilians should have tiled roofs and be colored red, the latter injunction being evidently intended to stop the use of logs carrying their bark. Massive, towering roofs, which impart an air of stateliness even to a wooden building and yet, by their graceful curves, avoid any suggestion of ponderosity, were still confined to Buddhist edifices. It would seem that only the immense weight of the roofs and their heavy projections prevent a collapse of some of these structures in high winds. Its houses are generally built of wood, with high roofs and wide verandahs shaded by cocoanut or cabbage palms. The principal buildings are the court house, in the centre of the town, government house, at the southern end, Fort George, towards the north, the British bank of Honduras, the hospital, the Roman Catholic convent, and the Wesleyan church, which is the largest and handsomest of all. This accident generally arises from an improper size of pillars; some roofs, however, are so difficult to support that sits take place where the half of the coal is left in pillars. In ascending the river a stranger’s eye is first caught by the numerous huge ice-houses with high thatched roofs and by a tall white tower – the T’ien-feng-t’a or Ning-po pagoda or obelisk – which rises to a height of 160 ft. Private houses were also provided with flat roofs (azoteas) and battlements, which gave them great defensive strength, as well as a cool, secluded retreat for their inmates in the evening. The walls survive, indeed, only in isolated fragments, but the narrow winding streets of the older part of the town, and the market-place surrounded by houses with high-pitched gables and roofs are very picturesque. The well-preserved amphitheatre, the subterranean parts of which below the arena are intact, with a main passage down the centre, a curved passage all round with holes for trap doors in its roof, and numerous small chambers, also with trap doors in their vaulted roofs for admitting the wild beasts, whose cages were on the other side of the curved passage, to the arena, are especially interesting. The villages of the Guajiros in the Gulf of Maracaibo are described by Goering as composed of houses with low sloping roofs perched on lofty piles and connected with each other by bridges of planks. For an enumeration of these sizes, see Roofs, where also will be found an account of the different varieties of slates and of the ways in which they are fixed. Of these the most noteworthy are the Taranchi and Dungan mosques, both with turned-up roofs, and the latter with a pagoda-looking minaret. It is a picturesque town, the houses having the overhanging wooden roofs of Switzerland united with the heavy stone arcades of Italy, while the situation is beautiful, with the lake in front and the semicircle of bold mountains behind. The roofs throughout are of open woodwork very low in pitch, constructionally plain, but richly decorated with colour, now mostly restored. Its design was that of a Jerusalem cross, with two flanking towers at the east end, two at the west end, and one in the centre, at the intersection of the roofs of the nave and transepts. By order of the privy council the lead was stripped off the roofs in 1567 and sold to Holland to pay the troops; but the ship conveying the spoils foundered in the North Sea. The prospect of the city with its cupolas, towers, spires and the copper green roofs of its palaces, as seen from the distance, is one of striking beauty. Modern Hebron rises on the east slope of a shallow valley – a long narrow town of stone houses, the flat roofs having small stone domes. Inside the ramparts the town lies rather cramped, with narrow, crooked streets, badly drained and dirty; the houses are generally built of dark grey volcanic stone with flat roofs, the general aspect, owing to the absence of trees, being somewhat gloomy. The buildings of the old town are chiefly of brick, from four to five storeys in height, with flat roofs, and other oriental peculiarities; while in the new town hewn stone is very largely employed, and the architecture is often of a modern English style. These huts are sometimes made simply of straw and are surrounded by high thorn hedges, but, in the north, square houses, built in stories, flat-roofed, the roof sometimes laid at the same slope as the hillside, and some with pitched thatched roofs, are common. From the cave we have advanced to roofs of palm leaves, of bark and boughs, of linen woven and stretched, of grass and straw, of boards and shingles, of stones and tiles. Above the dirty, ill-lit streets, above the black roofs, stretched the dark starry sky. The sun, just bursting forth from behind a cloud that had concealed it, was shining, with rays still half broken by the clouds, over the roofs of the street opposite, on the dew- besprinkled dust of the road, on the walls of the houses, on the windows, the fence, and on Pierre’s horses standing before the hut. A third section scattered through the village arranging quarters for the staff officers, carrying out the French corpses that were in the huts, and dragging away boards, dry wood, and thatch from the roofs, for the campfires, or wattle fences to serve for shelter. Soaring roofs reach toward the sky over a building in which no nails were used in the construction. There are no public buildings of any importance, and the only places of interest are the bazars, which extend fully a mile in length, and consist of substantially built ranges of shops covered with roofs, From the upper rooms of the houses may be seen a large number of old tiled roofs, The houses are mostly one-storeyed, built of unburned bricks, and have flat roofs, There remain many public edifices and dwellings of the colonial period, severely plain in appearance, with heavy stone walls and tile roofs, Machine-making on a large scale is carried on by firms widely celebrated for the construction of locomotives, railway trucks and carriages, steamboilers and motors, turbines, pumps, metal bridges and roofs, With this object in view, the early improvers of hot-house architecture substituted metal for wood in the construction of the roofs, and for the most part dispensed with back walls; but the conducting power of the metal caused a great irregularity of temperature, which it was found difficult to control; and, notwithstanding the elegance of metallic houses, this circumstance, together with their greater cost, has induced most recent authorities to give the preference to wood. But as the rays of light, even in passing through transparent glass, lose much of their energy, which is further weakened in proportion to the distance it has to travel, the nearer the plant can be placed to the glass the more perfectly will its functions be performed; hence the importance of constructing the roofs at such an angle as will admit the most light, especially sunlight, at the time it is most required. Plants in glass houses require for their fullest development more solar light probably than even our best hot-houses transmit – certainly much more than is transmitted through the roofs of houses as generally constructed. Span and ridge-and-furrow roofs, the forms now mostly preferred, are exceedingly well adapted for the admission of light, especially when they are glazed to within a few inches 2. Indeed, it has been proposed to support such roofs to a great extent upon suspension principles, the internal columns of support being utilized for conducting the rain-water off the roof to underground drains or reservoirs. Palm-groves, churches with bluetiled cupolas, and houses with flat roofs and view-turrets (miradores) to some extent preserve the Moorish character of the town. These dwellings are usually holes in the ground, and presumably had thatched roofs, The houses are almost all of one storey, built in the quaint style of southern Spain, with red-tile roofs, and the better ones with verandas and court gardens. Thir, the commander of the Albanians, then repaired to the citadel, gained admittance through an embrasure, and, having obtained possession of it, began to cannonade the pasha over the roofs of the intervening houses, and then descended with guns to the Ezbekia and laid close siege to the palace. The British resident, Major Missett, having represented the importance of taking Rosetta and Rahmanieh,to secure supplies for Alexandria, General Fraser, with the concurrence of the admiral, Sir John Duckworth, detached the 31st regiment and the Chasseurs Britanniques, accompanied by some field artillery under Major-General Wauchope and Brigadier-General Meade, on this service; and these troops entered Rosetta without encountering any opposition; but as soon as they had dispersed among the narrow streets, the garrison opened a deadly fire on them from the latticed windows and the roofs of the houses. Their chambers are rudely but strongly built, with dome-shaped roofs, formed by overlapping the successive courses of the upper part of the side walls. Houses built in the Italian style with terraced roofs, shadowed by luxuriant vines, and surrounded by gardens of oranges and pomegranates, give to the town a picturesque and pleasing aspect. The roofs are formed by placing slabs so that each course overlaps the lower one until the opening becomes about 5 ft. Its business edifices and residences are largely of Dutch architecture, with many storeys and steep roofs, There are no regulations in England limiting the working stresses that may safely be placed upon timber, although in some districts the least sizes that may be used for timbers in roofs and floors are specified. Dwellings require careful construction, with thick walls and roofs of non-conducting material to keep out the heat-rays, and fans and punkahs are essential for the promotion of currents of air in the inhabited rooms. Personal protection, in the shape of thick pith topees, or cork helmets, and spinal pads, is necessary in the hot months, the clothing being light and loose and not too thin. Adjoining the mainland is the native town, consisting mostly of roughly made wooden houses with well thatched roofs, In the medieval period it was used to some extent in the shape of thin sheeting for roofs, as at St Mark’s, Venice; while during the 16th and 17th centuries it was largely employed for ornamental domestic vessels of various sorts. In sheets it forms the best of all coverings for roofs and even spires. The houses are of sun-dried bricks, the streets narrow and winding and for the most part roofed over, the roofs carrying upper storeys. Most of the houses, and especially those of the planter aristocracy, are massively built of stone, with large grated windows, flat roofs with heavy parapets and inner courts. The exterior is simple, but the buildings which surround the main courtyard have high-pitched roofs surmounted by numerous dormer windows with decorated gables, recalling the Flemish style of architecture. The buildings of Montevideo are chiefly of brick and broken stone, covered outside with plaster and stucco, of one to three storeys, with flat roofs, usually surmounted by a square tower, or mirador. The roofs, or azoteas, are largely used for domestic purposes, or roof gardens. Above these rise the towers of the Roman Catholic cathedral, the high curved roofs of the royal audience halls, the palace gateways, and the showy buildings of the Russian and French legations. Thatched roofs are not now allowed in London or other towns and their vicinity, but if saturated with a solution of lime the thatch is said to be incombustible. A praiseworthy desire to maintain the picturesqueness of the town has led most of the builders of new houses to imitate the lofty peaked gables, oriel windows and red-tiled roofs of the older dwellings. The roofs were wholly of stone, and the walls covered with sculpture. They live in round grass huts with conical roofs, In man the surface of the skull is comparatively smooth, and the brow-ridges project but little, while in the gorilla these ridges overhang the cavernous orbits like penthouse roofs, The streets in the oldest part of Amsterdam are often narrow and irregular, and the sky-line is picturesquely broken by fantastic gables, roofs and towers. In the older districts there is a countless variety of narrow gloomy streets, many of them steep. The houses are mostly five or six storeys high, are covered with stucco made of a kind of pozzolana which hardens by exposure, and have large balconies and flat roofs, Apart from the aesthetic considerations to which has been due the construction of spires, towers, domes, high roofs, &c., the form and height of buildings have always been largely controlled by a practical consideration of their value for personal use or rental. Subsequently several buildings were erected in which the entire weight of the floors and roofs was carried by a system of metal columns placed against the inner surface of the exterior walls. A similar construction is followed for flat roofs, the grades being generally formed in the girder and beam construction, and a flat ceiling secured by hanging from them, with steel straps, a light tier of ceiling beams. The floor beams are tied laterally by rods in continuous lines placed at or above their neutral axis. These are not very striking, the high roofs of dark slate, the cross-surmounted turrets and the lofty clock-tower being the chief features. The general aspect of the town is picturesque; the streets are fairly spacious, though ill-kept and filthy; the houses are all of stone, many of them well-built and four or five storeys high, with terraced roofs and large projecting windows as in Jidda – a style of building which has not varied materially since the Toth century (Mukaddasi, p.71), and gains in effect from the way in which the dwellings run up the sides and spurs of the mountains. The houses are meanly built, partly of sun-dried and partly of burnt bricks, with flat roofs surrounded by parapets. Its general aspect is gloomy; it possesses few streets of any pretensions, though those in the old part, which are mostly narrow, present, with their grey slate roofs and green shutters, a picturesque appearance. Its general aspect is Oriental, owing to the flat roofs of its twostoreyed houses and its numerous mosques. In shape they were most frequently cylindrical, having conical roofs thatched with rushes or straw. The majority of Hova houses were formerly built of layers of the hard red soil of the country, with high-pitched roofs thatched with grass or rush; while the chiefs and wealthy people had houses of framed timber, with massive upright planking, and lofty roofs covered with shingles or tiles. The old town, with its narrow streets and numerous houses of the 16th and 17th centuries, with their high-pitched roofs, preserves much of its quaint medieval aspect. These are distinguished by circular huts with domed or conical roofs ; clothing of skin or leather; occasional chipping or extraction of lower incisors; spears as the principal weapons, bows, where found, with a sinew cord, shields of hide or leather; religion, ancestor-worship with belief in the power of the magicians as rain-makers. The walls are faced with rough ashlar and the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. His design for Chippenham was in Dutch Renaissance style, constructed in limestone ashlar with Welsh slate roofs, Most had flat roofs, a steel frame, were built of wood and glass, and had carports instead of garages. Steep hipped Swithland slate roofs with deep eaves and hipped dormers. Steep pitched clay tile roofs with pitched roof dormers. There have been many cases where offenders have climbed drainpipes and gone onto flat roofs to commit this type of offense. No waste material should be allowed to accumulate anywhere in the premises, at the perimeter fence or on the roofs, Other three roofs have elaborate cast iron flashings and small lucarnes with finials. The oldest buildings are mostly of cob or Burley Rock – a local ironstone – with thatched roofs, The Technical Service can calculate U-values for external roofs and walls to assist in selecting Knauf insulating laminates to meet thermal insulation targets. Does your building have aging sheet metal or asbestos roofs or leaks? They are almost identical in Gothic style, with curious stepped pyramid roofs surmounted by obelisks topped with an egg shape. All have 40-degree slope gable roofs with either concrete pantiles (the majority) or flat tiles. The airport, comprised of open-air pavilions with thatch roofs, is very charming. The prices for the thatched roofs do not include the picnic tables. However in parts of southern Ulster there remain both hipped and half-hipped roofs, although hipped roofs are in the minority. Changes in the roofs of two nursery roosts have improved the environment for the bats during the breeding season. We will work with businesses and communities to install solar panels on one million roofs around our nation by 2010. These sketches are intended to show geometry of roofs at various spans and pitches and not structural details. The storms, many of which spawned tornadoes, ripped off roofs, smashed homes and left many without power. Wooden features were replaced with stone while roofs, now considered unseemly, were hidden behind a stone parapet. In large roofs, ventilation can be improved with ridge ventilators. Nos.2 and 3 will probably be treated with the rubber compound used on the roofs of the other original four- wheelers. Many of the houses, which are of stone throughout, with flat roofs, are large and luxuriously built; wooden-covered balconies project from the windows and give a peculiar aspect to the streets. Amongst the most marked features of the change that has taken place since 1875 are the growth of religious and philanthropic establishments; the settlement of Jewish colonies from Bokhara, Yemen and Europe; the migration of Europeans, old Moslem families, and Jews from the city to the suburbs; the increased vegetation, due to the numerous gardens and improved methods of cultivation; the substitution of timber and red tiles for the vaulted stone roofs which were so characteristic of the old city; the striking want of beauty, grandeur, and harmony with their environment exhibited by most of the new buildings; and the introduction of wheeled transport, which, cutting into the soft limestone, has produced mud and dust to an extent previously unknown. The exteriors of the north Italian Gothic churches are characterized by the flatness of the roof; the treatment of the west facade as a mere screen wall, masking the true lines of the aisle roofs ; the great circular window in the west front for lighting the nave; the absence of pinnacles owing to the unimportance of the buttresses; the west-end porches with columns resting on lions or other animals. To secure the greatest possible influx of light, some horticulturists recommend curvilinear roofs ; but the superiority of these is largely due to the absence of rafters, which may also be dispensed with in plain roofs, Among its public buildings are the government palace, the legislative and municipal hall, the “Quatro de Setembro” theatre, Misericordia hospital, public market, sanitation and public works, building, courts, police headquarters, barracks, &c. The town is characteristically Portuguese in appearance, its buildings being one or two stories in height, plastered and frequently coloured outside, with large rooms, thick walls, and tile roofs to ensure coolness. There were people not only in the square, but everywhere-on the slopes and on the roofs, Inside chamfered ceiling beams and single and double purlins of roofs visible. A cleaner source is to use rainwater from the roofs of buildings. For pitched roofs there is also the option of an in-line or traditional skylight roof flashing. I discovered them several years ago and have sadly watched their further decline as the roofs fall in and walls splay outwards. The use of traditional materials – white painted stone or stucco with gray roofs would be least intrusive. Wind suction Wind suction forces on roofs are resisted in three ways. Melbourne swamped by flash floods Perched on the roofs of their cars, they look out bewildered on a city inundated with flash floods. The roofs were thatched with heather, broom or straw. Synseal roofs also offer a patented turnbuckle system that is unique to conservatory roof market. Plant is located both on the roofs and principle services located in the undercroft areas. During the latter stages of landing, it is possible for aircraft vortices to make contact with roofs of properties close to the Airport. The roofs of woodie wagons were usual made of stretched canvas that was treated with a water proofing dressing. There are many types of roofs available. Low-slope roofs rise up vertically four inches for each twelve inches of horizontal run. This means that steep roofs will leak unless they have a steep enough slope. Other types of roofs have a more do-it-yourself capability, but not metal roofing. Many cats manage to scale trees and roofs without complications. It is used to fuel jets and automobiles and to make roofs and roads. California is leading the way, with more buildings mandated to have solar roofs, Most panels are deep blue in color and blend well with the average brown, gray or slate of most roofs, While these small turbines can be installed on roofs, they are more usually installed on their own freestanding towers. Most people are familiar with solar panels on roofs on commercial and residential buildings. Another company called Earth Care Products has developed a peel-and-stick solar panel that fits the roofs of golf carts and powers them on a continuous basis. Living walls are a similar concept to living roofs, however they have the added benefit of being easily accessible. A Green Roof – This website from Green Living Technologies has information about green roofs as well as living walls. Well insulated walls, roofs and floors help to contain heat produced from solar energy. The amount of land needed is negligible since residential units can be installed on roofs, The leaves, or fronds, are used for the roofs of houses for native people. The scenery of Tuscany is dominated by terracotta tile roofs, fields of lavender or sunflowers, and towering cypress trees. Dome roofs are also used, especially in Greek architecture. The Spanish influence on architecture by way of Mexico certainly brings quite a bit to the design elements such as terra cotta tile flooring and terra cotta tile roofs, Victorian architecture is known for asymmetrical shapes, steep roofs, square or rounded towers, bay windows and fanciful, wrap around porches. The next time you see a coconut tree, use your imagination and think of all the tasteful treats you can make from its fruit, roofs and timber that can build shelter, and the oils that keep our skin soft. It was especially popular among noblemen and lords in medieval Europe, who relied on the bed for protection against leaking roofs and drafty houses and castles. Dog houses featuring vaulted roofs and attractive but unnecessary architectural features such as turrets usually contain a lot of wasted space above the dog’s head. If you like the idea of shingled roofs and doggie windows, this could be what you’re looking for. Houseleek, Hens and chicks (Sempervivum) – Succulent rock and alpine plants, of which the common Houseleek (S. tectorum), often seen on old roofs and walls, is the most familiar. Improvements made to your home will cover everything from roofs to fences. Roofs take a beating during a hurricane, and when the roof fails the home is compromised. Most of the damage experienced by homeowners in my neighborhood was due to shingles peeling off roofs leaving exposed wood, followed by heavy rains. This program is designed to be used by roofing contractors, builders, and other professionals that must figure the costs of new roofs regularly, including materials, labor, inspections and permits. When homeowners discuss metal roofs, they often are talking about standing seam metal roofing. Instead of worrying about the installation process, focus on finding a professional who has installed many roofs in your area. Vents, chimneys, hip roofs, dormers, roof valleys and other roof fixtures and configurations can create additional challenges. Examples of home repairs include new roofs, siding repairs or replacing the front steps of your home. Roofs are usually made of galvanized steel. Aluminum roofs are free standing, easy to install and can last for years. Fabric awnings and wooden roofs are two of the most frequently used covers, so why consider aluminum instead? Aluminum patio roofs have a lot to offer that other materials do not. Aluminum patio roofs are extremely durable. Aluminum roofs are typically insulated, which helps keep the area below them cooler, while the sun’s rays bounce off the top. Combined with a protective coating, this helps protect most modern aluminum roofs from the danger of rust. Aluminum roofs can be constructed to stand on their own, or attached to a house or building. The European-like city has a decidedly Victorian feel and features old-fashioned cafes, red brick walkways and gable roofs, Many recreational vehicles have rubber roofs, Instead, rubber RV roofs are manufactured from Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM), a special type of long lasting rubber made specifically for use in roofing. As the material used to make rubber roofs for travel trailers and motor homes ages, the surface will begin to take on a chalky look and feel. Manufacturers recommend using a product specifically designed to clean rubber recreational roofs or a mild laundry detergent. Additionally, keeping up with home maintenance, like fixing leaking roofs and weak stairs, can save thousands in the long run. In addition to this, the 1994 model included leather seats, dual moon roofs, and a CD player. Fold pieces of cardboard in half to create roofs, Cut out the paper roofs and put a piece of tape on each one. Metal roofs, designed to slip the snow, were a common sight in Ouray. Moonlight spilled over large buildings with triangular roofs into community squares abutting stacked parking lots. In some old roofs the rafters are connected without any intervening ridge-plate, with the result that after Sectional elevation on AA. It is a modern town, although many of the houses have the flat roofs, view-turrets (miradores) and horseshoe arches characteristic of Moorish architecture. The public buildings include the cathedral (1760), the government palace, the municipal palace, the episcopal palace, the church of Santa Ana, a national theatre, a school of arts and trades, a foreign hospital, the former administration building of the Canal Company, Santo Tomas Hospital, the pesthouse of Punta Mala and various asylums. The houses are mostly of stone, with red tile roofs, two or three storeys high, built in the Spanish style around central patios, or courts, and with balconies projecting far over the narrow streets; in such houses the lowest floor is often rented to a poorer family. Pisano’s building sheds, nine in a row, with peculiarly shaped roofs, were still standing intact – one of the most interesting medieval monuments of Venice – until recently, but they have been modified past recognition. The Palazzo della Ragione, with its great hall on the upper floor, is reputed to have the largest roof unsupported by columns in Europe; the hall is nearly rectangular, its length 2672 ft., its breadth 89 ft., and its height 78 ft.; the walls are covered with symbolical paintings in fresco; the building stands upon arches, and the upper storey is surrounded by an open loggia, not unlike that which surrounds the basilica of Vicenza; the Palazzo was begun in 1172 and finished in 1219; in 1306 Fra Giovanni, an Augustinian friar, covered the whole with one roof; originally there were three roofs, spanning the three chambers into which the hall was at first divided; the internal partition walls remained till the fire of 1420, when the Venetian architects who undertook the restoration removed them, throwing all three compartments into one and forming the present great hall. All over the town are scattered beautiful Buddhist temples, which with their coloured tile roofs and gilded spires give it a peculiar and notable appearance. It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs ) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses. Apart from the Hotel des Monneyroux (used as prefecture), a picturesque mansion of the 15th and 16th centuries, with mansard roofs and mullioned windows, Gueret has little architectural interest. The class of simple frames includes many of the frameworks used in the construction of roofs, lattice girders and suspension bridges; a number of examples will be found in the article BRIDGES. Despite their pale swollen faces and tattered uniforms, the hussars formed line for roll call, kept things in order, groomed their horses, polished their arms, brought in straw from the thatched roofs in place of fodder, and sat down to dine round the caldrons from which they rose up hungry, joking about their nasty food and their hunger. For a moment as he was rearranging his cloak Pierre opened his eyes and saw the same penthouse roofs, posts, and yard, but now they were all bluish, lit up, and glittering with frost or dew. I could n’t help noticing all the storks ‘ nests on the roofs, The use of automatic couplers for freight cars throughout the United States, introduced in 1893-1900, greatly reduced the number of deaths and injuries in coupling, and the use of air brakes on freight cars, now universal, has reduced the risk to the men by making it less necessary for them to ride on the roofs of high box-cars, while at the same time it has made it possible to run long trains with fewer men; but except in these two features the freight service in America continues to be a dangerous occupation. With proper care, rubber RV roofs can last for as long as 20 years. The white-walled houses with their blue-slated roofs, and the numerous trees, give it an attractive appearance.

What is the plural of roof Oxford dictionary?


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  • Date: 08 December 2022 The standard plural form in BrE is roofs, but there is an occasional, and recognized, minority form rooves, which will disturb many people.
  • It is a classic example of a disputed plural, something that was brought out by a correspondent to,
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: roof

What is the verb for roof?

Verb. roofed; roofing; roofs. transitive verb. : to cover with or as if with a roof.

Is it the Milky Way or clouds?

Read a brief summary of this topic – Milky Way Galaxy, large spiral system consisting of several hundred billion stars, one of which is the Sun, It takes its name from the Milky Way, the irregular luminous band of stars and gas clouds that stretches across the sky as seen from Earth,

  • Although Earth lies well within the Milky Way Galaxy (sometimes simply called the Galaxy), astronomers do not have as complete an understanding of its nature as they do of some external star systems.
  • A thick layer of interstellar dust obscures much of the Galaxy from scrutiny by optical telescopes, and astronomers can determine its large-scale structure only with the aid of radio and infrared telescopes, which can detect the forms of radiation that penetrate the obscuring matter.

This article discusses the structure, properties, and component parts of the Milky Way Galaxy. For a full-length discussion of the cosmic universe of which the Galaxy is only a small part, see cosmology, For the star system within the Galaxy that is the home of Earth, see solar system,

Is it the sun or a sun?

The Sun is one of these stars. The articles ‘a’ and ‘an also mean ‘one’. ‘An’ is used when the noun begins with a vowel, and the star begins with a consonant, hence the correct option is ‘a’ and ‘an’ is the incorrect option. ‘The’ is an incorrect answer because the sun isn’t the only star.

Which is correct cloud or clouds?

NounEdit. The plural form of cloud ; more than one (kind of) cloud.

How is grammar spelled in the UK?

Grammer or Grammar: Which Spelling Is Correct? What Is The Plural Of Roof Many people use Grammer and Grammar interchangeably, but they have different meanings. Grammar is the study of the structure and function of language, while grammer is a misspelling. The correct spelling is ‘ grammar ‘ in English. People make the mistake of writing it as ‘ Grammer ‘ due to the pronunciation.

Which is correct hoofs or hooves?

Regular and Irregular Plurals – Nouns that take an S or ES to become plural are called regular nouns and nouns that become plural some other way are called irregular nouns. So hoofs is a regular plural and hooves is an irregular plural.