Defining Quality Control in Construction – Construction quality control is a system of management that ensures that deliverables meet the standards and guidelines set by the client at the beginning of the construction process. This can include a number of criteria such as completing the project within the scope of work.
- In the end, quality is decided by the client, regulatory bodies, and EPA guidelines.
- Quality control and quality assurance are two equally important arms of construction quality.
- While assurance refers to setting quality management expectations, quality control refers to the plans and procedures that achieve high-quality outcomes.
Issues arise in construction quality control when the factors affecting the quality are not properly identified and addressed. Quality control in construction seeks to solve problems, provide high-quality results, and prevent issues from coming up again in the future.
- 1 How quality is important in construction?
- 2 What is the quality of construction?
- 3 What are the roles of QC in project quality?
- 4 Why quality is the most important?
- 5 How do you ensure quality in construction?
- 6 What are the 5 responsibilities of quality control?
- 7 Who is responsible for quality in construction?
- 8 What is the main focus of quality?
- 9 What quality means to you?
- 10 Who is responsible quality?
- 11 What are the 7 steps of quality?
- 12 What are the 4 elements of quality?
How quality is important in construction?
Doesn’t quality affect the bottom line? – Yes, it does. Good quality comes at a cost, but poor quality will almost always cut into the project’s profitability and will do so in many ways:
- Poor quality working practices will demand considerably more management input to correct and can cause a higher number of health & safety incidents.
- Poor quality construction and finishing will result in a building that is not as well suited to its purpose as it could be.
- Poor quality practices can result in waste of both time and materials, directly affecting costs.
- Poor quality is often behind safety problems. If a component fails it may cause loss or injury – and may be treated as a safety issue – but fundamentally it’s a quality issue. Had the project had the correct emphasis on quality from start to finish, the chances of such an incident occurring are dramatically reduced, and as a result, the likelihood of incurring substantial costs post-completion are also reduced.
What is the quality of construction?
What is construction quality? – At its core, quality in construction means that a project is completed within the defined guidelines set out in the Scope of Work. This document serves as a set of guardrails for the project based on the owner’s expectations, and sheds light on how to execute the project in a way that meets these standards.
Why Quality management is important in construction?
Why is quality management important and how can we optimize it? –
Quality management in building and construction projects is an essential factor to avoid defects in the end product, which could lead to the need for replacements, faults, accidents or any kind of anomalies that will end up having a negative impact on the final result and the customer’s experience. The main tools that companies use to carry out effective quality management are quality and verification protocols, Quality management also offers other very helpful benefits for all companies, such as eliminating waste related to replacements or returns of defective products, saving on unnecessary costs or improving technical performance of products and efficiency of processes,
What are the roles of QC in project quality?
Understanding Quality Control (QC) – Quality control involves testing units and determining if they are within the specifications for the final product. The purpose of the testing is to determine any needs for corrective actions in the manufacturing process. Good quality control helps companies meet consumer demands for better products.
What is the importance of quality?
“Quality management” ensures superior quality products and services, Quality of a product can be measured in terms of performance, reliability and durability. Quality is a crucial parameter which differentiates an organization from its competitors. Quality management tools ensure changes in the systems and processes which eventually result in superior quality products and services.
- Quality management methods such as Total Quality management or Six Sigma have a common goal – to deliver a high quality product.
- Quality management is essential to create superior quality products which not only meet but also exceed customer satisfaction.
- Customers need to be satisfied with your brand.
Business marketers are successful only when they emphasize on quality rather than quantity. Quality products ensure that you survive the cut throat competition with a smile. Quality management is essential for customer satisfaction which eventually leads to customer loyalty,
- How do you think businesses run? Do businesses thrive only on new customers? It is important for every business to have some loyal customers.
- You need to have some customers who would come back to your organization no matter what.
- Would you buy a Nokia mobile again if the previous handset was defective? The answer is NO.
Customers would return to your organization only if they are satisfied with your products and services. Make sure the end-user is happy with your product. Remember, a customer would be happy and satisfied only when your product meets his expectations and fulfills his needs.
Understand what the customer expects from you? Find out what actually his need is? Collect relevant data which would give you more insight into customer’s needs and demands. Customer feedbacks should be collected on a regular basis and carefully monitored, Quality management ensures high quality products and services by eliminating defects and incorporating continuous changes and improvements in the system.
High quality products in turn lead to loyal and satisfied customers who bring ten new customers along with them. Do not forget that you might save some money by ignoring quality management processes but ultimately lose out on your major customers, thus incurring huge losses.
- Quality management ensures that you deliver products as per promises made to the customers through various modes of promotions.
- Quality management tools help an organization to design and create a product which the customer actually wants and desires,
- Quality Management ensures increased revenues and higher productivity for the organization,
Remember, if an organization is earning, employees are also earning. Employees are frustrated only when their salaries or other payments are not released on time. Yes, money is a strong motivating factor. Would you feel like working if your organization does not give you salary on time? Ask yourself.
Salaries are released on time only when there is free cash flow. Implementing Quality management tools ensure high customer loyalty, thus better business, increased cash flow, satisfied employees, healthy workplace and so on. Quality management processes make the organization a better place to work. Remove unnecessary processes which merely waste employee’s time and do not contribute much to the organization’s productivity.
Quality management enables employees to deliver more work in less time. Quality management helps organizations to reduce waste and inventory, It enables employees to work closely with suppliers and incorporate “Just in Time” Philosophy. Quality management ensures close coordination between employees of an organization.
Why quality is the most important?
Quality is Critical to Satisfied Customers – If you fail to meet customers’ expectation, they will quickly look for alternatives. Quality is critical to satisfying your customers and retaining their loyalty so they continue to buy from you in the future.
How do you ensure quality in construction?
Quality control (QC) is the part of quality management that ensures products and services comply with requirements. It is a work method that facilitates the measurement of the quality characteristics of a unit, compares them with the established standards, and analyses the differences between the results obtained and the desired results in order to make decisions which will correct any differences.
Technical specifications define the type of controls that must be undertaken to ensure the construction works are carried out correctly. They include not only products and materials, but also the execution and completion of the works, One way of controlling quality is based on the inspection or verification of finished products,
The aim is to filter the products before they reach the client, so that products that do not comply with requirements are discarded or repaired. This reception control is usually carried out by people who were not involved in the product ion activities, which means that costs can be high, and preventative activities and improvement plans may not be effective.
It is a final control, located between producer and client, and although it has the advantage of being impartial, it has a large number of drawbacks, such as slow information flows, and inspectors are not familiar with the circumstances of production and are not responsible for the production quality,
When tests are destructive, the decision to accept or reject a full batch must be made on the basis of the quality of a random sample, This type of statistical control provides less information and contains sampling risks, However, it is more economical, requires fewer inspectors, and speeds up decision-making, while the rejection of the whole batch encourages suppliers to improve their quality,
This type of control can also identify the causes of variations and, so establish procedures for their systematic elimination. Statistical control can be applied to the final product (acceptance control) or during the production process ( process control ). Statistical controls at reception establish sampling plans with clearly-defined acceptance or rejection criteria, and complete batches are tested by means of random sampling.
The sampling control can be based on inspection by attributes in line with the ISO 2859 standard (Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes ), or on inspection by variables in line with the ISO 3951 standard (Sampling procedures for inspection by variables).
- A construction company should reduce the costs of bad quality as much as possible, and ensure that the result of its processes comply with the client’s requirements,
- Both internal and external controls can be carried out.
- For example, the control of concrete received by the contractor can be carried out by an independent entity ; the execution of steelworks can be controlled by the project manager (on behalf of the client ), or the construction company can establish an internal control for the execution of the building work,
Quality assurance is a set of planned and systematic actions to ensure that products and services comply with specified requirements. It not only involves checking the final quality of products to avoid defects, as is the case in quality control, but also checking product quality in a planned way in all the product ion stages.
It is the development of work and product design procedures to prevent errors from occurring in the first place, based on planning backed up by quality manuals and tools, When a consensus has been reached on the requirements of a quality management system, it is possible to define a series of generic standards applicable to any type of organisation,
The international standards, generically called ISO 9000, are the most widespread and generally accepted in developed countries, The ISO 9000 standards consists of four basic interdependent standards supported by guides, technical reports and technical specifications :
ISO 9000: Quality management, ISO 9001: Quality management systems – Requirements. ISO 9004: Managing for the sustained success of an organization – A quality management approach. ISO 19011: Guidelines on internal and external audits of quality management systems,
Companies can only be certified under the requirements of the ISO 9001 standard, It is a standard that can be used to certify the efficiency of a quality management system, If the aim is to improve efficiency, the objectives of the ISO 9004 standard are broader in scope,
The principles that underlie the management of quality in these standards are the following: customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, process approach, system approach to management, continual improvement, factual approach to decision making and mutually beneficial supplier relationships.
The ISO 9001 standard specifies requirements for a quality management system where an organisation needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide products that meet the requirements of clients and applicable regulations requirements. Regulatory requirements focus on the quality management system, management responsibility, resources management, product realisation and measurement, analysis and improvement.
The Official Journal of the European Union ( OJEU ) used for tendering public procurement throughout the European Union along with other framework agreements require practices to be ISO 9001 accredited. When a quality system is applied to a product as complex and unique as construction, a specific quality plan must be drafted by applying the company’s global system to the specific project,
The plan must be drafted by the contractor before the start of the construction works and will be reviewed throughout its execution. The quality plan is applicable to the materials, work units and services that have been specifically chosen by the construction company in order to comply with the quality requirements stipulated in the contract,
The quality plan is drafted for the construction works when a preventive strategy is needed to guarantee the construction quality, even though there might also be a quality manual, in compliance with the ISO 9001 standard requirements. The construction company determines the need to prepare execution documents, work instructions, inspection regimes, process files, action plans, etc., for the execution and control of processes, depending on the complexity of the activity, the qualifications of the personnel and the experience of the team,
The plan establishes the resources required and associated documents (lists, purchasing documentation, machinery, equipment, etc.). The control activities ( verification of compliance with specifications, validation of specific processes, monitoring of activities, inspections and tests ), which the units, materials or services undergo must also be established.
- These activities can be defined through inspection, testing plans, action plans and where applicable specific tests (for example, load tests for structures ).
- When the aim is to guarantee the uniformity of a system, process or product, reference patterns are established in documents called standards or norms.
The general objectives of standards are simplification, communication between the parties involved, production economy, safety and health, protection of consumer interests and the removal of trade barriers, In any type of company, the set of tasks carried out is so complex that they have to be written down to ensure internal consistency, to preserve them and to make sure they are methodically applied.
These documents are called procedures, and describe the way in which an activity or process must be carried out. Therefore, standards establish the requirements of products or processes. Procedures are documents drawn up by the company itself and take into account the requirements established in the standards,
These documents must include the purpose of the procedure, references to other documents, scope, method and sequence of tests, acceptance and rejection criteria, key control points and time of inspection, In all cases the control of a procedure should be documented in the quality records and filed in the quality log at the construction site,
- Technical or administrative procedures can also be part of a quality management system,
- In this case, the manual provides a generic description of the company’s quality system, while procedures, whether general or specific, establish what is required to attain the objectives listed in the manual.
- Procedures must link the ISO standards ‘ requirements and the activities of the company,
They should include the people involved, information about materials and equipment, and a description of key activities, Each organisation should decide which processes should be documented on the basis of client and regulatory requirements, the nature of its activities, and its corporate strategy,
The quality control of a product or process can sometimes be replaced with certification of the quality characteristics by third parties, Products that have received officially recognised quality marks may be exempt from controls and reception tests, increasing batch size and improving safety systems,
However, the scope and aim of these quality marks are variable and an in-depth understanding is required to know what they mean. Below are different types of quality certificates, starting with the least reliable:
Certificate of origin: in this case the manufacturer states that the product complies with some specifications, Although the certificate might not be very reliable, failure to comply with the specifications can be legally actionable. Accredited laboratory test certificate: the test is performed on a small sample, and therefore cannot guarantee all production. These certificates should be used with caution due to their limited scope, Product type approval certificate: this approves a prototype and therefore does not guarantee the quality of the subsequent manufacturing process. Standard compliance seal or mark: its scope includes continual production and therefore it is more reliable than other certificates, When the product is very new and there is no specific standard to regulate it, the certificate is issued in the form of technical suitability documentation.
Directive 89/196/EEC of the European Union establishes the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the member countries to construction products, The purpose of the directive is to guarantee the free movement of all construction products throughout the Union by harmonisation of national laws which regulate the health, safety and welfare requirements.
- These requirements can take the form of harmonised European standards adopted by European standardisation bodies (CEN or CENELEC) or European technical suitability documents if there is no harmonised norm, national norm or European norm mandate.
- Under this Directive, construction products must have the CE mark, whereby the manufacturer declares that the product complies with the provisions of Community Directives,
This mark indicates that the product complies with the essential requirements of harmonised norms (EN) and the Guides for European Technical Approval, (See also Energy related products regulations and Construction Products Regulation ) Nevertheless, all the countries within the Union have their own particular set of conditions that have a direct impact on construction ( weather, local construction procedures, etc.) and which are not included in the CE mark guidelines,
So although the mark facilitates the movement of construction materials between countries, it does not mean that the quality controls established for particular conditions are abolished. This could be solved by the adoption of voluntary norm conformity certificates for each specific case. When the construction materials and systems are very new (not traditional ), the European Organisation for Technical Approvals, an umbrella organisation for national authorisation bodies, may draft European technical suitability document guides for a construction product or family of products, acting on a mandate from the Commission,
When there is no European standard or European technical suitability document available, products can be assessed and marketed in accordance with existing national provisions and in conformity with essential requirements. The text in this article is based on an extract from CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT, by Eugenio Pellicer, Víctor Yepes, José M.C.
- Teixeira, Helder Moura and Joaquín Catala.
- Valencia, Porto, 2008.
- The original manual is part of the Construction Managers ‘ Library – created within the Leonardo da Vinci (LdV) project No: PL/06/B/F/PP/174014, entitled: ” COMMON LEARNING OUTCOME FOR EUROPEAN MANAGERS IN CONSTRUCTION “.
- It is reproduced here in a modified form with the kind permission of the Chartered Institute of Building,
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What qualities do you need to work in construction?
What Skills Do I Need to Work in Construction? – To work in construction you need to have a variety of skills. It is important that you recognise what a career in construction involves and whether you are capable of developing the skills required. Although rewarding, the job can also be very demanding, with long hours (typically 42 to 44 a week) and sometimes evening and weekend shifts and work away from home.
A good level of fitness required to carry out physical work daily.Knowledge of building and the construction industry.The ability to pay attention to detail and be thorough.The ability to work well with your hands.Good communication skills and the ability to work well with others in a team.The ability to use, maintain and repair tools and machines.Accepting of criticism and able to work well under pressure to meet deadlines.An understanding of the importance of health and safety.Basic maths knowledge.The ability to carry out simple tasks on a computer or hand-held device.
Depending on your place of work and specific duties, you may be required to have additional skills that are specific to the daily responsibilities. For example, if you need to work with certain plant machinery, you will need to be 18 years old and hold a driving licence.
What are the 5 responsibilities of quality control?
Responsibilities and Duties – The responsibilities of a Quality Control Inspector vary from one industry to another, but there are a few common responsibilities irrespective of the domain. Let’s take a look at them:
Carry out quality assessment measures of all the products ready to be shipped and incoming raw materials Take a thorough look at the plans, specifications, and blueprints to understand the product requirements Reject all the incoming raw materials that fail to meet quality expectations and report the issue to the concerned department at the earliest Resolving quality-related issues and adhering to deadlines Providing training to the quality assurance team Design an efficient design protocol that can be used across all domain Prepare documentation of the inspection process, which includes detailed reports and performance records Recommend improvement measures to the production process to ensure quality control standards are met Guide the production team about the quality control issues to enhance the quality of the product Monitor customer satisfaction levels Monitor the production phase at various levels
Who is responsible for quality in construction?
Construction projects are a balance between cost, time and quality, It is possible to have high quality and low cost, but at the expense of time, and conversely to have high quality and a fast project, but at a cost, If both time and money are restricted, then quality is likely to suffer.
Available funding and time. Existing corporate policies (such as environmental policies ). Key requirements of the business, Key requirements of other stakeholders, The views of external organisations such as the local planning authority, Historic England or Design Council Cabe and so on. Local and national legislation (for example local planning requirements for energy use ).
Quality has been defined by many academics as delivering a customers service or product without a defect being present (Juran 1999). As such, it is vitally important that briefing documents set out clearly the product specifications that are required.
Specific standards of quality can generally be defined, prioritised and measured quite precisely, and criteria weighting can help in the appraisal of design options, in particular where conflicting views exist amongst stakeholders, See Briefing documentation and Design quality for more information,
The standard of quality that the design team try to achieve should reflect the requirements set out by the client in the briefing documentation, The client should then be able to assess design options that are proposed in relation to the criteria they have already defined.
How well the design represents client values, How spaces relate to each other. How well the design creates places for entry, reception, breaks, catering and so on. The impact on the local community and environment, Whether the design is accessible and welcoming. Accessibility for people with disabilities, Quality of views and outlook, The internal environment ; lighting, heating, air quality, acoustics etc. The ability of individuals to control their environment, Comfort of furniture, Use of colour, texture, light and architectural features to enliven the environment, Flexibility of layout, Overall standard of materials and finishes (including life- span and maintenance issues ). Sustainability of materials, Build quality and robustness of systems, finishes and fittings, furniture and equipment, Energy consumption and pollution, both in construction and in use, Whether the design promotes reduction, reuse and recycling of materials, Innovation of design, Buildability, Whether the design is safe to use and maintain, Security, Whether the design is economical to manage and maintain, Whether the design exploits opportunities for standardisation and prefabrication, Whether the design can adapt to changing demands. Whether the design takes account of current and proposed legislation, Whole-life cost assessment including disposal method and cost, Risks associated with the design,
It is important that assessment of design quality is carried out in a structured, formal way, and is properly recorded. The client may appoint an internal design champion to be responsible for ensuring the design achieves the required design quality,
If the client has little experience of design and construction projects, they may wish to appoint an independent client adviser to assist them. The client may also have to consult third parties during the design process, such as the local planning authority, who may have a view about the quality of the proposals,
The National Planning Policy framework suggests that plan making and decision taking should seek and secure high quality, See Design quality for more information, The contract documentation describes the design that the contractor is being paid to construct,
Products (defined by standard, a description of attributes, naming (perhaps allowing equivalent alternatives) or by nominating suppliers ). Workmanship (defined by compliance with manufacturers requirements, reference to a code of practice or standards, or by approval of samples or by testing ).
It should be possible to verify standards of products and workmanship by testing, inspection, mock-ups and samples, and documentation such as manufacturers certificates, These requirements need to be set out in the contract documentation, The contractor’s obligation is to carry out and complete the works in a proper and workmanlike manner as described by the contract documents,
This means the contractor must carry out the works with reasonable skill and care, to the reasonable satisfaction of the contract administrator, The quality of materials and standard of workmanship might be controlled by the contractor on site by implementing a quality plan, The plan establishes the resources required and associated documents (lists, purchasing documentation, machinery, equipment, etc.) and the control activities ( verification of compliance with specifications, validation of specific processes, monitoring of activities, inspections and tests ).
These activities can be defined through inspection, testing plans, action plans and where applicable specific tests (for example, load tests for structures ). See Quality control for more information, Workmanship has come under particular scrutiny recently as building regulations have become more onerous and the standard of specification has increased.
It has also become more common to test completed buildings to assess whether they are performing as expected. Poor workmanship can be particularly apparent with issues such as sound proofing, insulation performance and air-tightness, This difference between anticipated and actual performance is known as the performance gap,
The standard of workmanship can be improved by providing adequate training, appropriate instructions and clear checklists as well as ensuring there is on-site supervision and monitoring and an ongoing process of feedback to ensure continuous improvement,
In addition to the contractor’s own quality control measures, site inspectors working on behalf of the client will inspect the works as they proceed to verify compliance with the requirements of the contract documents, Site inspectors may be based on site permanently or may make regular visits. Specific inspections may also be carried out during the construction phase as part of the general contract administration process.
In addition, there may a range of third party inspections, including:
Health and Safety Executive, Building control, Planning inspections to verify compliance with planning permissions, conditions and obligations, Inspections by funding bodies for the release of money. Inspections by insurers, Highways Authority inspection, Environmental Health Officer inspections related to pollution (mud, noise, smoke, water ) and certain installations (such as drainage and kitchens ). Fire Officer inspection of fire escapes, and for hazards, storage of certain materials and protection systems, Archaeological inspection of excavations, Factory inspectorate.
See site inspection for more information,
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What is the main focus of quality?
The primary focus of quality management is to meet customer requirements and to strive to exceed customer expectations. Sustained success is achieved when an organization attracts and retains the confidence of customers and other interested parties.
What are the 7 steps of quality?
The seven stages in CWQC are (see Figure 1): inspection after product (product-oriented), quality control during production (process-oriented), quality assurance (systems-oriented), education and training (humanistic aspect of quality), product and process design optimisation for robust function (society-oriented), the
What is quality in your own words?
Quality refers to how good something is compared to other similar things. In other words, its degree of excellence. When used to describe people, it refers to a distinctive characteristic or attribute that they possess. In this sense, we can also use the term for things.
What quality means to you?
Define quality and describe what it means to you You might talk about purpose and how quality refers to the extent something fulfills its purpose. You can state there are many elements of quality, such as consistency, regulation of standards and customer satisfaction.
Who is responsible quality?
Role of a Quality Manager – In general, the Project Manager / Quality Manager is responsible for the quality management process. Some projects will have specific roles for quality assurance, control, or quality experts. Project quality management starts with the planning, but the implementation of quality must be carried out throughout the project with the guidance of the Quality Manager.1.
Quality Planning Quality Planning is not about just ensuring that the project is done on time and under budget. It is also about checking if the product meets the expectations of the end user. Quality Planning is all about creating a design process that ensures the team meets pre-established goals under operational conditions.
A Quality Manager should consider metrics that are realistic, specific, measurable, agreed-upon, and time-bound. Planning should include cost-benefit analysis, benchmarking, design of experiments, control charts, etc. Learn how to,
Cost-benefit analysis is analyzing cost spent on improving quality like improving project process or design or cost spent on testing and inspections with the benefits of quality. Benchmarking is about utilizing the best practices for improving quality by referring to other successful projects from the past. Design of experiments is about understanding the different factors affecting the ongoing project process with the outcome, which in return will help to improve quality by taking necessary steps. Control charts are used to check whether the ongoing project is within the specification. Random samples are taken and analyzed to check whether the actual data is within the control limit.
Also Read : 2. Quality Assurance The Quality Manager has to ensure that what is planned as part of the quality planning gets executed. This is done by performing regular project audits to identify the deviation from what is planned in the quality planning.
What are the 4 types of quality?
Conclusion: Basics in Quality Control: What Are the Types of Quality Inspection? – Quality control is a set of procedures an organisation undertakes to ensure that its product conforms to the required standard of quality. These procedures are often undertaken by employing what we in the industry call quality inspections.
- In quality control, there are 4 types of quality inspections, namely: pre-production inspection, during production inspection, pre-shipment inspection, and container loading/unloading inspections.
- Each of these types of inspection has its own purpose.
- It depends on where in the supply chain you want to deploy it, your product and your relationship with the manufacturer/supplier.
But conducting a quality inspection in China, or other countries thousands of miles away from your office can be challenging. HQTS is a third-party inspection company with over 25 years of experience in quality assurance. We can help you conduct any of the above-mentioned types of inspections in quality control virtually everywhere in the world.
What are the 7 steps of quality?
The seven stages in CWQC are (see Figure 1): inspection after product (product-oriented), quality control during production (process-oriented), quality assurance (systems-oriented), education and training (humanistic aspect of quality), product and process design optimisation for robust function (society-oriented), the
What are the 4 elements of quality?
This article is about the general topic of quality management. For the specific approach to quality management from the 1980s, see Total quality management, Quality management ensures that an organization, product or service consistently functions well.
It has four main components: quality planning, quality assurance, quality control and quality improvement, Quality management is focused not only on product and service quality, but also on the means to achieve it. Quality management, therefore, uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality,
Quality control is also part of quality management. What a customer wants and is willing to pay for it, determines quality. It is a written or unwritten commitment to a known or unknown consumer in the market. Quality can be defined as how well the product performs its intended function.