Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel?

Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel
Abu Simbel, site of two temples built by the Egyptian king Ramses II (reigned 1279–13 bce), now located in Aswān muḥāfaẓah (governorate), southern Egypt.

Which para ordered the construction of Abu Simbel temples?

Ramses II ruled as Pharaoh of Egypt from 1279 B.C.E. to 1213 B.C.E. Like many ancient Egyptian rulers, he ordered the construction of many monuments and temples.

Who built Abu Simbel and why?

Ramses built the Temple at Abu Simbel in Egypt to intimidate his enemies and seat himself amongst the gods.

Which pharaoh is represented in front of Abu Simbel?

  1. Home
  2. References

Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel The Abu Simbel temples sit on the west bank of the Nile River. (Image credit: WitR (opens in new tab) Shutterstock (opens in new tab) ) The site of Abu Simbel is one of the most recognizable ancient sites in Egypt. For 3,000 years, it sat on the west bank of the Nile River, between the first and second cataracts of the Nile.

  1. However, in a remarkable feat of engineering, the temple complex was dismantled and rebuilt on a higher hill to make way for the Aswan High Dam in the 1960s.
  2. Built in 1244 B.C., Abu Simbel contains two temples, carved into a mountainside.
  3. The larger of the two temples contains four colossal statues of a seated pharaoh Ramesses II (1303-1213 B.C.) at its entrance, each about 69 feet (21 meters) tall.

The entranceway to the temple was built in such a way that on two days of the year, October 22 and February 22, sunlight shines into the inner sanctuary and lights up three statues seated on a bench, including one of the pharaoh. Historians think these dates mark his coronation and birth.

  • Thousands of tourists typically flock to the temples to watch the phenomenon and participate in the celebrations.
  • In addition, Abu Simbel has a second, smaller, temple that may have been built for queen Nefertari.
  • Its front includes two statues of the queen and four of the pharaoh, each about 33 feet (10 meters) in height.

Each is set between buttresses carved with hieroglyphs. While the site was built by an Egyptian ruler, and is located within modern-day Egypt, in ancient times the place it was located in was considered part of Nubia, a territory that was at times independent of ancient Egypt.

Who built the great temple of Abu Simbel?

Abu Simbel – The Great Temple of Ramesses II Abu Simbel is a temple built by Ramesses II (c.1279-1213 B.C.E.) in ancient Nubia, where he wished to demonstrate his power and his divine nature. Four colossal (65 feet/20 meters high) statues of him sit in pairs flanking the entrance.

The head and torso of the statue to the left of the entrance fell during ancient times, probably the result of an earthquake. This temple faces the east, and Re-Horakhty, one manifestation of the sun god, is shown inside the niche directly above the entrance. The alignment of the temple is such that twice a year the sun’s rays reach into the innermost sanctuary to illuminate the seated statues of Ptah, Amun-Re, Ramesses II, and Re-Horakhty.

The temple was cut out of the sandstone cliffs above the Nile River in an area near the Second Cataract. When the High Dam was being constructed in the early 1960s, international cooperation assembled funds and technical expertise to move this temple to higher ground so that it would not be inundated by the waters of Lake Nasser.

Which pharaoh is known for the temple complex Abu Simbel and for the world’s first peace treaty?

ca.1303 BCE – 1213 BCE – Ramses II, commonly known as “Ramses the Great,” is one of the most famous pharaohs of Egypt. He was known to the ancient Egyptians as Userma’atre’setepenre, which means “Keeper of Harmony and Balance, Strong in Right, Elect of Ra.” Ramses II ruled as the third pharaoh of the Ninteenth Dynasty.

He reigned for sixty-eight years. He ruled for so long that nearly all of his subjects had been born knowing only him as their pharaoh, leading to some panic upon his death that the world would end. Ramses II, whose mummy showed he stood over six feet tall, had over 200 wives and concubines and 156 children.

Ramses II is viewed as a great warrior, fighting many battles. His reputation as a warrior was enhanced by the Battle of Kadesh against the Hittites. According to Ramses II, the Battle of Kadesh was a victory for he defeated his enemy. However, the king of the Hittites, Muwatalli II, claimed the Hittites won.

  • While it seems the outcome of the Battle of Kadesh was controversial, the battle did lead to Ramses II and Hattusili III, successor of Muwatalli II, signing the first known peace treaty in the world.
  • Ramses II constructed the temples at Abu Simbel, the hall at Karnak, the complex at Abydos, the Ramesseum (tomb complex) at Thebes, and hundreds of other buildings, monuments, and temples.

Many historians consider his reign the pinnacle of Egyptian art and culture. The well-known tomb of Nefertari (his first wife and favorite queen) is still stunning today, thousands of years later. Image: RC 2223 Shabti of Ramses II at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum. http://www.ancient.eu/Kadesh/ https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/01/colossus-ramses-statue-move-cairo-egypt-museum/ http://www.pbs.org/empires/egypt/newkingdom/ramesses.html

Why is it called Abu Simbel?

Abu Simbel is an ancient complex, originally cut into a solid rock cliff, in southern and located at the second cataract of the River. The two temples which comprise the site were created during the reign of (c.1279 – c.1213 BCE) either between 1264 – 1244 BCE or 1244-1224 BCE.

  • The discrepancy in the dates is due to differing interpretations of the life of II by modern day scholars.
  • It is certain, based upon the extensive artwork throughout the interior of the Great Temple, that the structures were created, at least in part, to celebrate Ramesses’ victory over the at the of in 1274 BCE.

To some scholars, this indicates a probable date of 1264 BCE for the initial construction as the victory would have been fresh in the memory of the people. However, the decision to build the grand monument at that precise location, on the border with the conquered lands of Nubia, suggests to other scholars the later date of 1244 BCE in that it would have had to have been begun after the Nubian Campaigns Ramesses II undertook with his sons and was built as a symbol of Egypt’s power.

  1. Whichever date construction began, it is agreed that it took twenty years to create the complex and that the temples are dedicated to the gods Ra-Horakty, Ptah, and the deified Ramesses II (The Great Temple) and the goddess and Queen Nefertari, Ramesses’ favourite wife (The Small Temple).
  2. While it is assumed that the name, ` Simbel’, was the designation for the complex in antiquity, this is not so.

Allegedly, the Swiss explorer Burckhardt was led to the site by a boy named Abu Simbel in 1813 CE and the site was then named after him. Burckhardt, however, was unable to uncover the site, which was buried in sand up to the necks of the grand colossi and later mentioned this experience to his friend and fellow explorer Giovanni Belzoni.

  1. It was Belzoni who uncovered and first excavated (or looted) Abu Simbel in 1817 CE and it is considered likely that it was he, not Burckhardt, who was led to the site by the young boy and who named the complex after him.
  2. As with other aspects regarding Abu Simbel (such as the date it was begun), the truth of either version of the story is open to interpretation and all that is known is that the original name for the complex, if it had a specific designation, has been lost.

The Great Temple stands 98 feet (30 metres) high with four seated colossi depicting Ramesses II flanking the entrance.

Why is Abu Simbel important to Egypt’s history?

Great Temple – The Great Temple at Abu Simbel, which took about twenty years to build, was completed around year 24 of the reign of Ramesses the Great (which corresponds to 1265 BC). It was dedicated to the gods Amun, Ra-Horakhty, and Ptah, as well as to the deified Ramesses himself.

Who was the last pharaoh in Egypt?

Most Egyptologists, people who study ancient Egypt, think that Menes was the first pharaoh of Egypt, and they know that Cleopatra VII was the last. There were about 170 pharaohs in all. Pharaohs were the King or Queen of Egypt.

What are two facts about Abu Simbel?

Interesting Facts Abu Simbel Temple To Know – 1. The Abu Simbel Temple is actually two individual temples, both rock cut structures, and both built during the reign of King Ramses II sometime in the 1200 B.C. time period. One temple is dedicated to King Ramses II, and the second temple is dedicated to his beloved wife Queen Nefertari.2.

Many Nile River cruises include views of the temple location, and some may stop so passengers can visit and explore. There is a fee to visit the temples, and cameras are not permitted. Some cruises include the entrance fee for cruise attractions in the price of the cruise while others do not.3. Abu Simbel Temple does not include a temple to any of the other wives of King Ramses II, only Queen Nefertari.

This is because she was his first and principal wife, and he cherished her above all other. Many ancient Egypt temples were built because of devotion in this fashion. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel 4. A Lake Nasser cruise has a side stop to visit the temples, but this lake posed a threat to the attraction at one point. The lake waters rose because of the High Dam construction, and this risked placing the temples in close contact with the water.5.

In 1964 the two structures of Abu Simbel Temple were cut into many different pieces, and both temples were moved further away from the rising water of Lake Nasser. The structures were moved to a location sixty five meters above the original spot, and two hundred meters further back from the shoreline.6.

The Nefertari Hotel Abu Simbel is conveniently located very close to the temple site, and is considered the closest one available. Visitors who want to explore the temple structures do not even require a vehicle, because the hotel is within walking distance for almost everyone.7. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel

You might be interested:  Which Iron Rod Is Best For House Construction?

What does Abu Simbel symbolize?

Thus the beautiful temples at Abu Simbel represent a magnificent paean to Ramesses the Great and his beautiful Queen Nefertari as gods. He was worshipped there, by Nubians and Egyptians, during his lifetime and after his death.

Why are statues at Abu Simbel broken?

The Temple of Nefertari at Abu Simbel – The second temple in Abu Simbel was built for Nefertari, the favorite wife of Ramesses II. There are four statues of Ramesses II and two of his wife. Unusually, the statues of Nefertari are as tall as the ones of Ramesses. The temple is for the worship of the Goddess Hathor, The front of the Temple of Nefertari. (776k) Closer view of the three statues on the left. (713k) Closer view of the three statues on the right. (730k) Left-most statue, a statue of Ramesses II. (764k) Second statue from the left, a statue of Nefertari. (747k) Third statue from the left, a statue of Ramesses II. (647k) Third statue from the right, a statue of Ramesses II. (760k) Second statue from the right, a statue of Nefertari. (779k) Right-most statue, a statue of the Pharaoh. (784k) Relief of the Queen, seated on a throne, with an attendant. (707k) Beautiful painting inside the temple of the Goddesses Hathor (left) and Isis (right) blessing the Queen. (714k) Painting inside the temple of the Goddess Hathor, (741k) This page contains 59 pictures Here are the links to the other pages on Egypt : Page last updated on Sun Jun 19 16:16:09 2022 (Mountain Standard Time) Abu Simbel on guenther-eichhorn.com

Who was Abu Simbel dedicated to?

These two immense carved rock temples at Abu Simbel, a village in the ancient Upper Egyptian region of Nubia, are dedicated to 13th century Pharaoh Ramesses II and his first wife Nefertari.

What is the most amazing thing about the temple of Abu Simbel?

7. The Abu Simbel temple has a solar alignment – Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel By Ad Meskens – Wikimedia The construction of these two temples has remained to be an architectural mystery. It is because of how it was aligned with the solar system. Light from the sun goes through the temple only twice a year and this is during the planting and flooding seasons.

  1. These two seasons represent the birth and coronation of King Rameses II.
  2. Another archaeological mystery about this temple is the statues carved to precision such that Plah, the god of darkness, remains in complete darkness.
  3. Archaeologists believe that the Egyptian architects were specific about the axis of the temple.

They built them to let in rays of the sun to illuminate the statues on the back wall except for the god of darkness. During the relocation of the temples in 1964, UNESCO ensured that important characteristic was as precise as the original setting.

Why was Ramses II so important?

BUILDINGS, MONUMENTS AND THE BEST WORKS OF RAMSES – World renowned as a great builder, Ramses II was vastly fascinated with architecture. During his 66 years long rule, he master-crafted and rebuilt many monuments, structures, and temples. Two of his most well-acclaimed works include the gigantic temples of Abu Simbel and Ramesseum.

  • Both these monuments boast a new style of architecture when it comes to size, design, and complexity.
  • What’s more; the unique feature that is common to both these temples is the giant statue of Ramses himself.
  • The Abu Simbel temple was built in Nubia in the Southern Egypt and its splendor can still be witnessed today.

There are four massive sculptures of the great Ramses II at the entrance of Abu Simbel each with an estimated height of 20 meters. Ramesseum temple was erected on the banks of the Nile River and was treated as Ramses’ mortuary temple. Other than these temples, Ramses also built the new ancient Egyptian capital city known as Pi-Ramesses.

What was Ramses II best-known for?

Ramesses the Builder – Perhaps the best-known achievements of Ramesses II are his architectural endeavors, building more monuments than any other pharaoh, most notably the Ramesseum and the temples of Abu Simbel south in Aswan, King Ramesses II’s tomb, the Ramesseum in the West bank of Luxor, is a memorial temple complex near Luxor, Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel Statue of Ramesses II at Luxor Temple in Egypt The temples at Abu Simbel are considered Egypt’s most spectacular. Situated close to Lake Nasser in Nubia, they were built to commemorate Ramesses’ reign, and to honor his queen, Nefertari, and are a wonder to behold. You can visit Abu Simbel in one of our Egypt luxury tours

What was Ramses II greatest achievement?

Architectural Accomplishments – Perhaps the best-known achievements of Ramses II are his architectural endeavors, most notable the Ramesseum and the temples of Abu Simbel. Ramses II’s interest in architecture resulted in the creation of more monuments than any of the other ancient Egyptian pharaohs.

A significant number of architectural tributes attributed to Ramses II still dominate the landscape of Egypt today. The Ramesseum is a memorial temple complex situated close to Luxor (even closer to Qurna). Although it is in ruins now, it is still recognizable for the large Pylon of Ramesses inside, which is useful as a historical document.

Pylon is the Greek word for the entrance of an Egyptian temple. The pylon is inscribed with images showing Ramesses victories over the Hittites in war, and the subsequent peace treaty that ensued. This pylon, along with other inscriptions and temples created during Ramses II’s reign, shows that this pharaoh wanted to be remembered for his influence on military, political, and religious life.

Also at the Ramesseum are the remains of a gigantic Ramses II statue. It used to be 56ft high, but now only parts of the torso and base remain. The Abu Simbel temples, two massive twin rock temples, were also built by Ramses II. They are situated in Nubia (South Egypt), close to Lake Nasser, and were meant to commemorate his reign, and that of his queen, Nefertari.

Another ancient city, Abydos (known for its mythological inscriptions), was used by Ramses II to record the history of his reign and that of his ancestors, providing a wealth of knowledge for future generations on the accomplishments of these pharaohs.

How was Abu Simbel destroyed?

In 1964, one of the world’s largest and most spectacular dismantling and reassembly projects was begun in Egypt. To rescue the ancient temples in Abu Simbel from the waters of the Nile, the temples had to be relocated. The feat was accomplished through international collaboration, with Atlas Copco contributing with its technical know-how and equipment. The ancient Abu Simbel temples, before the relocation 65 meters higher up and 200 meters further inland. In 1959, UNESCO received an official request from the Egyptian and Sudanese governments regarding the rescue of the unique temples in Abu Simbel. With the construction of the large Aswan Dam, two ancient temples would be submerged and irreparably damaged.

These twin temples, one larger and one smaller, were built more than 3,200 years ago by Ramses II as monuments to himself and his queen Nefertari. International fund-raising began for the project in 1960. It was the Swedish company Vattenbyggnadsbyrån that solved the complex matter of how the temples could be saved.

The temples were not built of stone or any other material, but were instead carved into a cliff. To move the temples, the rock above the temple roofs first had to be “peeled away”. The roofs, walls and not the least the temple facades were then cut into blocks, each weighing between 20 and 30 tons.

Several Swedish companies participated in the rescue action. Besides Atlas Copco, Sandvik, Skånska Cement and Sentab also took part. Because the temples were carved in porous sandstone, explosives could not be used to any greater degree. The stone masses above the temple roofs were instead removed with bulldozers.

Atlas Copco’s one-man pneumatic breaker turned out to be a very useful tool, together with compressors and drills. The walls, roofs and facade were sawed into blocks with handsaws from Sandvik, due to power saws causing too much waste when cutting the porous sandstone.

How old is the Abu Simbel?

Egypt’s exquisite temples that had to be moved (Image credit: Image Source/Getty Images ) Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel If Abu Simbel had not been saved, places like Vienna’s Historic Centre, Cambodia’s Angkor Wat and other Unesco World Heritage sites might only live on in history books. D Deep within the interior of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel, carved into a mountainside in southern Egypt’s ancient Nubian Valley, lies a vast, wondrous world.

  1. Pillars adorned with intricate military artworks support a ceiling painted with winged vultures.
  2. Floor-to-ceiling hieroglyphics depicting the victorious battles of Pharaoh Ramses II, the same man responsible for constructing this enormous temple, decorate the walls.
  3. Outside, four colossal statues of the pharaoh face east toward the rising sun, looking out over a crystal-clear lake.
You might be interested:  How To Build A Brick Wall?

It’s an incredible sight to behold, but one that if history had gone just a little bit differently, would not be here today. Instead, this temple would be under the lake’s waters. What’s even harder to imagine, if Abu Simbel had not been saved, places like Vienna’s Historic Centre, Cambodia’s Angkor Wat and other Unesco World Heritage sites might only live on in history books. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel An immense preservation effort saved the temples of Abu Simbel from a watery fate (Credit: frans lemmens/Alamy) You may also be interested in: • A silent city hidden in the desert • The tiny town built from Roman ruins • A 30,000km road to a lost world North Africa’s Nubian Valley straddles the border of southern Egypt and northern Sudan, a remote desert region dotted with palm-fringed oases and occasional wadis (seasonal rivers) that is home to the mighty Nile River, which winds its way past the Egyptian city of Aswan towards Cairo.

  1. In ancient days, this was a land of gold and riches, and one ruled by kings – many of whom built pyramids, monuments and temples, in part as a show of power.
  2. The Abu Simbel complex, built over the course of 20 years in the 13th Century BC, is one of the most impressive still standing today.
  3. Alongside the larger Great Temple stands a smaller temple that honours Ramses’ queen, Nefertari.

Keating was in awe when she saw the temples for the first time. But she was even more amazed to find out that in the early 1960s, a team of international engineers disassembled and then carefully moved – piece by piece – each of them. They then reassembled the temples more than 60m above their original location to save the complex from the Nile’s rising waters. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel The Great Temple, built by Pharaoh Ramses II, features floor-to-ceiling hieroglyphics (Credit: EmmePi Travel/Alamy) Unesco’s ‘Nubia Campaign’ came about in 1960, when the United Arab Republic (a political union of Egypt and Syria that existed between 1958 and 1961) began construction on a new dam along the Nile River, just outside of Aswan.

  1. While the dam would improve irrigation throughout the valley as well as significantly increase Egypt’s hydroelectric output, in a few years the swelling waters would also completely submerge Abu Simbel’s exquisite temples.
  2. In an effort to prevent the temples’ destruction, Unesco embarked on its first-ever collaborative international rescue effort (the organisation initially formed in 1945 to promote a joined culture of peace and prevent the outbreak of another war).

This incredible effort later became the catalyst for a World Heritage list that would help protect and promote what now totals 1,073 significant cultural and natural sites around the globe. “I had no idea before visiting Abu Simbel that it led to Unesco creating a World Heritage list,” Keating said. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel The construction of a dam along the Nile River threatened to submerge the Abu Simbel temples in the newly created Lake Nasser (Credit: Lloyd Cluff/Getty Images) However, the process of relocating the temples wasn’t so simple. “It was a huge undertaking,” explained Dr Mechtild Rössler, Unesco’s director of Heritage Division and director of the World Heritage Centre.

“One that I’m not sure could be done again today, with questions such as the ways a campaign of this magnitude would impact a region both environmentally and socially coming into play.” Beginning in November 1963, a group of hydrologists, engineers, archaeologists and other professionals set out on Unesco’s multi-year plan to break down both temples, cutting them into precise blocks (807 for the Great Temple, 235 for the smaller one) that were then numbered, carefully moved and restored to their original grandeur within a specially created mountain facade.

Workers even recalculated the exact measurements needed to recreate the same solar alignment, assuring that twice a year, on about 22 February (the date of Ramses II’s ascension to the throne) and 22 October (his birthday), the rising sun would continue to shine through a narrow opening to illuminate the sculpted face of King Ramses II and those of two other statues deep inside the Great Temple’s interior. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel In the 1960s, a team of engineers moved the Abu Simbel temples to higher ground (Credit: Rolls Press/Popperfoto/Getty Images) Indeed, it has gone down as one of history’s greatest archaeological engineering challenges. Imagine such a massive project being conducted in what seems to be the middle of nowhere, often in stifling heat.

In retrospect, the whole thing seems preposterous, but it was exactly what Unesco needed to prove to themselves that by pulling together resources, they were virtually unstoppable. “The completion of such an enormous and complex project helped realise that we were capable of three main things,” Dr Rössler said.

“First, bringing together the best expertise the world has to offer. Second, securing the international cooperation of its members, And third: assuring the responsibility of the international community to bring together funding and support that would help the world’s heritage as a whole.” “We recognised that one country alone is just not capable,” she said. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel The process of moving the temples required breaking them down into precise blocks and reassembling them piece by piece (Credit: Rolls Press/Popperfoto/Getty Images) With momentum flowing, Unesco continued launching campaigns, including the ongoing safeguarding of Venice, nearly destroyed by floods in the mid-1960s.

In 1965, a White House conference in Washington DC proposed the formation of a ‘World Heritage Trust’ to continuously preserve the world’s ‘superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites’. A few years later, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) crafted a similar proposal. But it wasn’t until November 1972 that the General Conference of Unesco adopted the Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, merging both drafts together to preserve cultural and natural heritage equally.

Today, the Nubia Campaign’s success is responsible for the conservation and preservation of places like Mexico’s Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Germany’s Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura, and South Africa’s Robben Island, where the country’s former president, Nelson Mandela, served time in a tiny prison cell.

It has also led to more elaborate safeguarding measures – similar to those taken at Abu Simbel – at World Heritage sites around the globe. These exist especially in war-torn zones like Iraq and Yemen, as well as Ethiopia, where just a decade ago Unesco returned the Obelisk of Axum: a 24m-tall, 160-tonne granite obelisk that the Italians took piecemeal back to Rome in 1937 under Mussolini’s fascist regime.

“The return and re-erection of the obelisk – this was the moment that marked the end of the Second World War,” Dr Rössler said, adding: “People need their heritage. Natural disasters, war. we can’t let these things take that heritage away.” Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel The Nubia Campaign’s success is responsible for the creation of Unesco’s World Heritage list (Credit: Image Source/Getty Images) Fifty years after the completion of the Nubia project, the Abu Simbel temples remain a popular – albeit still remote – traveller pilgrimage.

Lake Nasser is known for its excellent freshwater fishing, as well as its numerous crocodiles. But the highlight of the Nubian Valley is undoubtedly the temple complex, which 3,000 years on endures as an iconic symbol of both humankind’s common heritage and how one ancient monument can help preserve the planet.

Of course, it could have been something else entirely: “People might still be visiting the temples,” said Dr Rössler, “but it would be through snorkelling or diving or – because of the crocodiles – looking at them through the floor of a glass-bottom boat.” Places That Changed the World is a BBC Travel series looking into how a destination has made a significant impact on the entire planet.

What happened at Abu Simbel?

Relocation of the Abu Simbel Temples – As a result of the rising waters of the Nile River that were about to result from the construction of the Aswan High Dam, the twin temples of Abu Simbel were under a threat. The Temples of Abu Simbel were relocated in order to rescue the ancient temples from the waters of the Nile.

  1. The Abu Simbel Temples were dismantled and relocated in 1968 on the desert plateau 64 meters above and 180 meters west of their original built site.
  2. Moving the temples was not a job; it was massive work.
  3. It included cutting the temples into pieces between 3 to 20 tons in weight and reassembling them precisely as they were at the new site.

It took almost five years to finish the relocation. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel

When was the construction of Abu Simbel?

Egypt’s exquisite temples that had to be moved (Image credit: Image Source/Getty Images ) Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel If Abu Simbel had not been saved, places like Vienna’s Historic Centre, Cambodia’s Angkor Wat and other Unesco World Heritage sites might only live on in history books. D Deep within the interior of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel, carved into a mountainside in southern Egypt’s ancient Nubian Valley, lies a vast, wondrous world.

  • Pillars adorned with intricate military artworks support a ceiling painted with winged vultures.
  • Floor-to-ceiling hieroglyphics depicting the victorious battles of Pharaoh Ramses II, the same man responsible for constructing this enormous temple, decorate the walls.
  • Outside, four colossal statues of the pharaoh face east toward the rising sun, looking out over a crystal-clear lake.

It’s an incredible sight to behold, but one that if history had gone just a little bit differently, would not be here today. Instead, this temple would be under the lake’s waters. What’s even harder to imagine, if Abu Simbel had not been saved, places like Vienna’s Historic Centre, Cambodia’s Angkor Wat and other Unesco World Heritage sites might only live on in history books. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel An immense preservation effort saved the temples of Abu Simbel from a watery fate (Credit: frans lemmens/Alamy) You may also be interested in: • A silent city hidden in the desert • The tiny town built from Roman ruins • A 30,000km road to a lost world North Africa’s Nubian Valley straddles the border of southern Egypt and northern Sudan, a remote desert region dotted with palm-fringed oases and occasional wadis (seasonal rivers) that is home to the mighty Nile River, which winds its way past the Egyptian city of Aswan towards Cairo.

  1. In ancient days, this was a land of gold and riches, and one ruled by kings – many of whom built pyramids, monuments and temples, in part as a show of power.
  2. The Abu Simbel complex, built over the course of 20 years in the 13th Century BC, is one of the most impressive still standing today.
  3. Alongside the larger Great Temple stands a smaller temple that honours Ramses’ queen, Nefertari.
You might be interested:  What Is The Plural Of Roof?

Keating was in awe when she saw the temples for the first time. But she was even more amazed to find out that in the early 1960s, a team of international engineers disassembled and then carefully moved – piece by piece – each of them. They then reassembled the temples more than 60m above their original location to save the complex from the Nile’s rising waters. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel The Great Temple, built by Pharaoh Ramses II, features floor-to-ceiling hieroglyphics (Credit: EmmePi Travel/Alamy) Unesco’s ‘Nubia Campaign’ came about in 1960, when the United Arab Republic (a political union of Egypt and Syria that existed between 1958 and 1961) began construction on a new dam along the Nile River, just outside of Aswan.

While the dam would improve irrigation throughout the valley as well as significantly increase Egypt’s hydroelectric output, in a few years the swelling waters would also completely submerge Abu Simbel’s exquisite temples. In an effort to prevent the temples’ destruction, Unesco embarked on its first-ever collaborative international rescue effort (the organisation initially formed in 1945 to promote a joined culture of peace and prevent the outbreak of another war).

This incredible effort later became the catalyst for a World Heritage list that would help protect and promote what now totals 1,073 significant cultural and natural sites around the globe. “I had no idea before visiting Abu Simbel that it led to Unesco creating a World Heritage list,” Keating said. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel The construction of a dam along the Nile River threatened to submerge the Abu Simbel temples in the newly created Lake Nasser (Credit: Lloyd Cluff/Getty Images) However, the process of relocating the temples wasn’t so simple. “It was a huge undertaking,” explained Dr Mechtild Rössler, Unesco’s director of Heritage Division and director of the World Heritage Centre.

“One that I’m not sure could be done again today, with questions such as the ways a campaign of this magnitude would impact a region both environmentally and socially coming into play.” Beginning in November 1963, a group of hydrologists, engineers, archaeologists and other professionals set out on Unesco’s multi-year plan to break down both temples, cutting them into precise blocks (807 for the Great Temple, 235 for the smaller one) that were then numbered, carefully moved and restored to their original grandeur within a specially created mountain facade.

Workers even recalculated the exact measurements needed to recreate the same solar alignment, assuring that twice a year, on about 22 February (the date of Ramses II’s ascension to the throne) and 22 October (his birthday), the rising sun would continue to shine through a narrow opening to illuminate the sculpted face of King Ramses II and those of two other statues deep inside the Great Temple’s interior. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel In the 1960s, a team of engineers moved the Abu Simbel temples to higher ground (Credit: Rolls Press/Popperfoto/Getty Images) Indeed, it has gone down as one of history’s greatest archaeological engineering challenges. Imagine such a massive project being conducted in what seems to be the middle of nowhere, often in stifling heat.

In retrospect, the whole thing seems preposterous, but it was exactly what Unesco needed to prove to themselves that by pulling together resources, they were virtually unstoppable. “The completion of such an enormous and complex project helped realise that we were capable of three main things,” Dr Rössler said.

“First, bringing together the best expertise the world has to offer. Second, securing the international cooperation of its members, And third: assuring the responsibility of the international community to bring together funding and support that would help the world’s heritage as a whole.” “We recognised that one country alone is just not capable,” she said. Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel The process of moving the temples required breaking them down into precise blocks and reassembling them piece by piece (Credit: Rolls Press/Popperfoto/Getty Images) With momentum flowing, Unesco continued launching campaigns, including the ongoing safeguarding of Venice, nearly destroyed by floods in the mid-1960s.

In 1965, a White House conference in Washington DC proposed the formation of a ‘World Heritage Trust’ to continuously preserve the world’s ‘superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites’. A few years later, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) crafted a similar proposal. But it wasn’t until November 1972 that the General Conference of Unesco adopted the Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, merging both drafts together to preserve cultural and natural heritage equally.

Today, the Nubia Campaign’s success is responsible for the conservation and preservation of places like Mexico’s Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Germany’s Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura, and South Africa’s Robben Island, where the country’s former president, Nelson Mandela, served time in a tiny prison cell.

  1. It has also led to more elaborate safeguarding measures – similar to those taken at Abu Simbel – at World Heritage sites around the globe.
  2. These exist especially in war-torn zones like Iraq and Yemen, as well as Ethiopia, where just a decade ago Unesco returned the Obelisk of Axum: a 24m-tall, 160-tonne granite obelisk that the Italians took piecemeal back to Rome in 1937 under Mussolini’s fascist regime.

“The return and re-erection of the obelisk – this was the moment that marked the end of the Second World War,” Dr Rössler said, adding: “People need their heritage. Natural disasters, war. we can’t let these things take that heritage away.” Which Pharaoh Ordered The Construction Of The Abu Simbel The Nubia Campaign’s success is responsible for the creation of Unesco’s World Heritage list (Credit: Image Source/Getty Images) Fifty years after the completion of the Nubia project, the Abu Simbel temples remain a popular – albeit still remote – traveller pilgrimage.

Lake Nasser is known for its excellent freshwater fishing, as well as its numerous crocodiles. But the highlight of the Nubian Valley is undoubtedly the temple complex, which 3,000 years on endures as an iconic symbol of both humankind’s common heritage and how one ancient monument can help preserve the planet.

Of course, it could have been something else entirely: “People might still be visiting the temples,” said Dr Rössler, “but it would be through snorkelling or diving or – because of the crocodiles – looking at them through the floor of a glass-bottom boat.” Places That Changed the World is a BBC Travel series looking into how a destination has made a significant impact on the entire planet.

During which period of Egyptian history was Abu Simbel built?

The two enormous rock temples of Abu Simbel were built in the 13th century BCE during the reign of the 19th Dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses II, known as Ramesses the Great, and his queen Nefertari, Their construction, including the carving of the massive rock-cut statues of the royals, took twenty years.

  • Dedicated to the Ancient Egyptian gods Amun, Ra-Horakhty and Ptah and to Ramesses himself, they are considered to be the most beautiful of the temples commissioned during the Pharaoh’s reign, placed by many tourists as a highlight on their travels around the country.
  • Buried in the sand for centuries, the temples were rediscovered at the beginning of the 19th century CE.

They had to be dismantled and relocated in the 1960s to avoid damage by floods during the construction of the Aswan Dam, This incredible feat was achieved thanks to the financial support of a number of countries around the world; to show gratitude, Egypt donated four temples to the different nations who provided assistance, including the Temple of Debod, located in Madrid, Spain,

As well as admiring the majestic architecture of the ancient temple complex during the daytime, if you decide to stay overnight in Abu Simbel, you’ll have time to experience the light and sound show put on every evening (at 6 pm in winter and 7 pm in summer, costs LE 250). Top tip : take an early bus or excursion so that you’ll arrive to see the sun rise over the desert,

Well worth getting up early!

Who built the temple of Ramses II?

Abu Simbel

Type Temple
History
Builder Ramesses II
Founded Approximately 1264 BC
Periods New Kingdom of Egypt

What happened on Feb 22 and Abu Simbel October?

What does the Abu Simbel Sun Festival celebrate? – The Abu Simbel Sun Festival celebrates the two dates each year when the sun fills the innermost temple room where there are four statues. This happens to celebrate the anniversary of Ramesses’ ascension to the throne (in February) and his birthday (in October).

  1. The statues in this temple room depict Ramesses, Ra, Amun and Ptah.
  2. Ramesses sits alongside these gods because, as a pharaoh, he too was considered a god.
  3. On February 22nd and October 22nd each year, light fills the temple to illuminate three out of the four of these statues- Ptah, as the god of darkness, forever remains in the dark.

The sun illuminates the temple corridor back more than 200 feet to reach these statues.