I. Stones Commonly Used for Construction – 1. Granite Granite is one of the most used stones for building construction. While not the main stone used for construction now, granite is popular because of its hard, durable qualities. A deep-seated igneous rock, it has a fine to coarse grain with a crystalline structure.
This stone is highly valuable thanks to its crushing strength. Even more so, it can withstand high weathering. Usually, they cut granite stones into slabs then polished. After that, it can be used for stone facing slabs and floor slabs. The problem with granite is it has poor resistance to fire. It is perfect, however, to use in building a house given that it is inert to some acidic fluids like curds, vinegar, and lime juice.
That makes granite useful for tabletops in the kitchen. 2. Marble Marble is a metamorphic rock formed when limestone goes through excessive pressure and heat. This stone is naturally hard and compact with a compressive strength of around 70 MPa. Its specific gravity is around 2.65. Easily cut and carved, marble can be made into varying shapes. 3. Quartzite Another metamorphic stone, quartzite is the result of sandstone after subjected to high temperature and pressure. The main characteristic of this stone is its granular texture and crystalline structure. Quartzite is brittle and hard, which does not make it easily workable. 4. Basalt Basalt is an igneous rock also known as white stones, green stones or blue basalt. This stone is hard and tough, which is both good and bad for construction. This toughness makes it hard to use the rock as easily for whatever purpose. The compressive strength of basalt is high between 150-190 MPa. 5. Limestone Limestone is a sedimentary rock formed when weathering depositions particles. This stone is mostly made of calcium carbonate. This makes it a soft rock compared to others in this article, so it is easily workable for various building construction.
This stone has a compressive strength of around 55 MPa. It is often mixed with small amounts of alumina and silica along with magnesia. If the magnesia is 10% or more, it becomes magnesian. If the magnesia is more than 45%, limestone is called dolomites.6. Onyx Onyx is a kind of marble, but mostly calcite.
Compared to granite, it is much softer. It is also likely to etch or stain. Compared to marbles, onyx is translucent. On that, you will often find it used in construction combined with lighting to show its beauty. This stone is a high variable with heavy veining. 7. Slate Slate is a rock formed via a metamorphic process where shale goes through low heat and pressure conditions. It is mostly composed of mica, clay, and quartz minerals. With a fine-grained, foliated structure, slate is brittle and hard. This stone is mostly available in the color black, but may also be available in greenish-gray, gray, or purplish gray. 8. Sandstone Sandstone is a sedimentary rock consisting of various minerals such as feldspar, quartz, silica, and others. This stone is available in different colors such as brown, grey, white, yellow, red, and dark gray. Its compressive strength is around 65 MPa. 9. Alabaster Alabaster is a highly translucent stone. This building material is relatively scarce, which makes its use in construction limited. It is mostly used in creating small artistic items instead of an entire building. It is, however, combined with other materials that helped to widen its applications. 10. Travertine Also called as lapis Tiburtinus after the Tibur quarry where it’s first acquired, travertine is a widely used building material. It has been used to build numerous historic buildings such as the Colosseum. In China, many cave formations have travertine stones.
Travertine is a sedimentary stone often found in cold and hot mineral springs. The stone is also found naturally occurring in limestone caves. Technically, it’s a type of limestone formed due to cycles of water leaving calcite and aragonite after it dissolves deposits. Still, travertine and limestone are different stones in the world of construction, architecture and home design.
It is an attractive stone with marble-like and fibrous texture. It comes in lovely earth-tone colors. It is easier to maintain compared to other natural stones. Now you are familiar with the various types of stones you may use in building constructions. The next step then maybe to pick which stone will be suitable for your building project. So, ask yourself first, “what kind of project will I be doing?” Are you going to construct a house from scratch? Will you be redoing the kitchen? What kind of décor do you want? All these things matter when you choose the type of stone to use.
As you realize by now, not all stones are created equal and have different aspects to consider. To help you pick, we will give you an idea about the characteristics of excellent building stone. ABOUT ME: I’m Yan, a one-stop project solution provider in the building materials industry loving to share trends and knowledge to design and complete your home or building project.
George Buildings is where I am working at. We are a one-stop supplier for all things-construction. When you need high-quality stones for excellent prices, we are always happy to help. George Buildings is dedicated to bringing your construction projects to reality one stone at a time.
- 1 Which stone is used for building?
- 2 What is the most common stone?
Which stone is used for building?
Uses of Building Stones – The stones used for various types of works are as follows:
Fine-grained granite and gneiss stones are used for Heavy engineering works such as building bridge piers, breakwaters, monuments, etc. Granite, quartzite and compact sandstones are used for masonry works in industrial areas exposed to smoke and fumes. Marble, granite and sandstone are used for facing work of buildings. Limestone and sandstone are used for general building works. Fine-grained granite, marble, and soft sandstone are used for Carvings and ornamental works. Compact limestone and sandstone are used for Fire-resistant masonry. Granite, quartzite stones are used in foundations of building in places with the high groundwater level. Marble, slate, sandstone and granite stones are used for floor pavings.
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What stone is used in concrete?
Common types of rock used in construction – There are many types of natural stone and rock all around us. If you dig into the ground, go to a river, or look into a canyon you’ll see a wide variety of colors, sizes, and styles. However, like trees or dirt, not all natural rock is created equally.
Some rocks have a softer texture, while some are harder. Different rocks react differently to pressure. When planning your construction project, it’s important to know what kinds of rocks are ideal for specific applications. After all, if a rock type crumbles easily under pressure, you don’t want to use it as a component in ready-mix concrete or pavement.
Different types of rock also bond differently. This is important in ready-mix concrete in which it is imperative the rock bonds correctly with the sand, water, and other components. So what are some of the most common rocks used in construction, and what are they used for?
Basalt: An igneous rock often used for road pavement or concrete aggregates. They are also used for masonry projects Granite: An igneous rock that is durable and easily polished. Because of the color, grain, and polishing ability, they are often used inside homes for countertops or on the outside of monumental or civic buildings. However, they can also be used on bridge piers and river walls. Limestone: A sedimentary rock that is the most commonly used to make crushed stone in the United States. One of the most versatile rocks for construction, limestone is able to be crushed easily making it a primary rock used in ready-mix concrete, road construction, and railroads. It is widely available in quarries across the country. Sandstone: A sedimentary rock used primarily for concrete and masonry work. It is unsuitable for use as a building stone because of its sediment composition. Slate: A metamorphic rock typically found in layers. Because it is easily mined and cut in these natural layers, it works well in applications requiring thin rock layers. Common examples are roofing tiles, certain types of chalkboards, gravestones, and some pavement applications. Laterite: A metamorphic rock with a highly porous and sponge structure. It is easily quarried in block form and used as a building stone. However, it is important to plaster the surface to eliminate the pores. Marble: A metamorphic rock. Like granite, it can be polished well and is often used for decorative purposes. Common uses are columns, flooring, or steps in monumental buildings. Gneiss: A metamorphic rock. Due to the harmful components of the rock, it is rarely used in construction, although hard varieties are sometimes used in building construction. Quartzite: A metamorphic rock that is used in building blocks and slabs. It is also used as an aggregate in ready mix concrete.
As you can see, there are multiple kinds of rocks used for construction! Many of them have a specific purpose for their use in construction, and if you know what to look for, you’ll start seeing these rocks in their different applications.
Why is stone used in construction?
Basic Civil Engineering Get full access to Basic Civil Engineering and 60K+ other titles, with free 10-day trial of O’Reilly. There’s also live online events, interactive content, certification prep materials, and more. Stones form one of the most important building materials in civil engineering.
Stones are derived from rocks, which form the earth’s crust and have no definite shape or chemical combination but are mixtures of two or more minerals. The mineral is a substance which is formed by the natural inorganic process and possesses a definite chemical combination and molecular structure. They are strong, durable and descent in appearance.
The main uses of stone as a building material are:
As a principal material for foundation of civil engineering works, and for the construction of walls, arches, abutments and dams. In stone masonry in places where it is naturally available. As coarse aggregate in cement concrete (crushed form of rock).
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What are the 4 main types of aggregates?
Aggregates Definition: – Aggregates are coarse particulate rock-like material consisting of a collection of particles ranging in size from 50 mm. It includes gravel, crushed rock, sand, recycled concrete, slag, and synthetic aggregate. Aggregate is a granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, crushed hydraulic-cement concrete, or iron blast-furnace slag, used with a hydraulic cementing medium to produce either concrete or mortar.
What are the 7 natural stones?
These 7 Chakra stones are: 1) Rose quartz, 2) Amethyst, 3) Green aventurine, 4) Lapis lazuli, 5) Red jasper, 6) Clear quartz, and 7) Tiger’s eye.
What are the 9 types of stones?
Gems and planets – Late Thai astrologer Horacharn Thep Sarikabutr has given the meaning of these nine gems in his Parichad-Jataka (chapter 2, verse 21, page 35–36) translated as follows: “Top quality and flawless ruby is the gem for the Sun, natural pearl for the Moon, red coral for Mars, emerald for Mercury, yellow sapphire for Jupiter, diamond for Venus, blue sapphire for Saturn, hessonite for Rahu (ascending lunar node), and cat’s eye for Ketu (descending lunar node).” This quote attributed to the Sanskrit “Brihat Jatak” is also quoted in the “Mani-mala” page 575, verse 79 by S.M.
- ( māṇikyaṃ ) for ( taraṇeḥ ) (Sun),
- ( muktāphalaṃ ) for (Moon),
- Red ( vidrumaṃ ) for ( māheya ) (Mars),
- ( maratakaṃ ) for ( saumya ) (Mercury),
- ( puṣparājaṃ ) for ( devejya ) (Jupiter),
- ( vajraṃ ) for ( asurācārya ) (Venus),
- ( nīlaṃ ) for (Saturn),
- ( gomeda ) for (the ascending lunar node)
- ( vaidūryaṃ ) for (the descending lunar node),
“.these gems must be high-born and flawless.”
What is natural stone in construction?
What is natural stone & where it is used? Advantages & Disadvantages Stone is one of the most used materials in the construction industry. Most building materials over time lose their initial quality and their strength resists, but the rock is a component of materials that over time does not have any effect on it and always maintains its natural level. Today, the stone is used both in building and interior decoration. The durability and longevity of this material are very high, and most of the buildings made with rocks will remain for many years to come. The rocks are classified into two categories: natural stone and artificial stone.
What is the most common stone?
Minerals – Minerals are solid substances that have formed naturally in the Earth. They have a characteristic chemical and physical properties and usually a regular crystal structure. Most rocks that we see today are made of minerals (they are the ‘ingredients’ in rocks) and both precious metals and gems are subsets of minerals. Asbestos has an unsavory reputation for causing cancer in people who work around it. It is a fibrous mineral with incredible fire retarding properties. Although asbestos has a bad reputation, when polished it becomes the well known and popular ‘Tiger Eye’ stone.
Barium is a common element used in x-ray technology, fireworks, rubber and glass making and rat poison. It is a soft, white metallic element and alkaline. Bauxite is a sedimentary rock that is an important ore of aluminum. The aluminum content in it is leeched from the soil above. Cobalt is famous for the incredible blue color it imparts to glass and pigment.
It has been found in meteorites and is used in invisible ink. It is a brittle metal and resembles iron. Fluorite (fluorspar) is commonly used to create fluorescent pigment and since it is very beautiful, it is used for gem material. It is mined all over the world. Iron Ore is perhaps as important to civilization today as gold historically has been. It is used in all sorts of construction from vehicles to buildings. Lead has a bad reputation for its poisoning capabilities, some of which may have been exaggerated by fear.
- It cannot be absorbed by the skin or breathing, but it is harmful if it touches food or drink.
- It was at one time used in paint, pencils and eating utensils.
- Lithium is used in several applications including medication for bipolar symptoms and batteries.
- Lithium has become very popular with the advent of electric cars.
Manganese with iron impurities can be slightly magnetic. It is essential in the steel making process, and petroglyphs were carved into it in the Southwest. Mica is the mineral responsible for putting a sparkle on many rocks. This mineral is very flexible, and large sheets of it were used as window glass in the past.
Nickel is a common metal in everyday life. It has been used in currency, jewelry and eating utensils and is used in alloys as well. Potash is the old fashioned term for Potassium. Potassium is a major component in crop fertilizer around the world. It is very important in the human body since it works with salt regulating the pressure inside and outside the body’s cell walls.
It is also used in soap manufacture. Pyrite is commonly known as ‘fools gold.’ It is frequently seen in granite rocks where it adds sparkle. Native Americans polished it to use as a mirror, and it is occasionally used in jewelry. Its byproduct is used in ink and disinfectants. Quartz (silica) is the most abundant mineral on earth. It is the name for a large family of rocks including the jaspers, agates, onyxes and flints. Quartz is used in concrete, glass, scientific instruments and watches. Most importantly today, it is used to make silicon semiconductors.
Silica is used in desiccants to remove moisture from the air. It is also used in sandpaper and glass making. Rare Earth Elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium ytterbium and lutetium) Many of these are used to create nuclear power.
Silver is one of the precious metals. It is used as currency and in jewelry making. It is also used in medicine due to its anti microbial properties. Sodium Carbonate (soda ash or trona) is used to control the pH of products. It is used to make glass, paper, detergents and for softening. Tantalum is used when an alloy needs a high melting point and strength. It is used in missiles, aircraft parts and vacuums. Titanium is one of the most abundant and toughest metals on Earth. It is used extensively in human body repair. Tungsten is a metal that is stronger than steel and a high melting temperature.
It is also used to make saw blades and used in welding. Uranium is a highly radioactive element. It is used in cancer treatments, X-rays, military weapons and fuel for the space shuttle. Vanadium is found in many foods and helps bones grow. It is useful in regulating blood sugar in diabetics and helps grow muscles for bodybuilders.
Zeolite is known as the ‘stone that dances’. It is used in wastewater cleanup and since it can absorb ammonia, it is used in kitty litter and reducing other animal smells. Zinc is essential for a healthy life. Zinc deficiency can cause rashes, diarrhea, impaired taste and eye problems. It is used to macular degeneration, diabetes and the common cold. Some examples of minerals mined here in Ireland are: Gypsum Gypsum is an evaporite mineral and the most common Sulphate mineral in the world.
It is used widely in the construction industry in the form of plasterboard and wet plaster. Gypsum Gypsum is a very soft mineral with a variety of uses, most commonly in drywall, also known as sheet rock. It is also used as a fertilizer and road construction. It is mined in areas of Co. Cavan. Copper Copper is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity.
It is widely used in electronics industry especially for use in wires. Copper is a common metal throughout the world. It is used for currency, jewelry, plumbing and to conduct electricity. It is a soft, orange-red metal. Copper has previously been mined in Co.
Why is stone used for walls?
Robust nature – Stone wall cladding is incredibly durable which is particularly important when installing it as an exterior application. It’s more resistant to breaking and chipping than many other walling materials such as concrete cladding and can withstand harsh weather conditions.
Why are stones used in cement?
Proper Drainage – Because concrete is a very porous material, it will absorb any moisture that it contacts. This can cause pooling. Without crushed stone, pooling water will settle under it and erode your slab. Adding a layer of crushed stone will add, as well as create a barrier between your slab and the ground. For added protection, consider adding a vapor barrier as well.
Why is sand stone used in construction?
Natural Durability – Sandstone is famous for being used outdoors, but what’s the reason behind that? The reason is that it is considered to be a very durable material which can withstand almost all kind of weather conditions without having any noticeable effect.
Is stone the best building material?
Reason Number Three – Stone is durable, fireproof, bug- and vermin-proof, and rot-free. While some log or wood-frame buildings tend to crumble into ruin and decay after 50 years or so, well-built stone structures will often stand for centuries. (Of course, you won’t live in your stone house that long, but your great-grandchildren might still be there which would certainly help save precious building materials for others.) You’re not likely to lose a stone house to fire either, but even if the structure’s wood frame interior were somehow gutted by flames, you could probably rebuild from the original stone shell.
What rock types are best for building materials?
Sedimentary Rocks – These stones form when fragments of various rocks combine over time. Sedimentary stones are known for their many qualities, including their strength, durability, and versatility. Most sedimentary rocks have high corrosion resistance, making them the best types of stone for building wall cladding, flooring, fireplaces, and more.