The Golden temple is located in the holy city of the Sikhs, Amritsar. The Golden temple is famous for its full golden dome, it is one of the most sacred pilgrim spots for Sikhs. The Mandir is built on a 67-ft square of marble and is a two storied structure.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh had the upper half of the building built with approximately 400 kg of gold leaf. The Golden Temple is surrounded by a number of other famous temples like the Durgiana Temple. The fourth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Ram Das, who had initially constructed a pool here, founded Amritsar, which houses the Golden Temple or Harmandir Sahib.
It is here that Sage Valmiki wrote the epic, Ramayana. Rama and Sita are believed to have spent their fourteen-year exile in Amritsar, the epicenter of Sikhism. To the south of the temple is a garden, and the tower of Baba Atal. The Central Sikh Museum is atop the Clock Tower.
- The ‘Guru Ka Langar’ offers free food to around 20,000 people everyday.
- The number shoots up to 100,000 on special occasions.
- A visitor must cover his / her head before entering the temple premises.
- The Granth Sahib is kept in the Temple during the day and is kept in the Akal Takht or Eternal Throne in the night.
The Akal Takht also houses the ancient weapons used by the Sikh warriors. Guru Hargobind established it. The rugged old Jubi Tree in the north west corner of the compound is believed to possess special powers. It was planted 450 years ago, by the Golden Temple’s first high priest, Baba Buddha.
- Guru-ka-Langar or the communal canteen is towards the eastern entrance of the temple complex, and it provides free food to all visitors, regardless of colour, creed, caste or gender.
- Visitors to the Golden Temple must remove their shoes and cover their heads before entering the temple.
- The temple is less crowded in the early mornings on weekends.
For more information click : http://www.sgpc.net
Aerial View of Golden Temple Right side view of Golden Temple Harimandir Sahib Pavitar Sarovar
- 1 When was golden temple built and by whom?
- 2 Who started the construction of Amritsar?
- 3 Why Golden Temple is built?
- 4 Is Golden Temple totally made of gold?
- 5 Why is it called Golden Temple?
When was golden temple built and by whom?
Ranjit Singh era reconstruction – An 1880 photograph of the Golden Temple, sacred pool and the nearby buildings. The walled courtyard and entrances were added later. Ranjit Singh founded the nucleus of the Sikh Empire at the age of 36 with help of Sukerchakia Misl forces he inherited and those of his mother-in-law Rani Sada Kaur.
- In 1802, at age 22, he took Amritsar from the Bhangi Sikh misl, paid homage at the Golden Temple and announced that he would renovate and rebuild it with marble and gold.
- The Temple was renovated in marble and copper in 1809, and in 1830 Ranjit Singh donated gold to overlay the sanctum with gold leaf.
After learning of the Gurdwara through Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the 7th Nizam of Hyderabad ” Mir Osman Ali Khan ” started giving yearly grants towards it. The management and operation of Durbar Sahib – a term that refers to the entire Golden Temple complex of buildings, was taken over by Ranjit Singh.
Who is the owner of Golden temple?
Who donated land for Golden Temple – Old Photos of Darbar Sahib The land for the site was bought by the Guru Ram Das Sahib on payment from the Zamindars (landlords) of native villages. Guru Arjan Sahib got its foundation laid by a muslim saint Hazrat Mian Mir ji of Lahore on 1st of Magh, 1645 Bikrmi Samvat (December, 1588).
The construction work was directly supervised by Guru Arjan Sahib himself and he was assisted by the prominent Sikh personalities like Baba Budha ji, Bhai Gurdas ji, Bhai Sahlo ji and many other devoted Sikhs, Unlike erecting the structure on the higher level (a tradition in Hindu Temple architecture), Guru Arjan Sahib got it built on the lower level and unlike Hindu Temples having only one gate for the entrance and exit, Guru Sahib got it open from four sides.
Thus he created a symbol of new faith, Sikhism, Guru Sahib made it accessible to every person without any distinction of Caste, creed, sex and religion. The building work completed in 1601 A.D. on Bhadoon Sudi 1st, 1661 Bikrmi Samvat (August/September,1604). Most Rare Pictures Of Golden Temple Sri Harmandir Sahib, is built on a 67ft. square platform in the centre of the Sarovar (tank), The temple itself is 40.5ft. square. It has a door each on the East, West, North and South. The Darshani Deori (an arch) stands at the shore end of the causeway.
- The door frame of the arch is about 10ft in height and 8ft 6inches in breath.
- The door panes are decorated with artistic style.
- It opens on to the causeway or bridge that leads to the main building of Sri Harmandir Sahib,
- It is 202 feet in length and 21 feet in width.
- The bridge is connected with the 13 feet wide ‘Pardakshna’ (circumambulatory path).
It runs round the main shrine and it leads to the ‘Har ki Paure’ (steps of God). On the first floor of “Har Ki Pauri”, there is continuous reading of Guru Granth Sahib, Rare Old and Historical Photograph of The Golden Temple The main structure of Sri Harmandir Sahib, functionally as well as technically is a three-storied one. The front, which faces the bridge, is decorated with repeated cusped arches and the roof of the first floor is at the height of the 26 feet and 9 inches.
- At the top of the first floor 4 feet high parapet rises on all the sides which has also four ‘Mamtees’ on the four corners and exactly on the top of the central hall of the main sanctuary rises the third story.
- It is a small square room and have three gates.
- A regular recitation of Guru Granth Sahib is also held there.
On the top of this room stands the low fluted ‘Gumbaz’ (dome) having lotus petal motif in relief at the base inverted lotus at the top which supports the “Kalash” having a beautiful “Chhatri” at the end. Its architecture represents a unique harmony between the Muslims and the Hindus way of construction work and this is considered the best architectural specimens of the world.
Which guru was responsible for building the Golden Temple?
The first Harmandir Sahib was built in 1604 by Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru, who symbolically had it placed on a lower level so that even the humblest had to step down to enter it. He also included entrances on all four sides, signifying that it was open to worshippers of all castes and creeds.
Who started the construction of Amritsar?
History Amritsar was founded by Sri Guru Ramdass ji, the fourth guru of the Sikhs in about 1574 A.D. Before the city was founded, the area was covered with thick forests and had several lakes. To start the city the Guru invited 52 traders from different sectors belongings to nearby places like Patti and Kasur to settle here.
These families started the first 32 shops in the city which still stand in the street called Batisi Hatta (32 shops). The Guru himself shifted to live among them in the city which came to be called Ramdaspur and has been eulogised in the Guru Granth Sahib. The construction of Amrit Sarovar from which the city gets its present name was also stared by Sri Guru Ramdass.
His successor, Sri Guru Arjan Dev, completed the project and located the Harmandir Sahib in its midst. Later, when Guru Arjan Dev completed the writing of Holy Granth sahib, a copy of Guru Granth Sahib was ceremonially installed in Harmandir Sahib. Baba Buddha Sahib was appointed the First Granthi.
After the last Guru Sri Guru Gobind Singh Baba Banda Bahadur a Sikh from Nanded came to the Punjab and inflicted several crushing defeats on the imperial Mughal forces. This led to the rise of Sikh power and the rise of several “jathas or bands” called Misls.12 Misls of the Sikh confederacy controlled Punjab and from time to time attempted to expand their territory and resources.4 of these Misl, namely; the Ahulwalia Misl, Ramgarhia Misl, Kanhiya Misl and Bhangi Misl controlled Amritsar from time to time.
Each of them contributed to the city of Amritsar. Before Maharaja Ranjit Singh, outer Amritsar was controlled by the Bhangi misl who built the Gobindgarh Fort. They were crushed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, early in his career. Part of Amritsar was controlled by The Khanhiya Misl with whom Maharaja Ranjit Singh formed a matrimonial alliance by marrying Jai Singh infant granddaughter Mahtab Kaur when he was six year old himself.
The Ahluwalia Misl Controlled a large part of the city. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was its most prominent leader. He defeated the Afgan Ahmad Shah Abdali in the battle of Amritsar in 1765, He was at one time the richest and the most powerful misaldars. The Misl built a fort in the city and had full control, till Maharaja Ranjit Singh forces to accept his leadership.
The Ramgaria Misl controlled the rest of Amritsar and was the most powerful misls. Jassa Singh Ramgarhia was the first to fortify the Amritsar, He surrounded the place with the Huge mud wall calling it Ram Navami or fort of God. It was attacked by the imperial Mughal forces but it was rebuilt by Jassa Singh who renamed the place as Ramgarh from which his misl took its name Ramgarhia.
He was the ferocious military leader and even accepted red fort in New Delhi and made away with four guns and the endowment slab on which the Mughals were crowned and placed it within the Golden Temple Complex. During the Misal period Barracks, Bungas, Forts and Havelis were constructed as required around the Golden Temple for use of the Sikh Army.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh brought all the Misls under his control and took over full control of Amritsar by 1802 A.D. It was who fortified the Gobind Garh Fort on the modern lines. He also built the Ram bag Palace and the garden of Mughal Lines and covered the Harmandir Sahib in Gold and made it look as we see it today.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh also built a huge wall with 12 gates around the city of Amritsar.
- Only one gate “The Ram Bagh Gate” stands till day.
- The British took over Amritsar in 1840 A.D.
- The years under the British rule saw the demolition of the outer walls of the city and rebuilding of gates, the construction of Town Hall from where they administered the city of Amritsar.
The British also renamed the Ram Bagh Garden as Company Bagh. Current building of the Railway Station, the post office and the Saragarhi Gurdwara Memorial were all erected during the British era. The best example of Indo-British architecture however, is the Khalsa College, designed by the famous architect Ram Singh, a resident of Cheel Mandi, Amritsar.
- His works include the Darbar Hall of Queen Victoria at Osborne House, UK the Darbar Hall of Mysore and Kapurthala, Chiefs College at Lahore and several other outstanding examples of Indo-British Architecture.
- He was the pioneer in taking the exquisite Pinjara Wood work and wooden carvings of Amritsar and making them popular all over the world.
The Heritage Walk show cases some exquisite wood work and traditional architecture. The city is the cultural capital of Punjab today. : History
Why Golden Temple is built?
The Golden Temple, formally known as Sri Harmandir Sahib, is a Sikh Gurdwara in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It was built as a place of worship for all religions, and is considered the holiest Gurdwara of Sikhism. The symbolic openness of the Sikhs is represented by the four entrances used to enter the Gurdwara.
It also includes the world’s largest free kitchen, capable of serving food to 300,000 people a day. The structure dates back to the 16th century, when the site was acquired from the landlords of local villages, with the intention of establishing a new town settlement, Excavation of the 22,943.25 sq.m lake known as a Sarovar (the tank ) but actually called Amritsar (Pool of the Nectar of Immortality) began in 1570, and gave the name to the city that developed around it.
The tank was intended to be God’s home and whoever bathed in it would obtain spiritual and temporal advantages. It is fed by the Ravi River, The normal custom had been for a Gurdwara to be built on high land ; however, it was decided to build at a lower level so that worshippers would have to descend steps to enter it. The temple is built on a 4177 sq. ft platform and is approached by a causeway of roughly 60 m in length. The Darshani Deorhi Arch stands at the beginning of the causeway, measuring 6.2 m (20.3 ft) high and 6 m (20 ft) wide. The main structure is three storeys high. A low-fluted golden dome sits at the top, with a lotus petal motif in relief at the base. There are also several miniature fluted domes covered with gilded copper, Inside the Gurdwara memorial plaques commemorate past Sikh historical events, martyrs and saints.
The temple had to undergo substantial rebuilding in the 1760s, after it was attacked by the Afghan army. In the early-19th century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh secured the Punjab region from further attack and set about covering the Gurdwara’s upper floors with 750 kg of gold gilding and marblework, providing the temple with its distinctive appearance,
The gold plating was completed in 1830.
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Is Golden Temple totally made of gold?
1. Golden Temple Named After The 24-Karat Gold Covering – The Golden Temple that you see today interestingly wasn’t covered with an inch of gold when it was first constructed. In the year 1762, this religious heritage site was complete, destroyed by Islamic rulers. Also Read: India’s Famous Golden Temple Comes To Brampton In Canada
What is the daily income of Golden Temple?
Temporal needs: Offerings at Golden Temple dip from Rs 23 lakh to Rs 15,000 a day Amritsar: The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC) is in a fix and will find it tough to manage its finances as it has seen a massive dip in offerings from devotees at the Golden Temple, the largest gurdwara in the world, due to the curfew imposed to check the spread of covid-19.
From an average collection of offerings of Rs 23 lakh a day (Rs 85 crore for the year, including those received online) in 2019-20, its collection for the two weeks since the curfew was imposed has dipped to between Rs 10,000 and Rs 15,000 a day, said an SGPC official, who did not want to be quoted.
Besides management of gurdwaras, which entails offering langar, the SGPC also runs educational and medical institutes for social service. It has also been offering langar to the needy across north India amid the lockdown. The situation, in terms of offerings, is similar in all gurdwaras, with a prolonged lockdown likely to further dent its finances.
The Golden Temple sees an average daily footfall of 1 lakh; this has now dipped to around 1,000 a day, with devotees mostly coming in from areas near the shrine, said another SGPC official. “Online offerings have also dipped considerably. These come from other states and NRI devotees. With every country battling covid-19, their collective economy and individual savings have been hit.
Banks are also not operational in many areas and this, too, has impacted offerings,” said an SGPC official, adding that the Golden Temple employed around 25% (2,800) of the gurdwara body’s 11,000 employees. He added that the monthly salary bill of the SGPC was also in crores.
- Its annual budget for 2018-19 was Rs 1,205 crore.
- At Takht Sri Kesgarh Sahib, Anandpur Sahib, the second-largest gurdwara under the SGPC, there was dip in offerings by around Rs 70 lakh in the Holla Mohalla festival this year in March, over the corresponding period last year.
- To inspire devotees, Golden Temple head granthi Giani Jagtar Singh has given Rs 51,000 as offering to Sri Guru Ram Das Langar Ghar, the langar centre of the temple itself.
SGPC chief secretary Roop Singh and former Golden Temple granthi Giani Jaswant Singh have also offered 21,000 each for langar services. Roop Singh added stand-alone contributions continued to come in, with US-based NRI Amrik Singh Giljian offering Rs 5 lakh and another city resident, Gurdip Singh, offering Rs 50,000.
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: Temporal needs: Offerings at Golden Temple dip from Rs 23 lakh to Rs 15,000 a day
How rich is the Golden Temple?
Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple, Thiruvananthapuram – Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple is located in the heart of the city of Thiruvananthapuram where you can reach by, This temple is dedicated to Lord Vishnu and is being managed by the former royal family of Travancore. It is designed marvelously in the Dravidian style.
- The highlight of this temple is the idol of Padmanabhaswamy.
- You can find a Lord Vishnu in a reclining position on Ananthan, the celestial serpent.
- The city gets its name from this shrine.
- The temple has a total assets of around 90,000 crores worth include gold, gold idols, antique silver, emeralds, diamonds and brass.
This collection also includes two golden coconut shells that are studded with precious stones.
Why is it called Golden Temple?
Discover India – Golden Temple of Amritsar The globally renowned Golden Temple, which enshrines the Holy Book of the Sikhs, the Guru Granth Sahib, is located in Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is the most sacred temple for Sikhs and is the largest Gurudwara (temple) in India. It is a popular tourist attraction as well.
- It was founded by the fourth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Ram Das and completed by his successor Guru Arjan Dev.
- The Golden Temple is so called because the entire upper half of the temple is inlaid with copper covered over by gold plate.
- The water that surrounds the Golden Temple is a sacred pool known as the Amrit Sarovar meaning, “Pool of Nectar”.
Sikhs from across the globe come to pay their reverence to Guru Granth Sahib and take a dip in this sacred pool.