Non-combustible. Unlike wood-framed buildings, which are made of combustible materials, metal buildings are constructed almost entirely out of steel. The International Building Code recognizes that steel construction is non-combustible.
- 1 What is considered a metal building?
- 2 What is Type 1 and Type 2 construction?
- 3 What type of construction is steel and concrete?
- 4 What is a house made of metal called?
What classification do most metal buildings fall under?
Difficult to breach for access or escape Difficult to ventilate during a fire Massive debris following collapse Floors, ceilings and walls retain heat
Type II Building Dennis Tokarzewski/Shutterstock. Inc. Type II construction, also known as noncombustible construction, is made of the same types of materials as fire-resistive construction except that the structural components lack the insulation or other protection of Type I construction.
- Type II construction has a fire-resistance rating on all parts of the structure including exterior and interior load-bearing walls and building materials.
- All-metal buildings also fall into this classification.
- Materials with no fire-resistance ratings, such as untreated wood, may be used only in limited quantities.
Again, one of the primary fire protection concerns is the contents of the building. The heat buildup from a fire in the building can cause structural supports to fail. Another potential problem is the type of roof on the building. Noncombustible or limited combustible construction buildings often have flat, built-up roofs. Non-Insulated Steel Beam East Harding Construction https://eastharding.com/pine-bluff-main-library-press-release/
What is considered a metal building?
Materials: Wood Versus Steel – The main difference between a pole barn and a metal building is the method of construction and level of durability.
Pole buildings have an interior frame made of wood with exterior metal panels. They are also called pole barns or post-frame buildings because wood posts are placed vertically in the ground or on a concrete foundation to support the structure’s outer walls and roof trusses. The structures can either be heated or unheated and can be built in a variety of different configurations and sizes. Metal buildings are constructed with completely non-combustible materials. Rather than wood structural components, these buildings have structural steel frames, steel wall and roof structurals, and steel roof and wall panels. Metal buildings can be designed to accommodate nearly endless uses, sizes, and building configurations.
Metal buildings are also pre-engineered and pre-designed, meaning all parts are fabricated in a controlled environment to exact dimensions and assembled later on site. This leaves little to no room for human error during construction, guaranteeing a solid and sturdy structure.
Most metal buildings are constructed with a standing seam metal roof, whereas pole buildings have a mechanically fastened roof secured with screws. The screws install through the metal roof panel and into the wood framing, effectively creating hundreds or thousands of potential leak points in the roof of the building.
The lifespan of a standing seam roof is more than double that of a mechanically fastened roof.
What is Type 1 and Type 2 construction?
NFPA Today – February 19, 2021 It is important to understand how a building will perform in a fire. Minimum construction requirements are established to help maintain structural integrity for the time needed for evacuation or relocation to a safe location in the building.
The combustibility of a material gives an indication of how quickly a fire will grow. Both of these aspects are essential to fire and life safety. NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, defines types of building construction based on the combustibility and the fire resistance rating of a building’s structural elements.
When we talk about fire resistance rating, we mean the time, in minutes or hours, that materials or assemblies have withstood a fire exposure as determined by specific tests. NFPA 101 requires certain occupancies to meet minimum construction requirements, which can be found in section 1, subsection 6 of any of the occupancy chapter (XX.1.6).
NFPA 101 isn’t the only code that specifies minimum construction types, other codes, such as a building code will also specify minimum construction types. Often times the type of construction that the building is permitted to be made out of correlates to how many stories the building will have and whether or not the building will have sprinklers installed.
NFPA Construction Types NFPA 220 breaks down building construction into five different types which relate to the material, each one of these types is numbered one through five (in roman numerals). When codes and standards refer to the type of construction required or permitted there are three numbers in parenthesis that follow the type of construction.
- Type I: Noncombustible (or limited-combustible) construction with a high level of fire resistance, typically concrete construction.
- Type II: Noncombustible (or limited-combustible) construction with a lower level of fire resistance than Type I, typically this is steel construction with or without fireproofing.
- Type III: Exterior walls and structural elements are noncombustible or limited-combustible materials, and interior structural elements, walls, arches, floors, and roofs are wood that is smaller than what is required for Type IV construction. This is usually called ordinary construction and an example of this is a mixed masonry/wood building.
- Type IV: Fire walls, exterior walls, and interior bearing walls are approved noncombustible or limited-combustible materials. Other interior structural elements, arches, floors, and roofs are solid or laminated wood or cross-laminated timber. There are certain dimensional requirements:
- Columns – 8in (205mm) x 8in (205mm) if supporting floor, 6in (150mm) x 8in (205mm) if supporting roof
- Beams – 6in (150mm) x 10in (255mm) if supporting floor, 4in x 6in (150mm) if supporting roof
- Arches – Varies 8in (205mm) x 8in (205mm) to 4in (100mm) x 6in (150mm)
- Floors – 3in (75mm) or 4in (100mm) thick
- Type V: Structural elements, walls, arches, floors, and roofs are wood or other approved material. Most residential construction is Type V.
- First Digit (X00): Exterior bearing walls
- Second Digit (0X0): Columns, beams, girders, trusses and arches, supporting bearing walls, columns or loads from more than one floor.
- Third Digit (00X): Floor construction
Material Combustibility Outside of the construction type and fire resistance rating of the structural elements there are also different designations for what is considered a combustible material, limited combustible material and noncombustible material. Limited Combustible Material Material that is considered limited combustible needs to meet certain criteria.
- It needs to be able to produce a heat value less than 3,500 BTU/lb when tested in accordance with NFPA 259. (For context paper has a heat value of approximately 7,000 BTU/lb, wood is about 10,000 BTU/lb while most plastics are in the 15,000 to 22,000 BTU/lb range)
- Tested in accordance with ASTM E2965 at an incident heat flux of 75kW/m2 for 20 minutes and meet the following conditions.a. Peak heat release rate doesn’t exceed 150kW/m2 for more than 10 seconds b. Total heat released is less than 8MJ/m2
- Either one of the following a. Material has a noncombustible base with a surface that doesn’t have a flame spread index greater than 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84. The surface ontop of the noncombustible base can’t be thicker than 1/8th inch (3.2mm) b. Flame spread index is less than 25 when tested with ASTM E84 or UL 723, even if the material is cut.
An example of a limited combustible material is gypsum wallboard. Combustible Material Defining combustible materials is done so by process of elimination. If the materials don’t meet the definition of limited-combustible or noncombustible then it is a combustible material.
A common example of a combustible material is untreated wood. Ensuring a building remains structurally sound and that materials react to fire predictably is important to overall life safety. Understanding and complying with construction type requirements is the first step in creating a safe built environment.
We gave some common examples of each type of construction, what are some other examples? Let me know in the comments below. Important Notice: Any opinion expressed in this column (blog, article) is the opinion of the author and does not necessarily represent the official position of NFPA or its Technical Committees. Brian O’Connor Technical Services Engineer OCTOBER 14, 2022 SEPTEMBER 16, 2022 MAY 27, 2022 MARCH 30, 2022 MARCH 22, 2022 DECEMBER 16, 2021
What are the 4 types of construction?
There are many ways to classify the different types of construction: by sector, owner, occupancy, and fire resistance. All of these different categories give important information about the kind of construction required as well as the laws that govern the construction process.
What is a Type 3 construction?
Type III Construction: Ordinary – Also known as brick-and-joist structures, Type III buildings consist of either tilt-slap or reinforced masonry walls. These materials are non-combustible. That is to say, some of the interior structural elements (frames, floor, ceilings, etc.) are made with wood or combustible materials.
This kind of construction can apply to both old and new buildings. Old buildings will generally contain conventionally framed roofs, while newer units are typically built with lightweight roof systems. Schools, buildings, and houses can all fall under this construction type. One of the perks associated with this construction type is that ventilation is possible.
That said, many Type III buildings contain connected attics or horizontal void spaces, making fire extension more likely.
What construction division is metal framing?
Metal Studs – Division 05 vs 09 It is my understanding that structural metal framing belongs in Division 05, while non-structural metal framing belongs in Division 09. My confusion comes from the answer to one of the case study questions on the PDD practice exams.
The case study is about a 10,000 sf renovation in a manufacturing facility. The owner asks that the existing masonry walls be furred out to provide a newly finished drywall surface on metal studs. The question asks which Specification Divisions would be affected. The answer key notes that 05 would need to be updated to include the studs.
For this application, I thought that the metal studs would be considered non-structural metal framing, because all they are doing is holding up drywall. Can anyone provide some clarification on the difference between structural metal framing from 05 and non-structural metal framing from 09? Thanks! 1 Like can you please take a look into this question? Thanks! -Darion 1 Like I wondered the same thing when i went through that question.
- Thanks for asking it.
- Looking forward to the answer 2 Likes This question also says Correct.
- Division 26 (electrical) is the main reason for the furring out of the walls.
- Division 26 would need to be adjusted to reflect the change from electrical in masonry walls to electrical in stud walls.
- But the question mentions of the reason for the furring of the wall is to have newly finished drywall, nothing about electrical can you check this question? It’s just very confusing.1 Like If you look at the CSI masterformat for Division 05; Section 05 40 00 refers to “Cold Formed Metal Framing”.
I believe this is what the exam is intending for this one. This section often times can include both structural and non-structural studs but can also cross reference the division 9 non structural studs; but I think the idea is that the exam is trying to show metals are Div 05 without going into the different interpretations on what studs are 09 vs 05 because every firm may do things differently.
- Without actually seeing the question it’s hard to truly decipher what the intent was; but this would be my best guess as to why they are selecting Div 05 for the studs.
- Hope this helps! 1 Like Hi all – thanks for the discussion about this question! I agree that the studs referenced in this question would be non-structural, therefore I’ve revised this to a ‘check 3′ question, where division 05 is incorrect.
Regarding electrical, I removed the reference to this being the main reason for the revision, since the question doesn’t state this clearly but rather simply implies it. One of the reasons to furr-out an existing masonry wall is to conceal the electrical wiring, as opposed to placing it in rigid conduit on top of the walls.1 Like : Metal Studs – Division 05 vs 09
How do you classify construction types?
Most people would look at a building and view it as just that: a building. But as a contractor, you see buildings differently. Building elements like the structure, walls, floors, and roof are all telling of a building’s class. If you don’t already have a keen eye for those details, it’s important to know the five types of building construction.
What type of construction is steel and concrete?
TYPE I – This concrete and steel structure, called fire resistive when first built at the turn of the century, is supposed to confine a fire by its construction. This type of construction in which the building elements listed in IBC Table 601 are of non-combustible materials, such as concrete and steel.
What are those metal buildings called?
Steel building – Wikipedia This article is about buildings made predominantly out of steel. For other uses, see,
|This article needs additional citations for, Please help by, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: – · · · · ( July 2010 ) ( )|
Steel building on a farm in, A steel building is a metal fabricated with for the internal support and for exterior cladding, as opposed to buildings which generally use other materials for floors, walls, and external envelope. Steel buildings are used for a variety of purposes including storage, work spaces and living accommodation.
Is a metal shed considered a permanent structure?
What Determines a Metal Building’s Permanence? – To understand what constitutes a permanent metal building, consider the example of the Chesterfield County Building Inspection Department. This department requires that all steel buildings (i.e., sheds, carports, etc.) that are between 257 and 400 square feet are built with permanent foundation systems.
- These foundations must include either concrete piers or full slabs forming a “continuous concrete footing.” (Source: ) Any metal building of these sizes or larger (buildings greater than 400 square feet also require concrete foundations) would be considered permanent as well.
- The New Castle County Unified Development Code (UDC) also presents similar requirements, with one additional condition: Any carports, sheds, or other metal buildings that are not designed for frequent relocations are considered to be permanent structures.
In other words, if you plan to keep your metal building in the same location for years to come, instead of moving it around or breaking it down to for reconstruction during special occasions, then New Castle County would deem it a permanent structure.
What is a house made of metal called?
WHAT IS A BARDOMINIUM? A Barndominium is basically a metal building with inside living quarters. To design your Barndominium to fit your lifestyle,, – : What is a Barndominum? | Metal building homes, Metal house plans, Barn house plans
What is Type A construction?
Standards and codes have been developed to ensure that all constructed objects such as buildings and furniture, conform to a minimum level of safety. The codes are designed to protect public health, safety, and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures.
The building code requires all building work comply with the code. Many of the specific standards and codes within Australia are controlled by the Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB), and the details and copies of the standards are available at the ABCB website, BCA building classes The BCA classifies buildings by their use.
A building may be made up of a number of classes if it has a mixed use. The BCA identifies the following building classes: Class 1a – a single dwelling or attached dwellings (eg a terrace, duplex, etc) where each dwelling is separated by a fire wall. Class 1b – one or more buildings that constitute a boarding house, guest house, hostel of small scale (ie not exceeding 12 persons or 300m2 in floor area).
Class 2 – a building containing two or more dwelling units (eg flats, apartments). Class 3 – a residential building for a number of persons such as a large scale boarding house, guest house, hostel, the residential part of a hotel, motel, school, etc. Class 4 – a dwelling unit that is a part of a commercial use (eg a caretakers/managers flat).
Class 5 – an office building. Class 6 – a shop or other building where goods or services are retailed directly to the public. Class 7a – a car park building. Class 7b – a storage building or building where goods are wholesaled (eg a warehouse). Class 8 – a laboratory or a building where a process takes place (eg factory, workshop, etc).
- Class 9a – a health care building (eg a hospital, clinic, etc).
- Class 9b – an assembly building (eg community hall, sports hall, etc) Class 9c – an aged care building.
- Class 10a – a non-habitable building being a private garage, shed or the like.
- Class 10b – a structure (eg a fence, wall, mast, swimming pool, etc).
Building classes and the format of the BCA The BCA is split into two volumes. Volume One deals with buildings in Classes 2 to 9 and Volume Two, also known as the Housing Provisions, deals with buildings of Class 1 and 10. Volume One Volume One is split into nine sections with the first section containing administrative provisions, the remainder containing technical provisions.
Objectives – a statement that is considered to reflect community expectationsFunctional statements – statements of how a building achieves the objectivePerformance requirements – the level of performance a building solution must meet (ie the minimum standard)Building solutions – the way in which the performance requirements are met. The solution may be one that complies with the Deemed to Satisfy provisions or an alternate solution or a combination of both. The Deemed to Satisfy provisions are the ‘black and white’ solutions and if followed ensure compliance with the performance requirements. Alternate solutions allow for innovative design and use of materials and normally require certification by an expert in the particular field.
Section A: General Provisions – contains information such as definitions, how buildings are to be classified and the list of guidance documents such as Australian Standards that have been referenced by the BCA as Deemed to Satisfy solutions. Section B: Structure – requirements for the structural stability of the building including the structural resistance that materials and forms of construction must achieve against effects such as dampness, termites, water penetration, etc.
- Section C: Fire Resistance – requirements for the fire resistance of the building.
- This is to ensure that not only fire spread from one building to another is prevented but also a building maintains structural stability during a fire to allow for occupants to evacuate and the fire brigade to fight the fire.
This is achieved by separation distances between buildings, fire protection to external walls (including any openings such as windows) and the splitting up of the internal spaces of the building into separated compartments. It is important to understand the following terminology in relation to this section:
Type of construction – not to be confused with building class, this determines the level of fire resistance particular elements of the building must achieve. There are three types of construction, namely A, B and C, which are determined by the building’s class and rise in storeys. Type A includes buildings that have a higher risk such as high rise, high occupant buildings and is therefore the most fire resistant. Type C includes buildings that have a lower risk and is therefore the least fire resistant.
Fire source feature – this represents the potential location that fire may spread from or to. It is normally the external wall of another building on the same lot, a side or rear boundary or the far boundary of a road adjoining the lot. Boundaries are regarded as fire source features because the owner of one lot has no control over what is built on adjoining lots and there is potential for a building to be built up to the boundary on the adjoining lot.
Fire-Resistance Level (FRL) – measured in minutes, this is the resistance to the passage of fire an element of a building achieves. It consists of the criteria structural adequacy, integrity and insulation. For example, a 90/30/60 FRL represents an element that must achieve a fire resistance level of 90 minutes for structural adequacy, 30 minutes for integrity and 60 minutes for insulation.
Sole occupancy unit – this means a room or part of a building for occupation by one occupant to the exclusion of others.
Section D: Access & Egress – provisions relating to the number, size, type and separation of emergency exits, as well as the distance to an emergency exit. These provisions are determined by the building’s class, size of the building and the number of persons the building accommodates.
The section also includes provisions relating to the accessibility of a building for people with disabilities. Section E: Services & Equipment – this section identifies the fire safety equipment that must be installed in a building. This equipment includes fire fighting equipment (eg fire hydrants, hose reels, portable fire extinguishers, etc), smoke hazard management (eg smoke detectors and alarms) and emergency lighting and signs.
The section also provides the requirements for lift installations when one is installed in a building. As a general rule all buildings require portable fire extinguishers to be installed. The provision of any other equipment is dependant on the size of the building.
Section F: Health & Amenity – the requirements for damp & weatherproofing, sanitary facilities, room sizes, light and ventilation and sound insulation. The number of sanitary facilities is dependant on the number of people the building accommodates. Provisions relating to sanitary facilities for people with disabilities are also included in this section.
The light and ventilation provision relates to both natural as well as artificial lighting and ventilation. Not all buildings are required to be provided with natural ventilation or lighting. Section G: Ancillary Provisions – this section contains requirements that affect structures that are ancillary to the main use of the building including minor structures (swimming pools, vaults, cool rooms), heating appliances (fireplaces, flues and chimneys) and atrium construction.
- It also contains requirements for buildings constructed in alpine areas and bush fire prone areas.
- Section H: Special Use Buildings – the requirements specific to certain buildings such as theatres and public halls.
- Section I: Maintenance – the requirements for the maintenance of equipment in buildings.
_ Volume Two Volume Two is split into three sections, the first section containing administrative provisions, the second the performance provisions and the third the acceptable construction provisions. Section 1: General Provisions – this contains information such as definitions, how buildings are to be classified and the list of guidance documents such as Australian Standards that have been referenced by the BCA as Deemed to Satisfy solutions.
- Section 2: Performance Provisions – this section is further split into five subsections entitled Structure, Damp & Weatherproofing, Fire Safety, Health & Amenity and Safe Movement and Access,
- Within each subsection the objectives, functional statements and performance requirements are stated.
- Section 3: Acceptable Construction – this section, also known as the Acceptable Construction Manual, contains the Deemed to Satisfy building solutions for Class 1 and 10 buildings.
The section is split into 11 subsections, namely Site Preparation, Footings & Slabs, Masonry, Framing, Roof & Wall Cladding, Glazing, Fire Safety, Health & Amenity, Safe Movement and Access, Additional Construction Requirements and Structural Design Manuals,
Technical Design Guide 1 – Timber-framed Construction for Townhouse Buildings Class 1a – this design guide assists in complying with fire safety and sound insulation performance requirements in the BCA for Class 1a attached buildings.
Technical Design Guide 2 – Timber-framed Construction for Multi-residential Buildings Class 2, 3 & 9c – this design guide assists in complying with fire and sound performance requirements in the BCA for Class 2, 3 and 9c buildings.
Technical Design Guide 3 – Timber-framed Construction for Commercial Buildings Class 5, 6, 9a & 9b – this design guide assists in complying with fire performance requirements in the BCA for Class 5, 6, 9a and 9b buildings.
Technical Design Guide 4 – Building with timber in bushfire-prone areas – this design guide has been written to help architects, designers, builders and owners to understand the Construction of Building in bushfire prone areas Standard AS 3959 and in particular what construction requirement is required for traditional building methods using timber for each Bushfire Attack Level (BAL).
Technical Design Guide – 5 – Timber service life design – design guide for durability – this guide will give building and construction industry professionals the confidence in determining the service life timber in a wide range of applications, from sole plates to suspension bridges.
Visit our Technical Design Guides Page to see the full set of WoodSolutions guides (You need to be logged in to WoodSolutions to download resources from this section)
What is the difference between a Class 1 and Class 2 building?
1, a Class 1 building cannot be located above or below another dwelling or another Class of building, other than a private garage.’ A Class 2 building is a building containing two or more sole-occupancy units.
What is general building construction?
General Building Works General Building Works Badiri Construction undertake all aspects of General Building, renovation and refurbishment work, including:
Extensions – general extensions, adding new floors to existing buildings New Builds – traditional build, system build, green & brown field sites, contaminated land Complete commercial & residential refurbishments Bathroom & kitchen – design, supply & installation Plus all forms of general building, plumbing, electrical & tiling work
Maintenance Our building maintenance service covers everything that makes a building work and keeps its occupants content and productive.We can provide a full maintenance service to ensure the absolute minimum of downtime and the optimum working and/or living conditions.We cover most trades that would be required:
Repairs & refurbishment Ceilings and Dry Walling Carpentry Plastering Electrical & Security Windows Painting & Decorating
: General Building Works
What is considered commercial construction?
Commercial construction involves the designing, renovating and building of commercial structures. Projects use heavy equipment funded by developers, as well as local and national governments. Developers and contractors compete for construction contracts by submitting proposal bids.
- The more detailed and accurate the plan, the better chances of winning the project.
- The size, budget and scope determine how much money it will cost to break ground and complete a build.
- Value engineering can also be used to predict the most accurate and cost-efficient project plan.
- As of March 2020, the United States Census Bureau reported that $88,522 million was spent on the commercial construction sector so far this year.
This is a $2,229 million (2.6 percent) increase from March of 2019. An increase in spending means a greater need for building and maintaining commercial spaces. Let’s take a look at the three types of commercial construction and how they play a role in the industry.
What are the three 3 main steel making processes?
steel – Primary steelmaking In principle, steelmaking is a, purifying, and alloying process carried out at approximately 1,600° C (2,900° F) in molten conditions. Various chemical reactions are initiated, either in sequence or simultaneously, in order to arrive at specified chemical and temperatures.
- Indeed, many of the reactions interfere with one another, requiring the use of process models to help in analyzing options, optimizing competing reactions, and designing efficient commercial practices.
- The major iron-bearing raw materials for steelmaking are blast-furnace, steel scrap, and direct-reduced iron (DRI).
Liquid blast-furnace iron typically contains 3.8 to 4.5 percent carbon (C), 0.4 to 1.2 percent (Si), 0.6 to 1.2 percent (Mn), up to 0.2 percent (P), and 0.04 percent sulfur (S). Its temperature is usually 1,400° to 1,500° C (2,550° to 2,700° F). The phosphorus content depends on the used, since phosphorus is not removed in the blast-furnace process, whereas sulfur is usually picked up during iron making from coke and other fuels.
- DRI is reduced from iron ore in the by (CO) and hydrogen (H 2 ).
- It frequently contains about 3 percent unreduced iron ore and 4 percent gangue, depending on the ore used.
- It is normally shipped in briquettes and charged into the steelmaking furnace like scrap.
- Steel scrap is metallic iron containing residuals, such as,, and, that vary with its origin.
Of the three major steelmaking processes—basic, open, and electric arc—the first two, with few exceptions, use liquid blast-furnace iron and scrap as raw material and the latter uses a solid charge of scrap and DRI. The most important chemical reactions carried out on these materials (especially on blast-furnace iron) are the oxidation of carbon to carbon monoxide, silicon to silica, manganese to manganous oxide, and phosphorus to phosphate, as follows: Unfortunately, iron is also lost in this series of reactions, as it is oxidized to ferrous oxide: The FeO, absorbed into the liquid slag, then acts as an oxidizer itself, as in the following reactions: In the open-hearth furnace, oxidation also takes place when gases containing (CO 2 ) contact the melt and react as follows: The products of the above reactions, the oxides silica, manganese oxide, phosphate, and ferrous oxide, together with burnt lime ( CaO) added as, form the slag. Burnt lime has by itself a high of 2,570° C (4,660° F) and is therefore solid at steelmaking temperatures, but when it is mixed with the other oxides, they all melt together at lower temperatures and thus form the slag.
- A basic slag contains approximately 55 percent CaO, 15 percent SiO 2, 5 percent MnO, 18 percent FeO, and other oxides plus sulfides and phosphates.
- The basicity of a slag is often simply expressed by the ratio of CaO to SiO 2, with CaO being the basic and SiO 2 the acidic component.
- Usually, a basicity above 3.5 provides good absorption and holding for calcium phosphates and calcium sulfides.
The majority of sulfur, present as ferrous sulfide (FeS), is removed from the melt not by oxidation but by the conversion of calcium oxide to calcium sulfide: FeS + CaO → CaS + FeO. According to this equation, desulfurization is successful only when using a slag with plenty of calcium oxide—in other words, with a high basicity.
A low iron oxide content is also essential, since oxygen and sulfur compete to combine with the calcium. For this reason, many steel plants desulfurize blast-furnace iron before it is refined into steel, since at that stage it contains practically no dissolved oxygen, owing to its high silicon and carbon content.
Nevertheless, sulfur is often introduced by scrap and flux during steelmaking, so that, in order to meet low sulfur specifications (for example, less than 0.008 percent), it is necessary to desulfurize the steel as well. A very important during steelmaking is the oxidation of carbon.
- Its gaseous product, carbon monoxide, goes into the off-gas, but, before it does that, it generates the carbon monoxide boil, a phenomenon common to all steelmaking processes and very important for mixing.
- Mixing chemical reactions, purges hydrogen and, and improves,
- Adjusting the carbon content is important, but it is often oxidized below specified levels, so that carbon powder must be injected to raise the carbon again.
: steel – Primary steelmaking
What is type 3 ordinary construction?
TYPE III-B-Unprotected Combustible (Also known as ‘ordinary’ construction; has brick or block walls with a wooden roof or floor assembly which is not protected against fire. These buildings are frequently found in ‘warehouse’ districts of older cities.)