What Does Otp Mean In Construction?

What Does Otp Mean In Construction
Final (Pre)-Handover Inspections when Purchasing Off-The-Plan (OTP)

What does OTP stand for in engineering?

On-Track Plant or OTP On Track Plant”>OTP refers to machinery designed to run on the railway. These machines are leading the way with technological advancements to save time, money and of course improve safety. However they do still POSE Person operating signalling equipment “>pose a significant risk to people working on or near them, always make sure you understand the risk before going to work with OTP. Remember, if you can’t see the machine operator they cannot see you! There are a number of working groups, good practice guidance, and promotional materials designed to help promote better and safer ways of working. ← Back

What does the stand for in construction?

Piping Related Abbreviations AFC is an abbreviation of A pproved F or C onstruction. Approved For Construction means, that eg a piping isometric meets all requirements, and that AFTER release the prefab can begin. BB is an abbreviation of B olted B onnet.

  1. A bolted bonnet, or cover of a valve, is fastened (by bolts) to the valve body to complete the pressure-retaining shell.
  2. BBE is an abbreviation of B eveled B oth E nds.
  3. Beveled Both Ends means that both ends of e.g.
  4. A pipe nipple are beveled.
  5. TOE / POE = Treaded One End / Plain One End TOE / BOE = Treaded One End / Beveled One End POE / BOE = Plain One End / Beveled One End TBE = Treaded Both Ends PBE = Plain Both Ends BE is an abbreviation of B eveled E nds.

Beveled Ends are applied to all diameters of buttweld pipes, flanges, fittings, valves etc. and will be directly welded (with a small gap 3-4 mm) to each other. Ends are mostly be beveled to angle 30° (+5° / -0°) with a root face of 1.6 mm (± 0.8 mm). BOM is an abbreviation of B ill O f M aterials.

A Bill Of Materials is a detailed item by item tabulated list of the project requirements for piping. It specifies the required item by the reference grade and standard to which it must be made, by the size and its rating. The information on this table is entirely extracted from the material take-off documents.

BW is an abbreviation of B utt W eld(ing). A Butt Weld is a circumferential butt welded joint, and the most common type of joint employed in the fabrication of welded pipe systems. A butt joint is the most universally used method of joining pipe to itself, fittings, flanges, valves, and other equipment.

This welding technique is widely applied in situations where a quality weld desired, and the weld by X-ray technically should be investigated. CMTR is an abbreviation of C ertified M aterial T est R eport. A Certified Material Test Report attesting that the material is in accordance with specified requirements, including the actual results of all required chemical analyses, tests, and examinations.

CSC is an abbreviation of C ar S eal C losed. Very simply, the terms describe to need to lock (seal) a valve to prevent operation either in the open or closed position. The device to achieve this is a Car Seal (see also CSO ). CSO is an abbreviation of C ar S eal O pen.

Very simply, the terms describe to need to lock (seal) a valve to prevent operation either in the open or closed position. The device to achieve this is a Car Seal (see also CSC ). CUI is an abbreviation of C orrosion U nder I nsulation. In the simplest terms, CUI is any type of corrosion that occurs due to moisture present on the external surface of insulated equipment.

The damage/attack can be caused by one of the multiple factors, and can occur in equipment operating at ambient, low, and heated services, depending upon conditions. Moreover, CUI can occur in equipment that is in service, out of service, or in cyclic service.

EFW is an abbreviation of E lectric F usion W elding. Electric fusion welding steel pipe is electron beam welding, directed impact kinetic energy electron beam, the use of high-speed movement into a hot workpiece to leave the workpiece melting, the formation of the weld. EFW pipes are formed from hot-rolled plates and welded welds.

Welding flashes can be removed from the outside or inside using the caulking blade surface. Welding zone can also be heat treatment, so that the weld is not visible. Welded tubes generally have tighter dimensional tolerances than seamless tubes, and if made in the same amount, the cost is lower.

Mainly used for dissimilar steel welding sheet or high power density welding, metal welding parts can be quickly heated to high temperatures, melting any refractory metals and alloys. Deep melting welding speed, heat-affected zone is very small, so the impact on the joint performance is small, the joint is almost no deformation.

But it has special welding room requirements because of the use of X-ray welding. ELL is an abbreviation of E L bow. ERW is an abbreviation of E lectric R esistance W elded. Originally Electric Resistance Welded which contains a solid phase butt weld, was produced using resistance heating to make the longitudinal weld (ERW).

  • Most pipe mills now use high frequency induction heating (HFI) for better control and consistency.
  • However, the product is still often referred to as ERW pipe, even though the weld may have been produced by the HFI process.
  • ESV is an abbreviation of E mergency S hutdown V alve.
  • A Emergency Shutdown Valve is an actuated valve designed to stop the flow of a hazarous fluid or external hydrocarbons (gases) upon the detection of a dangerous event.

These valves are the final defence against process misreactions and have a function which requires much more reliable performance than standard remotely operated on-off valves. FF is an abbreviation of F lat F ace flange. The Flat Face flange has a gasket surface in the same plane as the bolting circle face.

  • Flat Face does not feature the raised face of heavy duty flanges such as ANSI B 16.5 for example.
  • Applications using flat face flanges are frequently those in which the mating flange or flanged fitting is made from a casting.
  • F o F is an abbreviation of F lange o f F ace.
  • This terminology is used when dimensions have to be given with respect to face of flange.

FFW is an abbreviation of F ield F it W eld. A field fit weld indicates that the designer has foreseen that the piping may need adjustment in the field so has added an extra length of pipe at a buttweld fitting or flange. The pipe end will be bevelled and welded on site after the installer determines the correct dimensions.

  • GMAW is an abbreviation of G as M etal A rc W elding.
  • GTAW is an abbreviation of G as T ungsten A rc W elding.
  • The finished product from a manufacturer (the pipe or fitting mill), is typically traceable to a H eat N umber (steel mill identification).
  • A heat typically identifies material produced in the steel mill from one single melt, and the number will be assigned in the steel mill.

Chemical analysis is usually reported on a heat basis. Parts of a same heat have the same chemistry. HAZ is an abbreviation of H eat- A ffected Z one. Cutting processes that use intense heat, like oxyfuel cutting and plasma arc cutting, produce thermal effects near the edge of the cut that lead to microstructural and metallurgical changes in the metal.

The portion of a metal work-piece that has been so altered by heat is termed the heat-affected zone or HAZ. All thermal cutting processes create an HAZ in the cut metal. ISBL is an abbreviation of I n S ide B attery L imits. ISBL is functional-based and refers to equipment and other components that are solely dedicated to a single process whether or not the equipment is physically located within the geographical boundaries of the unit.

ITP is an abbreviation of I nspection T est P lan. An Inspection Test Plan (ITP) is a commonly required document that you’ll need to submit with your construction quality control plan. Whether you’re working on a private sector or government contract, clients today all want to see your inspection test plan.

They want to know exactly what inspections and tests you’ll be forming to control quality on their project. LR is an abbreviation of L ong R adius Elbow. Elbows are split into two groups which define the distance over which they change direction; the center line of one end to the opposite face. This is known as the “center to face” distance and is equivalent to the radius through which the elbow is bent.

The center to face distance for a Long Radius elbow, abbreviated LR always is 1.1/2 x Nominal Pipe Size (1.1/2D), while the center to face distance for a Short Radius elbow, abbreviated SR even is to nominal pipe size. MAOP is an abbreviation of M aximum A llowable O perating P ressure.

  • The Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure is the maximum pressure that can be safely operated by a pipeline.
  • The thickness of the wall, pipe outer diameter, and Specified Minimum Yield Stress are used to calculate the MAOP of a pipe.
  • MAWP is an abbreviation of M aximum A llowable W orking P ressure.
  • The Maximum Allowable Working Pressure of a boiler carrying the ASME Code symbol or of a pressure vessel carrying the ASME or API-ASME symbol shall be determined by the applicable sections of the code under which it was constructed and stamped.

Subject to the concurrence of the enforcement authority at the point of installation, such a boiler or pressure vessel may be rerated in accordance with the rules of a later edition of the ASME Code and in accordance with the rules of the National Board Inspection Code or API 510, as applicable.

For example; the maximum allowable working pressure of a steam boiler is an absolute restriction of pressure within psig unit for a steam boiler is allowed to run. The ASME BPV Code (American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel) says that absolutely no steam boiler should be run at a pressure above the MAWP with the exception of the safety valve is operated to discharge excessive pressure.

Steam boiler has some technical terms that be generally used. One of them is MAWP (Maximum Allowable Working Pressure) which means that all of working pressure at the pressure part shall not exceed MAWP. MIG is an abbreviation of M etal I nert G as. Metal Inert Gas or Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is frequently referred to as MIG welding.

  • MIG welding is a commonly used high deposition rate welding process.
  • Wire is continuously fed from a spool.
  • MIG welding is therefore referred to as a semiautomatic welding process.
  • MPI is an abbreviation of M agnetic P article I nspection.
  • It is a nondestructive examination method to locate surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials.
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The presence of discontinuities is detected by the use of finely divided ferromagnetic particles applied over the surface. Some of these magnetic particles are gathered and held by the magnetic leakage field created by the discontinuity. The particles gathered at the surface form an outline of the discontinuity and generally indicate its location, size, shape, and extent.

  1. MTO is an abbreviation of M aterial T ake- O ff.
  2. A final material take-off is a accurate list of ALL the required piping items of a project in tabulated form.
  3. NDE is an abbreviation of N on D estructive E xamination, also called Non Destructive Testing (NDT).
  4. Non Destructive Examination survey techniques by which we can get an impression of the quality of an item to consider this item without damaging them.

To detect different defects such as cracking and corrosion, there are different methods of testing available like, X-ray, Ultrasonic testing (UT), Magnetic-particle inspection (MT or MPI), Liquid penetrant testing (PT or LPI) etc. NPS is an abbreviation of N ominal P ipe S ize.

  1. Nominal Pipe Size is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures.
  2. The name NPS is based on the earlier “Iron Pipe Size” (IPS) system.
  3. NPT is an abbreviation N ational P ipe T hread Tapered.
  4. The American National Pipe Thread Tapered, is the best known and most widely used connection where the pipe thread provides both the mechanical joint and the hydraulic seal.

NPT has a tapered male and female thread which seals with Teflon® tape or jointing compound. ASME B1.20.1 covers dimensions and gaging of NPT pipe threads for general purpose applications. OSBL is an abbreviation of O utside S ide B attery L imits. OSBL refers to systems (equipment pieces and associated components) that support several units.

  1. Typical OSBL equipment includes cooling towers, water treatment facilities, tanks farms, etc.
  2. OS&Y is an abbreviation of O utside S crew & Y oke.
  3. A valve design in which the threaded portion of the stem is outside the pressure boundary of the valve.
  4. The valve bonnet has a Yoke, which holds a nut through which the rotating stem rises as the valve is opened.

The stem part inside the valve is smooth and is sealed so that stem threads are isolated from the flow medium. PBE is an abbreviation of P lain B oth E nds. Plain Both Ends means that both ends of e.g. a pipe nipple are plain. TOE / POE = Treaded One End / Plain One End TOE / BOE = Treaded One End / Beveled One End POE / BOE = Plain One End / Beveled One End TBE = Treaded Both Ends BBE = Beveled Both Ends PED is an abbreviation of P ressure E quipment D irective arises from the European Community’s Programme for the elimination of technical barriers to trade and is formulated under the “New Approach to Technical Harmonisation and Standards”.

Its purpose is to harmonise national laws of Member States regarding the design, manufacture, testing and conformity assessment of pressure equipment and assemblies of pressure equipment. It therefore aims to ensure the free placing on the market and putting into service of the equipment within the “European Union and the European Economic Area”.

Formulated under the New Approach the directive provides for a flexible regulatory environment that does not impose any detailed technical solution. This approach allows European industry to develop new techniques thereby increasing international competitiveness.

  1. The pressure equipment directive is one of a series of technical harmonisation directives for machinery, electrical equipment, medical devices, simple pressure vessels, gas appliances etc.
  2. PFD is an abbreviation of P rocess F low D iagram.
  3. A Process Flow Diagram is a schematic representation of the flow of fluids within the process as they travel between processing units.

This diagram shows flow direction, but has no indication of the instruments and devices needed to control the process or to ensure safe operation. PI is a mathematical constant that is the ratio of any Euclidean circle’s circumference to its diameter. PMI is an abbreviation of P ositive M aterial I dentification. Positive Material Identification provides alloy chemistry and grade ID information instantly using a handheld tube-based analyzer without having to transport, alter, or damage the material.

PMI is also used to ensure that the parent material in vessels and pipe spools is composed of the correct composition and once the component is welded that the correct filler material was used. PWHT is an abbreviation of P ost W eld H eat T reatment. Post Weld Heat Treatment is defined as one of heat treatments done after welding/machining to improve the chemical and mechanical properties of weldment or machined surfaces.

In concept, PWHT covers many different potential treatments. RF is an abbreviation of R aised F ace, and designed for flanges. The Raised Face type are the most applied flange type, and is easily to identify. It is referred to as a raised face because the gasket surfaces are raised above the bolting circle face.

  • The height in Pressure Class up to 300 Lbs is approximately 1.6 mm, and in Pressure Class 400 up to 2500 Lbs the height is approximately 6.4 mm.
  • Pressure rating of the flange determines the height of the raised face.
  • The purpose of a RF flange is to concentrate more pressure on a smaller gasket area and thereby increase the pressure containment capability of the joint.

RFC is an abbreviation of R eleased F or C onstruction. RFC means that the release for construction (after Approved For Construction) is given.start the project. RTJ is an abbreviation R ing T ype J oint flanges. Ring Type Joint flanges have grooves cut into their faces which steel ring gaskets.

  • The flanges seal when tightened bolts compress the gasket between the flanges into the grooves, deforming (or coining) the gasket to make intimate contact inside the grooves, creating a metal to metal seal.
  • SAW is an abbreviation of S ub-merged A rc W elding.
  • Submerged Arc Welding is a high quality, very high deposition rate welding process.

SAW uses heat generated by an arc formed when an electric current passes between a welding wire and the workpiece. The tip of the welding wire, the arc, and the weld joint are covered by a layer of granular flux. The heat generated by the arc melts the wire, the base metal and the flux.

  1. The flux shields the molten pool from atmospheric contamination, cleans impurities from the weld metal, and shapes the weld bead.
  2. Depending on the design of the flux, it can also add alloying elements to the weld metal to alter the chemical and mechanical properties of the wel.
  3. SCH is an abbreviation of SCH edule.

SMAW is an abbreviation of S hielded M etal A rc W elding. Shielded Metal Arc Welding is frequently referred to as stick or covered electrode welding. Stick welding is among the most widely used welding processes. SMLS is an abbreviation of S ea m l es s pipe or fitting.

SR is an abbreviation of S hort R adius Elbow. Elbows are split into two groups which define the distance over which they change direction; the center line of one end to the opposite face. This is known as the “center to face” distance and is equivalent to the radius through which the elbow is bent. The center to face distance for a Short Radius elbow is even to nominal pipe size, while the center to face distance for a Long Radius elbow abbreviated LR always is 1.1/2 x Nominal Pipe Size (1.1/2D).

SST is an abbreviation of S tainless ST eel. Stainless is a term coined early in the development of these steels for cutlery applications. It was adopted as a generic name for these steels and now covers a wide range of steel types and grades for corrosion or oxidation resistant applications.

Stainless steel contains a maximum of 1.2% carbon, a minimum of 10.5% chromium and other alloying elements. The presence of chromium confers on stainless steel its principal quality. its corrosion resistance. The alloying elements, depending on their percentages, give stainless steels their physical, chemical and mechanical properties.

The presence of alloying elements is the starting point for obtaining the desired properties, various production processes facilitating this. The carbon and iron steel base, together with the addition of various alloying elements, provide the balance of each grade and dertermine which stainless “family” it belongs.

The most frequently used alloying elements are. nickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, manganese, nitrogen, copper, silicon, aluminium and vanadium. SW is an abbreviation of S ocket W eld(ing). A Socket Weld is a pipe attachment detail in which a pipe is inserted into a recessed area of a valve, fitting or flange.

Socket Weld fittings are mainly used for small pipe diameters (Small Bore Piping); generally for piping whose nominal diameter is NPS 2 or smaller. To join pipe to valves and fittings or to other sections of pipe, fillet-type seal welds be used. TBE is an abbreviation of T hreaded B oth E nds.

  1. Treaded Both Ends means that both ends of e.g.
  2. A pipe nipple are threaded.
  3. TOE / POE = Treaded One End / Plain One End TOE / BOE = Treaded One End / Beveled One End POE / BOE = Plain One End / Beveled One End BBE = Beveled Both Ends PBE = Plain Both Ends TIG is an abbreviation of T ungsten I nert G as.

Tungsten Inert Gas welding also known as GTAW is a process that produces an electric arc maintained between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the part to be welded. The heat-affected zone, the molten metal and the tungsten electrode are all shielded from atmospheric contamination by a blanket of inert gas fed through the GTAW torch.

  • Inert gas (usually Argon) is inactive or deficient in active chemical properties.
  • The shielding gas serves to blanket the weld and exclude the active properties in the surrounding air.
  • Inert gases such as Argon and Helium do not chemically react or combine with other gases.
  • They pose no odor and are transparent, permitting the the welder maximum visibility of the arc.

T o fG is an abbreviation of T ime o f F light D iffraction. Time-of-Flight Diffraction Ultrasonic Testing is among the most modern testing methods for the detection of imperfections and defects in materials. Conventional Ultrasonic Testing uses sound reflection.

  • ToFD testing measures the time-of-flight of an ultrasonic pulse to determine the position of a reflector.
  • The application of this method is fast and extremely accurate.
  • This has resulted in an increasing popularity over the last few years.
  • WCB is an abbreviation of W rough C arbon grade B,
  • WCB is covered by ASTM A216 standard, which specification covers carbon steel castings for valves, fittings, flanges and other pressure-containing parts for high temperature service and the quality required for assembly with other castings or wrought steel parts by fusion welding.

These grades are all “cast” grades meaning they are made through “casting” which is a manufacturing process where a liquid material is poured into a mold and allowed to harden. TOS is an abbreviation of T op O f S teel. WPQ is an abbreviation of W elder P erformance Q ualification.

  • The Welder Performance Qualification document is required by all codes for all welders.
  • It details and summarizes the following information.
  • Indicates the WPS referenced during the qualification test Identifies the welder by name and/or clock number Lists what the essential parameters were during this test Reports the results of the required qualification tests Specifies qualified limits for welder For most codes there is a time limit associated with the welder qualification test.
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However, the American Welding Society provides an unlimited qualification period if certain conditions are met. As with the WPS and WPQR, each code has a recommended format. WPS is an abbreviation of W elding P rocedure S pecification. The Welding Procedure Specification is a required document for all code welding.

  1. Your customer either directly or indirectly specifies to what code your company must qualify.
  2. The WPS outlines all of the parameters required to perform your welding operation.
  3. In short the WPS is the recipe for your welding operation.
  4. It describes the welding process or processes used, the base materials used, the joint design and geometry, gases and flow rates, welding position and includes all of the process conditions and variables.

Each code has a recommended format. WT is an abbreviation of W all T hickness. The Wall Thickness in piping terms is defined as schedule (SCH or S). XXS is an abbreviation of E X tra E X tra S trong. : Piping Related Abbreviations

What does OTP stand for electrical?

OTP ( Over Temperature Protection ): Shuts down the power supply when the internal temperature exceeds the maximum safe operating temperature. BOP (Brown Out Protection): Prevents a power supply unit from being damaged due to a sudden drop in voltage from inconsistent electrical grids.

Why is OTP used?

What is a One Time Password? OTP Explained (With Examples) A or OTP is a string of characters or numbers automatically generated to be used for one single login attempt. One Time Passwords will minimize the risk of fraudulent login attempts and thus the risk of stolen data.

  • The general idea of a One Time Password is to add a second layer of authentication in order to stay ahead of cybercrime and protect your organization against catastrophic effects of fraud on your business.
  • The risk of fraud is drastically reduced if the user doesn’t only have to fill in his username and password (something he knows) but also needs something he “has” to complete the login.

This ‘something’ can be the user’s phone. OTP’s come in all shapes and sizes, but always add an extra layer of authentication

What does OTP mean in procurement?

If you have been reading articles on the property market and the process of property purchases, you have probably come across the phrase Option To Purchase (OTP) before. Yet, the significance of OTP is often glossed over in most article. If you are curious to learn about the legal implications of OTP and the role it plays in the process of buying a property, this article provides you with just that.

What is the abbreviations for building?

Bldg. is a written abbreviation for building, and is used especially in the names of buildings.

Why are abbreviations used on construction drawings?

How to Read Abbreviations and Acronyms in Construction Blueprints Pixabay/cocoparisienne Construction blueprints, also called construction plans or drawings, are full of abbreviations and acronyms to save space and neaten the overall appearance of the presentation.

A/C: Air Conditioner ACI: American Concrete Institute ADA: of 1992 A.F.F.: Above Finished Floor A.F.G.: Above Finished Grade AIA: American Institute of Architects or American Insurance Association AIEE: American Institute of Electrical Engineers AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction AISI: American and Steel Institute ANSI: American National Standards Insitute APCIA: American Property Casualty Insurance Association ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials AWG: American Wire Gauge B.O.F.: Bottom of Footing B.O.M: Bill of Material BOT: Bottom B.O.W.: Bottom of Wall BP: Blue Print (or B/P) Brz.: Bronze BV: Butterfly Valve CAD: Cadmium or Computer-Aided Drafting CBORE: Counterbore C.C.: Center to Center C.D.: C.F.M.: Cubic Feet per Minute CFS: Cubic Feet per Second C.I.: Cast Iron CL.: Closet CL: Center LIne CLG.: Ceiling CMU: Concrete Masonry Unit C.O.: Cleanout Cont.: Continuous CRES: Corrosion-Resistant Steel CSINK: Countersink CU. FT.: Cubic Feet CU. YD.: Cubic Yard D.S.: Downspout Dia.: Diameter Dim.: Dimension DN.: Down DP: Damp-Proofing, Dew Point, or Distribution Panel DWG: Drawing Ea.: Each ED: Edge Distance E.F.: Exhaust Fan EQ: Equal, or Equally Exc: Excavate E.W.: Each Way Ext.: Exterior FACP: Fire Alarm Control Panel FAO: Finish All Over F.C.O.: Floor cleanout F.D.: Floor Drain Fin.: Finish F.F.L.: Finished Floor Level FL: Floor Level FRPF: FS: Far Side FTG: Fitting Galv.: Galvanized G.C.: General Contractor G.F.C.I. or G.F.I.: Ground-Fault Circuit-Interrupter GPM: Gallons Per Minute G.T.: Glazed Tile Gyp.: Gypsum H.B.: Hose Bib HDCP: Handicapped (better if referred to as “Accessible”) HDPE: High-Density Polyethylene HRS: Hot Rolled Steel HV: High Voltage H.V.A.C.: Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning H.W.: Hot Water IAW: In Accordance With ID: Inner Diameter IE: Invert Elevation IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers In.: Inch Insul.: Insulation ISO: International Organization for Standards Int.: Interior Inv.: Invert J-Box: Junction Box Jct.: Junction Jst.: Joist kW: Kilowatt LDD: LImited Dimension Drawing LFT.: Linear Feet LH: Left Hand LL: Live Load LM: List of Materials Lt.: Light Ltg.: Lighting L.V.L.: Laminated Veneer Lumber MH: Manhole Mas.: MAX: Maxiumum MBW: Measurement Between Wires Mtl.: Material MFG.: Manufacturing Min.: Minimum MOW: Measurement Over Wires NEC: National Electrical Code N.I.C.: Not In Contract NOM: Nominal N.T.S.: Not to scale OAL: Overall Length O.C.: On Center O.D.: Outside Diameter OPNG.: Opening or Rough Opening PCC: Portland Cement Concrete PCI: Property Casualty Insurers Association of America PCS: Pieces PL.: P.L.: Property Line (or Parts List) Plywd.: Plywood P.S.F.: Pounds per Square Foot P.S.I.: Pounds per Square Inch Ptd.: Painted PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride QTY: Quantity R: Radius RC: Reinforced Concrete RD: Roof Drain, Round, or Receptacle Distribution Panel R.D.L.: Roof Drain Leader REBAR: Reinforcing Bar REQD: Required RH: Right Hande R.O.: Rough Opening R.O.W.: Right of Way Reinf.: Reinforced San.: Sanitary SC: Sharp Corners S.D.: Smoke Detector Sect.: Section Sht.: Sheet Sht’g.: Sheathing Specs.: Specifications SQ. FT.: Square Feet SQ. IN.: Square Inches SS: Stainless Steel, Setscrew, Soil Stack, Service Sink, or Slop Sink Std.: Standard Stl: Steel S.Y.: Square Yard T&B: Top and Bottom T&G: Tongue and Groove T.O.: Top of T.O.B.: Top of Beam T.O.C.: Top of Curb or Top of Concrete T.O.F.: Top of Footing T.O.J.: Top of Joist T.O.M.: Top of Masonry T.O.W.: Top of Wall TTC: Telephone Terminal Closet UON: Unless Otherwise Noted VA.: Voltage V.B.: Vapor Barrier V.I.F.: Verify in Field W.C.: Water Closet (Toilet) Wd.: Wood Wdw.: Window W.I.: Wrought Iron W.I.C.: Walk-In Closet WL: Water Level W/O: Without Wp.: Weatherproof WS: Weatherstripping or Water Stop Wt.: Weight Wtr. Htr. : Water Heater

: How to Read Abbreviations and Acronyms in Construction Blueprints

What is the acronym for contractor?

CONTR – Contractor | AcronymFinder.

What does OTP safety mean?

A One Time Password or OTP is a security code designed to be used for a single login attempt, to minimize the risk of fraudulent login attempts and maintain high security. It’s a string of characters or numbers automatically generated and sent to the user’s phone via SMS, Voice, or Push message.

How do you implement OTP?

Time-synchronized OTPs generate based on current time – A time-synchronized OTP is one that generates new, temporary passwords based on the current time. Time-synchronized OTPs typically deliver passwords via hardware device or via a two-factor authenticator app (Authy, Google Authenticator, Microsoft Authenticator).

Your OTP device has a clock that syncs with the clock on the authentication server. Both then generate an OTP based on the current time. From there, the password is hashed to generate a unique, numerical code that functions as the OTP. OTP vendors usually use a Unix timestamp to coordinate a universal time and avoid any problems with time zones.

The most popular standard for time-synchronized OTPs is time-based OTPs or TOTPs,

What is OTP reference?

A one-time password (OTP) consists of a short sequence of numbers and alphanumeric characters that are auto-generated and delivered by an application service to the user at a previously registered email address or mobile phone number associated with the user account.

  1. Once received, it is then entered by the user to verify their identity.
  2. A one-time password is used as part of an authentication process with the purpose of verifying the identity of a user to allow access to a web or mobile service.
  3. The reason for the name of this technology is that the intention and design are that the sequence of characters and numbers can be used only once, and typically has a fixed expiration time of a few minutes or hours.

After the time has expired the user would need to request an updated code to proceed with the authentication sequence. Using this short life duration, an OTP provides a dynamic up-to-date code that can be used to confirm that the person using the user credentials is in fact the legitimate user and not someone who has obtained stolen credentials.

This one-time, short duration quality of an OTP addresses one of the biggest weaknesses with regular password-based authentication, which is that users reuse passwords across sites and services. Once a regular password is stolen it can be used by fraudsters. A one-time password is only vulnerable for a short period of time before the code expires.

One-time passwords are typically delivered either via email to a previously verified user address, or via SMS to a previously verified phone number associated with the user account. When a user tries to log in to a service and provides their username and password, the service may additionally send the user an OTP for additional security for the user account.

What are the two types of OTP?

OTP Types – OTP tokens come in two types: event-based (HOTP) and time-based (TOTP). Event-based OTP tokens generate new codes at the press of the button and the code is valid until it is used by the application. Time-based OTP tokens generate codes that are valid only for a certain amount of time (eg, 30 or 60 seconds), after which a new code must be generated.

How does process of OTP works?

MasterCard SecureCode uses OTAC to confirm a user’s identity One time authorization code as used in Yammer ‘s desktop client A one-time password ( OTP ), also known as a one-time PIN, one-time authorization code ( OTAC ) or dynamic password, is a password that is valid for only one login session or transaction, on a computer system or other digital device.

OTPs avoid several shortcomings that are associated with traditional (static) password-based authentication; a number of implementations also incorporate two-factor authentication by ensuring that the one-time password requires access to something a person has (such as a small keyring fob device with the OTP calculator built into it, or a smartcard or specific cellphone) as well as something a person knows (such as a PIN).

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OTP generation algorithms typically make use of pseudorandomness or randomness to generate a shared key or seed, and cryptographic hash functions, which can be used to derive a value but are hard to reverse and therefore difficult for an attacker to obtain the data that was used for the hash.

  • This is necessary because otherwise, it would be easy to predict future OTPs by observing previous ones.
  • OTPs have been discussed as a possible replacement for, as well as an enhancer to, traditional passwords.
  • On the downside, OTPs can be intercepted or rerouted, and hard tokens can get lost, damaged, or stolen.

Many systems that use OTPs do not securely implement them, and attackers can still learn the password through phishing attacks to impersonate the authorized user.

What are the three types of building codes?

A building code (also building control or building regulations ) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non-building structures, Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, usually from a local council.

  • The main purpose of building codes is to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures.
  • The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority.

Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, interior designers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants, and others.

Codes regulate the design and construction of structures where adopted into law. Examples of building codes began in ancient times. In the USA the main codes are the International Building Code or International Residential Code, electrical codes and plumbing, mechanical codes. Fifty states and the District of Columbia have adopted the I-Codes at the state or jurisdictional level.

In Canada, national model codes are published by the National Research Council of Canada, In the United Kingdom, compliance with Building Regulations is monitored by building control bodies, either Approved Inspectors or Local Authority Building Control departments.

What does oof mean in construction?

MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS – The principal OOF activity now is the addition of crystal plastic constitutive rules to the code, with the goal of being able to predict the microstructure-dependent mechanical response of complex materials to large loads. Because of the history-dependence, plasticity differs in character from materials models previously considered in the OOF software.

  • We face a number of architectural and performance challenges in bringing this capability to a useable state, while preserving the wide range of applicability and generalizability that is the primary goal of the OOF software.
  • With the assistance of an expert from the field of computational mecahnics, post-doctoral researcher Shahriyar Keshavarz, the architectural challenge is now essentially solved in a prototype code.

The difficulties arising from the history-dependence of the plastic behavior turned out to be only part of the story. A previously unrecognized difficulty arose related to the incorporation of large-strain elasticity. From the point of view of mathematics or physics, large-strain elasticity appears to effectively amount to a different constitutive rule, and with an understanding of the geometry, it seems that it is at least conceptually straightforward to construct an equation which can be solved in either the reference, undeformed configuration, or in the “lab space,” depending on one’s choice of stress measure and willingness to undertake successive applications of the chain rule of differentiation.

One makes a selection, applies it consistently, and achieves whatever level of generality one wishes. In the computational mechanics community, there is a time-honored way of approaching this problem which involves a decomposition into constitutive and geometric parts, and the construction of an intermediate space in which plastic strain is present but elastic deformation is not.

This space has high importance for crystal plasticity, because it is a space in which the lattice remains invariant, and in particular where the crystallographic planes along which the plasticity acts retain their original orientations. Understanding the evolution rules for the system as acting in these two spaces connects usefully to the different physical mechanisms taking place.

  1. It is, on the one hand, a powerful tool in understanding the mechanisms, and on the other hand, essential to communicating with the computational mechanics community against whom we want to benchmark, and from whom we expect to obtain candidate constitutive rules.
  2. Respecting this decomposition means one cannot simply write a more general history-dependent PDE solver to properly address this problem.

We now have a software architectural demonstration code which maintains the desired generality of the OOF code, retains the ability to operate on unstructured meshes derived from image data, and incorporates the spatial decomposition of the problem while allowing for “pluggable” plastic constitive rules, to facilitate structure-property explorations.

In addition, we have a renewed focus on interoperability, and have near-term plans to make it easier to incorporate OOF capabilities into existing or currently-planned high-throughput or scale-crossing workflows, either by ingesting property information from the emerging suite of repositories, setting up an MDCS instance to allow the public exchange of OOF property and materials data, or incorporting OOF into scale-crossing design-optimizing workflows.To this end, we are investigating the practicality of ingesting or producing microstructural data in the Dream3D format, or related HDF5-based formats under development in Europe, and are participating in workshops where tools and workflows are featured, starting with the PRISMs and ICE workflows, from the University of Michigan and the US Air Force, respectively.

The principal OOF activity now is the addition of crystal plastic constitutive rules to the code, with the goal of being able to predict the microstructure-dependent mechanical response of complex materials to large loads. Because of the history-dependence, plasticity differs in character from materials models previously considered in the OOF software.

  • We face a number of architectural and performance challenges in bringing this capability to a useable state, while preserving the wide range of applicability and generalizability that is the primary goal of the OOF software.
  • With the assistance of an expert from the field of computational mecahnics, post-doctoral researcher Shahriyar Keshavarz, the architectural challenge is now essentially solved in a prototype code.

The difficulties arising from the history-dependence of the plastic behavior turned out to be only part of the story. A previously unrecognized difficulty arose related to the incorporation of large-strain elasticity. From the point of view of mathematics or physics, large-strain elasticity appears to effectively amount to a different constitutive rule, and with an understanding of the geometry, it seems that it is at least conceptually straightforward to construct an equation which can be solved in either the reference, undeformed configuration, or in the “lab space,” depending on one’s choice of stress measure and willingness to undertake successive applications of the chain rule of differentiation.

  1. One makes a selection, applies it consistently, and achieves whatever level of generality one wishes.
  2. In the computational mechanics community, there is a time-honored way of approaching this problem which involves a decomposition into constitutive and geometric parts, and the construction of an intermediate space in which plastic strain is present but elastic deformation is not.

This space has high importance for crystal plasticity, because it is a space in which the lattice remains invariant, and in particular where the crystallographic planes along which the plasticity acts retain their original orientations. Understanding the evolution rules for the system as acting in these two spaces connects usefully to the different physical mechanisms taking place.

  1. It is, on the one hand, a powerful tool in understanding the mechanisms, and on the other hand, essential to communicating with the computational mechanics community against whom we want to benchmark, and from whom we expect to obtain candidate constitutive rules.
  2. Respecting this decomposition means one cannot simply write a more general history-dependent PDE solver to properly address this problem.

We now have a software architectural demonstration code which maintains the desired generality of the OOF code, retains the ability to operate on unstructured meshes derived from image data, and incorporates the spatial decomposition of the problem while allowing for “pluggable” plastic constitive rules, to facilitate structure-property explorations.

Our next task is to incorporate this into the main OOF code itself. In addition, we have a renewed focus on interoperability, and have near-term plans to make it easier to incorporate OOF capabilities into existing or currently-planned high-throughput or scale-crossing workflows, either by ingesting property information from the emerging suite of repositories, setting up an MDCS instance to allow the public exchange of OOF property and materials data, or incorporting OOF into scale-crossing design-optimizing workflows.

To this end, we are investigating the practicality of ingesting or producing microstructural data in the Dream3D format, or related HDF5-based formats under development in Europe, and are participating in workshops where tools and workflows are featured, starting with the PRISMs and ICE workflows, from the University of Michigan and the US Air Force, respectively.

What is does the stand for?

Token Generation Event (TGE) – A Token Generation Event (TGE) is a business and technical act of limited duration that involves the technical generation of the token in a blockchain-based network, and its launch to the market, normally in the form of a public sale, private sale, or initial coin offering (ICO).

What do the abbreviations stands for?

Definition of ABBREVIATION An abbreviation is a shortened form of a written word or phrase. Abbreviations may be used to save space and time, to avoid repetition of long words and phrases, or simply to conform to conventional usage. The styling of abbreviations is inconsistent and arbitrary and includes many possible variations.

Some abbreviations are formed by omitting all but the first few letters of a word; such abbreviations usually end in a period: Oct. for October, univ. for university, and cont. for continued, Other abbreviations are formed by omitting letters from the middle of the word and usually also end in a period: govt.

for government, Dr. for Doctor, and atty. for attorney, Abbreviations for the names of states in the U.S. are two capitalized letters, e.g., AR for Arkansas, ME for Maine, and TX for Texas, are abbreviations formed from the initial letters of an expanded phrase and usually do not include periods: PR for public relations, CEO for chief executive officer, and BTW for by the way,

What does a stand for in engineering?

Engineering drawing abbreviations and symbols

Abbreviation or symbol Definition
A
AC across corners
AF across flats
AFF above finished floor