Total House Inspection Blog Home » House Inspection Blog » Definition of the term Eyebrow A flat, normally concrete, projection which protrudes horizontally from a building wall; Eyebrows are generally located above windows.
- 1 What is an eyebrow in architecture?
- 2 What is an eyebrow on a road?
- 3 Why is it called a brow?
- 4 What is the technical term for eyebrow?
- 5 What is a concrete eyebrow?
- 6 Where is a brow lift incision?
- 7 Why is it called anti eyebrow?
- 8 What does an eyebrow ridge mean?
- 9 What is the use of eyebrow?
- 10 Where is the brow located?
What is an eyebrow in architecture?
Builder Tim Lee inserted an expressive eyebrow window on the copper roof of a garage-turned-guesthouse in Locust Valley, New York Photo by John Kernick Imagine cutting a horizontal slit in your roof and then, from underneath, pushing on the uphill side, raising a little wave in the plane of the shingles.
- That’s the shape of an eyebrow window—a curvaceous way to get some light and, perhaps, ventilation in a top-floor space while distinguishing a building’s facade.
- The first eyebrows appeared on medieval thatch-roofed cottages.
- They were popularized in America in the second half of the 19th century by Boston architect Henry Hobson Richardson, the father of the Shingle style.
“Richardson’s eyebrows—sometimes called eyebrow or eyelid dormers—were long, narrow slits with short windows,” says Stephen Holt, the architect of the Shingle-style This Old House television project in Manchester, Massachusetts. “They added undulating curves to his large, expansive roofs.” Today, eyebrow windows aren’t restricted to the roofs of Shingle-style replicas.
- They’re found on buildings as varied as Post-Modern beach homes and the converted-garage guest cottage shown here.
- Most require a custom-made sash (fixed or hinged), and all involve tricky framing and roofing.
- They can be designed in shapes and sizes from soft Richardsonian sine curves to tall half-rounds.
According to Morristown, New Jersey, architect Nick Bensley, who puts eyebrows on many of his residential projects, “They really break up the monotony of a rectilinear roof or flat interior ceiling. Besides, curves are sexy.” This Old House master carpenter Norm Abram built an eyebrow window for his home office. Photo by John Kernick Cost But not inexpensive. “Anytime you build something that breaks away from a straight line,” says This Old House general contractor Tom Silva, “it costs more.” Most window companies routinely make true half-round windows, but a more traditional eyebrow — a semi-oval or a small segment of a circle — will have to be custom made.
- Depending on its size and whether the dormer is being retrofitted or planned as part of a new house, Tom says, an eyebrow can cost upward of $10,000.
- Bensley agrees.
- For comparison purposes, he tells his clients that a simple shed dormer will cost twice the price of a roof skylight and an eyebrow window three times as much.
Along with the expense of a curve-topped window, the high cost of an eyebrow comes from the complicated carpentry it requires. Finishing the inside of a curved wall, be it drywall or plaster, adds to the cost. Roofing an eyebrow is also expensive. According to Tom, one common, and quick, method is to cover the curve with malleable copper and to treat it as a separate roof from the other material, whether it’s asphalt, wood, or slate.
- Tom’s approach is more traditional, challenging, and time-consuming: He likes to continue courses from the main roof up and over an eyebrow.
- Any roofing will work, but you need an experienced contractor,” says Tom.
- Because of the curve’s geometry, courses of roofing shingles get shorter as they go up the eyebrow from each side of the main roof.
It’s a little tricky to figure out.” There are less expensive ways to bring light and air into a top-floor room, but few are as dramatic as an eyebrow dormer. “They give a whole new meaning to the phrase ‘to throw a curve’ at something,” Bensley says. This Old House master carpenter Norm Abram built the eyebrow on his house with 2×4 rafters fastened to a curved and laminated plywood header on one end and to the sheathing of the main roof on the other. Photo by Keller & Keller
What is eyebrow over door?
December 29, 2021. The short answer: A pole barn eyebrow is a decorative overhang above a door or window, or below a roofline.
What is an eyebrow on a road?
6. Dimensions and spacing of eyebrow terraces and stone strips Eyebrows/half moons are small, semi-circular and stone-faced structures that open in the direction of the run-off (figure 5.6). They can be built on steep slopes, usually with a maximum preferred slope of 50 percent, yet steeper gradients are possible, especially when rainfall is not torrential. Sizes of eyebrows with gradient
|Gradient||Stone ring diameter||Inner cross width||Backwall height||Reinforced backwall|
|30||30 cm||220 cm||70||–|
|45||30 cm||180 cm||120||10 cm|
|60||30 cm||140 cm||180||20 cm|
Abundant spoil material can be used to build up the semi-circular eyebrows. The topsoil that was removed whilst making the road can be used to fill the inner side of the semi-circular stone structure. This can be used for tree planting and can contribute to the regreening of the area.
What is a window eyebrow?
ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS Rene Eisenbart Click image to enlarge From the heavy-lidded look of medieval dwellings to the wide-eyed charm of English cottages, the eyebrow window has winked its way through centuries in a variety of architectural styles. A look first inspired by the thatched roofs of the Middle Ages, eyebrow windows were originally designed to embellish rooflines and bring light and ventilation into attic spaces.
- Some early eyebrows were not even windows at all, but rather simple, rounded roof vents lined with vertical wooden slats.
- In Portland, this pleasing architectural detail is most widely associated with the Craftsman bungalows and English cottages that sprang up in the 1920s and ’30s.
- They weren’t really made to be opened,” says Wade Freitag, of Craftsman Design and Renovation.
“They were made to break up the roof surface a bit and give the home a little more detail. In older neighborhoods across the United States, eyebrow windows are easily spotted on Craftsman bungalows, adding charm and symmetry to the hipped rooflines of these modest houses. They also appear as narrow slits, or eyelid dormers, in the grander Shingle-style homes of 19th-century architect Henry Hobson Richardson.
- Today, architect Robert A.M.
- Stern incorporates eyebrow windows into his residential designs, playing on this enchanting detail from the past.
- Larger eyebrow dormers with operable windows carry more visual impact, while smaller versions offer little more than a distinctive detail.
- Some homeowners still try to re-create the look of the old thatched roofs with cedar shingles.
Properly installed, shingles accentuate the wavy roofline as it is carried over an eyebrow dormer. However, most eyebrow windows today are roofed with common asphalt tiles, a technique that still takes skill to create the proper curvy effect. “The old shingled roofs are just beautiful,” says Freitag.
“I don’t know if there’s people left that can do that kind of work.” A glossary of terms Eyebrow: A low dormer on the slope of a roof. It has no sides, with the roofing carried over it in a wavy line. Eyebrow window: A window in an eyebrow dormer. Eyebrow eave: On a shingled roof, an eave that is carried over a door entry in a wavy line.
Eyebrow lintel: A lintel above a window, carried over the window in a wavy line. Text: Ruth Mullen ILLUSTRATION: Rene Eisenbart Source: Buffalo Illustrated Architecture Dictionary: http://ah.bfn.org/a/DCTNRY/vocab.html If you purchase a product or register for an account through one of the links on our site, we may receive compensation.
Why is it called a brow?
brow (n.) c.1300, broue, plural broues, brouen, “arch of hair over the eye,” also extended to the prominent ridge over the eye (early 14c.), from Old English bru (plural brua ), which probably originally meant “eyebrow” (but also was used in the sense of “eyelash”), from Proto-Germanic *brus- “eyebrow” (source also of Old Norse brun ), from PIE *bhru- “eyebrow” (source also of Sanskrit bhrus “eyebrow,” Greek ophrys, Old Church Slavonic bruvi, Lithuanian bruvis “brow,” Old Irish bru “edge”).
The -n- in the Old Norse ( brun ) and German ( braune ) forms of the word are from a genitive plural inflection. The sense was extended by c.1200 to “the forehead,” especially with reference to movements and expressions that showed emotion or attitude, hence “general expression of the face” (1590s). From c.1400 as “the slope of a steep place.” Words for “eyelid,” “eyelash,” and “eyebrow” changed about maddeningly in Old and Middle English (and in all the West Germanic languages).
The extension of Old English bru to “eyelash,” and later “eyelid” presumably was by association of the hair of the eyebrow with the hair of the eyelid. The eyebrows then became Old English oferbrua “overbrows” (early Middle English uvere breyhes or briges aboue þe eiges ).
The general word for “eyebrow” in Middle English was brew, breowen (c.1200), from Old English bræw (West Saxon), *brew (Anglian), from Proto-Germanic *bræwi- “blinker, twinkler” (source also of Old Frisian bre, Old Saxon brawa, Middle Dutch brauwe “eyelid,” Old High German brawa “eyebrow,” Old Norse bra “eyebrow,” Gothic brahw “twinkle, blink,” in phrase in brahwa augins “in the twinkling of an eye”).
: brow (n.)
What is the technical term for eyebrow?
eyebrow Also found in:,,,,,,1. supercilium; the transverse elevation at the junction of the forehead and the upper eyelid.2. supercilia; the hairs growing on this elevation. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition.
- © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.
- All rights reserved.
- Ī’brow ), The crescentic line of hairs at the superior edge of the orbit.
- Synonym(s): Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012 (ī′brou′) n.1.
- The bony ridge extending over the eye.2.
- The arch of short hairs covering this ridge.3.
A small, arched dormer that projects only slightly from the roof. The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. ( ī’brow ) The crescentic line of hairs at the superior edge of the orbit.
Synonym(s): (1), Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012 A transverse elevation covered with hairs and situated at the junction of the forehead and upper lid. Syn. supercilium. See, Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann Want to thank TFD for its existence?, add a link to this page, or visit,
Link to this page: “The authors suggest that the inner eyebrow-raising movement triggers a nurturing response in humans because it makes the dogs’ eyes appear larger, more infantlike and also resembles a movement humans produce when they are sad.” Psychologist Dr Juliane Kaminski, who led the research which is published in the American journal PNAS, said: “The evidence is compelling that dogs developed a muscle to raise the inner eyebrow after they were domesticated from wolves.
- But instead of using a tattoo gun, microblading’s instrument consists of tiny needles in a blade that makes superficial cuts on the eyebrow area to be filled by a pigment similar to the color of eyebrows,
- For others, eyebrow embroidery helps them in doing their brows before going out, because they just need to follow the shape,’ said Tabao.
Microblading is a revolutionary technique that can transform the lives of patients with hypotrichosis of the eyebrows, trichotillomania, eyebrow loss due to internal disease (such as thyroid disease), chemotherapy-induced eyebrow loss, or alopecia-or simply those seeking it for cosmetic improvement.
What is a concrete eyebrow?
Total House Inspection Blog Home » House Inspection Blog » Definition of the term Eyebrow A flat, normally concrete, projection which protrudes horizontally from a building wall; Eyebrows are generally located above windows.
Where is a brow lift incision?
During the procedure – Brow lift techniques vary depending on your desired results. The specific technique your surgeon chooses will determine the location of the incisions and the resulting scars. Your surgeon might use one of the following techniques:
Endoscopic brow lift. In this procedure, several small incisions are made behind the hairline. A long thin tube with a light and a tiny camera mounted on its end is inserted through one of the incisions to view the underlying muscles and tissues. Using an instrument inserted through another incision, the surgeon lifts the forehead tissues and anchors them in place with sutures, small screws or another technique. The incisions are then closed with stitches or small clips. Temporal brow lift. This procedure is done through small incisions just behind the hairline near the temples. Direct brow lift. This procedure is done by removing the skin above the eyebrows. A direct brow lift is typically done in people with bushy eyebrows. It’s also a shorter surgery and can be done with local anesthesia, which numbs only part of the body. Coronal brow lift. This procedure involves making an incision behind the hairline across the top of the head, from ear to ear or primarily on the top of the head. Then the forehead is lifted into its new position, with the scalp in front of the incision overlapping the scalp behind it. The overlapping scalp is then removed, and the remaining scalp is sewn together. This technique is not typically done in people who have high hairlines, thin hair or who are likely to lose their hair. Hairline brow lift. For this procedure, an incision is made between the top of the forehead and the beginning of the hairline. A small amount of skin and tissue is removed from the top of the forehead, rather than your scalp. This can correct a high hairline. A hairline brow lift is often used if someone has a high, receding hairline. However, a scar might be visible along the hairline, depending on the placement of the incisions, scar healing and hairstyle.
Brow lift surgery typically takes about 1 to 2 hours.
What is above the eyebrow called?
|Frontal bone, Outer surface. Brow ridge labelled as “superciliary arch” at center right).|
|Anatomical terms of bone|
The brow ridges are often not well expressed in human females, as pictured above in a female skull, and are most easily seen in profile. The brow ridge, or supraorbital ridge known as superciliary arch in medicine, is a bony ridge located above the eye sockets of all primates, In humans, the eyebrows are located on their lower margin.
Why is it called anti eyebrow?
Like yin and yang, there is an opposite force to everything. The same is true for body piercings. We have the tragus and the anti-tragus, the helix and the anti-helix ( the forward helix ), and now we have the eyebrow and the anti-eyebrow. The name is a bit confusing.
What exactly is the anti-eyebrow? Similar to the anti-tragus and anti-helix piercings, the anti-eyebrow is so-called because it appears directly opposite the eyebrow along the cheekbone below the eye. The anti-eyebrow piercing, also known as the butterfly piercing, is a surface piercing. This means that the piercer will use clamps to pinch the skin that you want to be pierced and push the needle straight through.
They will then insert a curved barbell into the piercing, The bead ends of the curved barbell will stick out of the piercing, offering a double pierced look. While surface piercings heal like any other piercing, there are some things that you need to keep in mind during healing.
What does an eyebrow ridge mean?
Why expressive brows might have mattered in human evolution image: Eyebrows on fleek: Model of a modern human skull next to Kabwe 1. Credit: Paul O’Higgins, University of York
- Highly mobile eyebrows that can be used to express a wide range of subtle emotions may have played a crucial role in human survival, new research from the University of York suggests.
- Like the antlers on a stag, a pronounced brow ridge was a permanent signal of dominance and aggression in our early ancestors, which modern humans traded in for a smooth forehead with more visible, hairy eyebrows capable of a greater range of movement.
- Mobile eyebrows gave us the communication skills to establish large, social networks; in particular to express more nuanced emotions such as recognition and sympathy, allowing for greater understanding and cooperation between people.
- The study contributes to a long-running academic debate about why other hominins, including our immediate ancestors, had gigantic brow ridges while anatomically modern humans evolved flatter foreheads.
Senior author of the paper, Paul O’Higgins, Professor of Anatomy at the University of York, said: “Looking at other animals can offer interesting clues as to what the function of a prominent brow ridge may have been. In mandrills, dominant males have brightly coloured swellings on either side of their muzzles to display their status.
The growth of these lumps is triggered by hormonal factors and the bones underlying them are pitted with microscopic craters – a feature that can also be seen in the brow bones of archaic hominins.” “Sexually dimorphic display and social signalling is a convincing explanation for the jutting brows of our ancestors.
Their conversion to a more vertical brow in modern humans allowed for the display of friendlier emotions which helped form social bonds between individuals”.
- Using 3D engineering software, the researchers looked at the iconic brow ridge of a fossilised skull, known as Kabwe 1, held in the collections of the National History Museum.
- It belonged to a species of archaic hominin – Homo heidelbergensis, who lived between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago.
- The researchers discounted two theories commonly put forward to explain protruding brow ridges: that they were needed to fill the space where the flat brain cases and eye sockets of archaic hominins met, and that the ridge acted to stabilise their skulls from the force of chewing.
Professor O’Higgins said: “We used modelling software to shave back Kabwe’s huge brow ridge and found that the heavy brow offered no spatial advantage as it could be greatly reduced without causing a problem. Then we simulated the forces of biting on different teeth and found that very little strain was placed on the brow ridge.
- When we took the ridge away there was no effect on the rest of the face when biting.
- Since the shape of the brow ridge is not driven by spatial and mechanical requirements alone, and other explanations for brow ridges such as keeping sweat or hair out of eyes have already been discounted, we suggest a plausible contributing explanation can be found in social communication.” According to the researchers, our communicative foreheads started off as a side-effect of our faces getting gradually smaller over the past 100,000 years.
This process has become particularly rapid in last 20,000 years and more recently, as we switched from being hunter gatherers to agriculturalists – a lifestyle that meant less variety in both diet and physical effort. Co-author of the paper, Dr Penny Spikins from the Department of Archaeology at the University of York, said: “Modern humans are the last surviving hominin.
- While our sister species the Neanderthals were dying out, we were rapidly colonising the globe and surviving in extreme environments.
- This had a lot to do with our ability to create large social networks – we know, for example, that prehistoric modern humans avoided inbreeding and went to stay with friends in distant locations during hard times.
“Eyebrow movements allow us to express complex emotions as well as perceive the emotions of others. A rapid “eyebrow flash” is a cross-cultural sign of recognition and openness to social interaction and pulling our eyebrows up at the middle is an expression of sympathy.
- “Eyebrows are the missing part of the puzzle of how modern humans managed to get on so much better with each other than other now-extinct hominins.”
- Supraorbital morphology and social dynamics in human evolution is published in Nature Ecology and Evolution,
Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system. : Why expressive brows might have mattered in human evolution
What does a sliced eyebrow mean?
What are eyebrow slits? – The meaning of the eyebrow slit differs from person to person because the shaved line is mainly a fashion trend. Eyebrow slits are shaved gaps in the brows used as a fashion choice or a way to express oneself. While the style has been linked to gang affiliation in the past, today’s shaved lines do not carry the same negative connotations.
Men and women might choose from various major designs or try out new and trendy ideas. The eyebrow slit is a fashion craze that involves cutting a narrow, vertical slash through the brow with a razor or electric trimmer. The shaved brow gap often referred to as an eyebrow cut, is a fashionable and appealing style.
In the 1990s, the appearance was particularly popular among hip-hop artists. Celebrities and current beauty bloggers have helped to reintroduce them to public attention. The eyebrow slash was popularised in hip-hop culture by Big Daddy Kane, who cut several slits into his brow.
What does 2 slits in the eyebrow mean?
6. Eyebrow slit trend 4: Double eyebrow slit – Just like the single eyebrow slit trend, with double the fun. It indicates that you are now ready to take the game of edge a notch further. This can be a fun way to accentuate the arch of your eyebrows too, thus giving the whole face a lifting, wholesome, and sharp look. Go for it! Image Source:
What is difference between brow and eyebrow?
Your brow is your forehead. He wiped his brow with the back of his hand. Your brows are your eyebrows.
What is the use of eyebrow?
The Physical Purpose of Eyebrows – Our eyebrows define our faces and our means of communication, but they also serve a much more physical and significant purpose—they protect our eyes. “Eyebrows are my thing,” Cahill excitedly tells us. “And our eyebrows’ main function is really to prevent sweat and water from entering the eye.” The natural arch of the “original/unkept” eyebrow is to divert sweat and water.
Eyebrows are there to ultimately direct moisture to the side of the face to keep our eye area dry. “Our eyebrows also prevent dirt/debris/dust/etc. from entering the eye,” says Cahill. “But they also act as a landmark, seeing as human faces are relatively flat.” This plays a significant role in facial identity.
Similar to our fingerprints, everyone has a different eyebrow shape. So the “landmark” that is our unique eyebrows can contribute to specialized facial recognition algorithms used most commonly among law enforcement agencies, but can now even be used to unlock your new mobile device.
Why is brow important?
The Importance of the Brow – Achieve Picture Perfect Eyebrows – Have you noticed how obsessed people in New York are with their eyebrows? Eyebrows are one of a person’s most prominent facial features because of the many functions they perform. They help accentuate the eyes, shape the face, and play a powerful role in communication.
- Of course, not everyone is born with perfectly-manicured brows; so to achieve an aesthetically-pleasing look, eyebrows should be routinely trimmed, shaped, and filled.
- Learn how a well-defined brow can alter your appearance.
- Beautifully-groomed eyebrows are a lesser known anti-aging secret.
- As one of the first things people notice when they look at you, no amount of makeup can atone for bad brows.
What properly plucked brows can do is give lift to your face and make the eyes appear larger and more youthful. The right eyebrow shape can frame and flatter the eyes. The wrong one can make you appear aged, tired, or angry. However, there is no one “right” eyebrow shape.
- Establish the right brow shape for you by examining your face and eye shape.
- Current brow trends may also play a role in the shape and thickness of your eyebrows.
- Without regular maintenance, your eyebrows can appear bushy and unkempt.
- In contrast, a well-groomed brow can create a polished look that enhances your appearance.
Even without a drop of makeup, a woman with well-kept eyebrows will typically appear more clean and refined. No human has a perfectly symmetrical face but most of us aim to have one. Eyebrows that are unsymmetrical can throw off your facial balance, making one eye appear larger than the other or changing your entire look altogether.
- Well-structured brows that are more symmetrical in nature are pleasing to the human eye.
- Eyebrows have the power to completely change the look of the face by correcting minor flaws such as small eyes or eyes that are too far apart.
- The right brow shape can add length and definition to your face.
- It can also draw the eyes to the upper portion of the face to distract from imperfections on the bottom portion.
While you can’t change your face shape, you can modify your eyebrows which in turn alter how your face shape looks. For example, a flat eyebrow shape tends to shorten the face shape. Therefore, women with longer faces may choose a flat eyebrow shape to create the illusion of a shorter, more balanced face.
Where is the brow located?
The Surgical Treatment Of the Aging Brow Published 5 August 2013
The term browlift describes a procedure that repositions sagging tissue of the forehead and eyebrows. Even at relatively young ages, patients may see a change in the location of their eyebrows and the emergence of forehead and periorbital rhytids. The aging brow is often interpreted as tired or angry.
There are a wide variety of surgical techniques that address the upper third of the face, including forehead lifts, browlifts and blepharoplasties. All should be considered and tailored to each patient’s specific cosmetic need. This review will provide a brief overview of brow and forehead lifting techniques.
Evaluation The evaluation of the cosmetic brow patient should include thorough questioning to elicit the patient’s subjective aesthetic complaints, a history of previous facial surgery and any ocular abnormalities. This is followed by a complete head and neck and ophthalmologic exam.
- Preoperative facial photography should be obtained to assist in performing a comprehensive facial analysis to include an assessment of brow position.
- The brow should lie roughly 1 cm above the medial canthus along an imaginary line perpendicular to the nasal ala, and end laterally at an oblique line extending from the alar ridge through the lateral canthus.
Although debated, the highest point of the brow should generally be near the lateral limbus, and the arc is more pronounced in the female (See Figure 1), The female brow should lay 0.5 to 1 cm above the supraorbital ridge, while the male brow should be located at the level of the supraorbital ridge.
Anatomy & Surgical Technique Browlifting addresses brow ptosis primarily, but some techniques may impact forehead and periorbital rhytids. Structures at risk during brow and forehead lifts include the neurovascular bundles emanating from the supraorbital region, as well as the temporal (or frontal) branch of the facial nerve.
It is imperative to understand the neurovascular anatomy of the forehead to avoid damage to these structures intraoperatively. The layers of the scalp include the skin, connective tissue, galea aponeurotica, loose areolar tissue and the periosteal layer.
The superficial temporal artery supplies the lateral forehead, while the medial forehead receives its vascular supply from the supraorbital and supratrochlear arteries, both branches of the ophthalmic artery (which itself arises from the internal carotid artery). The medial forehead receives its sensory supply via the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves from the V1 branch of the trigeminal nerve, while the lacrimal (V1), zygomaticofacial (V2) and the auriculotemporal (V3) address the lateral forehead sensation.
The temporal branch of the facial nerve courses superomedially through the area between the brow and hairline within the temporoparietal fascia (TPF). Anatomic studies revealed that the sentinel vein, a structure encountered in the sub-temporoparietal fascial plane in the temple, is a reliable predictor of the nerve’s course, and runs inferior to the nerve within 2 mm 2,
Forehead and periorbital rhytids are caused by contraction of the upper facial musculature, including the corrugator, frontalis and procerus muscles. The corrugator muscles are small, fan-shaped muscles that underlie the eyebrows and cause vertical glabellar wrinkling. The frontalis muscle is a broad, bi-lobed muscle that raises the eyebrows.
The procerus extends from the dorsal nose to the lower forehead, and is responsible for upper nose wrinkling. Here are the different surgical options for treating the brow and forehead, in order of popularity in our practice. Endoscopic Browlift In our opinion, the endoscopic browlift is the procedure of choice for rejuvenating the brow.
The advantages of the endoscopic browlift include its minimally invasive nature and the absence of long incisions; the inherent ability to provide a natural result and avoid overly-elevated brows; the ability to directly visualize the procerus and corrugator muscles for resection; and the low incidence of scalp paresthesia.
Disadvantages include the need for anesthesia; costs associated with fixation; and a posterior hairline shift.
A full discussion of surgical detail is not possible in this review, but we will provide a brief review of our technique. We most often combine the endoscopic browlift with the temporal browlift described hereafter. Five scalp incisions are made posterior to the hairline; one midline, two in the paramedian position over the brow arch, and two that are parallel to the hairline in the temple (See Figure 2),
- Periosteal elevators are used to dissect in the subperiosteal plane to the supraorbital ridge, avoiding the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves.
- The temporal browlift is completed as described below in the sub-TPF plane.
- The temporal dissection is connected to the frontal dissection by dividing the conjoint fascia, or temporal line.
This is done through the temporal pocket in a lateral to medial fashion, which protects the facial nerve. Around the glabellar and superior orbital rim areas the periosteum is divided transversely with reverse elevators or endoscopic scissors. It should be noted that frontal paresis occurs more commonly on the left because on this side the endoscope is positioned directly under the frontal branch.
Following adequate periosteal release, partial myectomies of the procerus, corrugator and depressor supercilli muscles are performed if necessary. However, it is commonly thought that myectomies are not a permanent solution to forehead rhytids, and patients are routinely counseled that they will need botulinum toxin indefinitely to treat these.
Once the tissue is released from periosteum, it is redraped and fixed posteriorly after adequate flap advancement. There are several flap fixation techniques, generally using screws or other bioabsorbable soft tissue fixation devices. We prefer fixation screws, which are removed 10 to 14 days postoperatively.
Periosteal reattachment is stable within six to eight weeks (See Figure 3), Temporal Browlift The temporal browlift can be performed in conjunction with the endoscopic browlift or as a separate procedure to address lateral brow and periorbital rhytids.
- There are many different ways to perform a temporal browlift, from endoscopic (most commonly in conjunction with a full browlift) to subcutaneous (most commonly an office procedure under local anesthesia).
- We will describe the endoscopic approach.
- An incision is made 8 to 10 mm posterior to hairline over the temporal suture line.
Dissection is carried down to the superficial layer of the deep temporal fascia, under the temporoparietal fascia. Using sharp elevators, care is taken to stay in this plane as dissection proceeds towards the lateral orbital rim. The sentinel vein should be identified and preserved if possible.
The periosteal attachments to the lateral supraorbital ridge/lateral orbital rim are released. The precanthal tendon, or lateral orbital thickening, is elevated. The temporal scalp flap is retracted upwards and excess skin excised. To fixate the lateral brow, the TPF is sutured superolaterally to the temporalis fascia (See Figure 4),
Direct Browlift The direct browlift is most useful in the comprehensive management of facial paralysis and in male patients with prominent rhytids. It is rarely used for cosmetic patients in our practice. Separate incisions are made over each brow; the inferior edge of each incision is placed within the superior most aspect of the eyebrows, and carried to the lateral aspect of the eyebrow and extended horizontally in a gentle arc.
It should not extend more medially than the medial aspect of the eyebrow as this may result in glabellar scarring. The superior incision should be placed a maximum of 10 to 12 mm above the inferior incision, with its highest point at the lateral limbus.
- The superior incision determines the new brow positioning, and the degree of femininity or masculinity of the rejuvenated face depends on the angle of the eyebrow at the lateral limbus.
- This is a powerful technique and care the surgeon should err on the conservative side to avoid an over-elevated brow (See Figure 5),
The advantages of a direct browlift include its short operative duration, the ability to perform under local anesthesia, and its precise control over the design of brow contour and shape. It does not change the appearance of forehead or glabellar rhytids, and does leave a visible eyebrow scar.
It does not address forehead rhytids, but rather uses them to hide the incisional scar. Ideally, adjacent transverse rhytids are incised, and the intervening skin removed. Dissection may be carried out in subgaleal or subcutaneous fashion. The subgaleal flap is easier to elevate and a more cosmetically appealing scar, however it transects sensory nerves and causes postoperative forehead numbness.
The subcutaneous flap in contrast, requires more tension on the skin edge but avoids transection of the sensory branches of the forehead. The forehead incision should be meticulously closed with vertical mattress suture ensuring eversion of the skin edges, and often requires meticulous postoperative management that often includes laser resurfacing and/or dermabrasion (See Figure 6),
Coronal Forehead Lift The coronal lift is useful for situations in which endoscopic procedures have failed or are not indicated or for patients who do not require a pretrichial incision. In our practice, this situation is exceedingly rare. The advantages of the coronal lift include the ability to address the corrugator, procerus and frontalis muscles to theoretically eliminate dynamic rhytids; the wide surgical exposure for teaching purposes; and the possibility to powerfully elevate the brow.
- Two major disadvantages include hairline elevation and paresthesia posterior to the incision.
- An incision is placed posterior to the hairline in an arcuate design towards the helical root.
- Dissection is carried out in the subgaleal plane to the superior orbital rim, with attention to the course of the superficial temporal branch of the facial nerve.
The corrugator muscles are dissected out and removed with sharp scissor dissection, avoiding the supratrochlear nerve. The procerus muscle can be similarly addressed if desired. Replacing the flap is carried out with relaxing incisions and cardinal sutures placed in areas requiring the greatest amount of lift.
After satisfactory replacement of the brow, redundant areas of scalp skin are excised. Galeal sutures are placed in several areas along the incision, with emphasis along the dome of the head to avoid postoperative scar spread. Pretrichial Browlift The pretrichial browlift is indicated in women with high hairlines or for long vertical forehead heights.
It is a modification of the coronal lift, and does not lift the anterior hairline further.
The incision is placed approximately 2 mm posterior to the hairline in a beveled fashion that transects the hair follicles, which encourages postoperative hair growth through the resultant scar. Alternatively, a W-plasty technique has been described with limbs 5 to 6 mm in length that interdigitate at 35-degree angles.
The remainder of the procedure is carried out the same as the coronal forehead technique. Browpexy A browpexy may be used in combination with the upper blepharoplasty and may negate the need for a forehead procedure. It cannot address forehead rhytids or other aesthetic concerns of the upper third of the face.
It is performed through an upper blepharoplasty incision after identification of the supraorbital vessels and nerves surrounding the supraorbital notch. The blepharoplasty incision is extended superiorly to 1.5 cm above the superior and lateral orbital rim deep to the orbicularis oculi muscle.
- Blepharoplasty is carried out first, then browpexy is carried out to elevate and suspend the brow.
- Sutures are placed at the infrabrow hairs and passed in the periosteal plane to 1 cm above the supraorbital ridge.
- Tying down these sutures will elevate the eyebrow, and therefore placement and tension of the suture guides repositioning of the brow.
Complications Main complications of the browlift procedures include bleeding, injury to sensory or motor nerves, lagophthalmos and alopecia. Bleeding can occur from the superficial temporal artery and zygomaticotemporal artery, as well as the supratrochlear and supraorbital arteries.
- Given the close proximity to nerves throughout the lateral forehead, cautery with the bipolar is recommended.
- The development of postoperative hematoma could compromise flap vascularity and survival, and is an indication for urgent exploration and cautery.
- Stretching of the supratrochlear and/or supraorbital nerve can result in temporary hypesthesia over the supraorbital rim.
In the direct browlift, permanent hypesthesia generally results surrounding the incision. The browpexy is also associated with hypesthesia, generally of several months’ duration, over the lateral eyebrow margin.
Damage to the temporal branch of facial nerve can result both from injection of the local anesthetic and from damage during surgical dissection in the temporal region. Care to observe anatomic landmarks and caution with retraction are essential to preserve this branch.
Temporary lagophthalmos is common postoperatively, for which judicious use of eye drops and ointment is imperative. A corneal ulceration can occur, especially when the browlift is associated with a blepharoplasty, and should be recognized early to avoid permanent ocular damage. Alopecia can result from trauma to hair follicles during surgery, or dissection in a superficial plane that transects hair follicles.
Although the surgical browlift seems less popular in favor of volume replacement techniques recently, it remains a powerful rejuvenative technique in the plastic surgeon’s arsenal. It can beautifully complement other facial cosmetic procedures (See Figure 7),
There are several procedures to address the aesthetic aspects of the upper third of the face. Each should be tailored to the specific needs of the patient undergoing the procedure. Choice of technique will depend on the position of the patient’s hairline, the amount of lift that is necessary, and the need to concurrently address forehead rhytids or brow asymmetries.
Only browlifts were discussed in this review, however, a thorough consideration of all aspects of the individual patient and the aging forehead, brow and eyelids should be undertaken in order to optimize facial rejuvenation. REVIEW Dr. Heffelfinger is the director of the Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and co-director of the Herbert Kean Center for Facial Aesthetics at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital.
He also the director of Head and Neck Microvascular Surgery at Jefferson. Contact him at 925 Chestnut St.6th fl. Philadelphia, PA 19107. E-mail:, Dr. D’Souza is a third-year resident in Jefferson’s otolaryngology residency program. Contact her at,1. Codner MA, Kikkawa DO, Korn BS, Pacella SJ. Blepharoplasty and Brow Lift Plast Reconstr Surg 2010;126(1):1-17.2.
Sabini P, Wayne I, Quatela V. (2003) Anatomical Guides to Precisely Localize the Frontal Branch of the Facial Nerve. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2003;5(2):150-152.3. Adamson P, Dahiya R. The Aging Forehead. In: Bailey B, Johnson J. eds. Head and Neck Surgery—Otolaryngology.
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Plast Reconstr Surg 2011;128(4):335-341.6. Vinas JC, Caviglia C, Cortinas JL. Forehead Rhytidoplasty and Brow Lifting. Plast Reconstr Surg 1976;57:445.7. Knize DM (2009) Anatomic Concepts for Brow Lift Procedures. Plast Reconstr Surg 124(6):2118-2126.8. Agarwal CA, Mendenhall SD 3rd, Foreman KB, Owsley JQ.
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- 1991) Criteria for the Forehead Lift.
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Aesthet Surg J 2002;22:69-71.11. Nassif PS. Kokoska MS, Homan S. (1998) Comparison of subperiosteal vs subgaleal elevation techniques used in forehead lifts. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998;124(11):1209-1215.12. Mackay GJ, Nahai F. (1995) The Endoscopic Forehead Lift.
- Operative techniques in plastic and reconstructive surgery.
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(2001) National Plastic Surgery Survey: Brow Lifting Techniques and Complications. Plast Reconstr Surg 2001;108:2143-2150.15. Byun S, Mukovozov I, Farrokhyar F, Thoma A. Complications in Brow Lift Techniques: A Systematic Review. Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;130:90.16.
What is eyebrow and its function?
|An eyebrow and eye|
An eyebrow is an area of short hairs above each eye that follows the shape of the lower margin of the brow ridges of some mammals, In humans, eyebrows serve two main functions: first, communication through facial expression, and second, prevention of sweat, water, and other debris from falling down into the eye socket.
What is the purpose of eyebrow mapping?
What Is Eyebrow Mapping? – “Brow mapping is a process used to create symmetry between both brows when styling,” explains celebrity brow stylist Melanie Marris, CEO and founder of Brow Code, “It involves using measuring your brows and eyes to establish the most flattering, even shape for your face,” she says.
So, while the technique is the same for everyone, it ultimately yields a totally customized end result. It’s all dependent on your individual eye and face shape, And it helps prevent major errors, adds New York City brow expert Azi Sacks, such as a brow getting too thin or an arch being pushed too far inwards.