Tyre Construction Differences: Radial / Bias / Solid Tyre selection is one of the most important factors for tyre life. Choosing the correct tyre specification significantly improves tyre life and reduces vehicle operational costs. Magna Tyres Group offers a broad Tyre Range including, Bias and Solid Tyres which all offer specific benefits for different kinds of applications and machinery. Magna radial constructed tyres utilizes a series of steel cords, extending from the beads and across the tread, so that the cords are laid at approximately right angles to the centre line of the tread, and parallel to each other, as well as belts directly beneath the tread.
This network of cords gives the tyre strength and shape. Due to the all steel radial construction the sidewall of a radial tyre is more flexible compared to a bias tyre resulting in a shorter, but wider footprint. This means less rolling resistance, lower fuel consumption, more grip and greater ride comfort at greater speeds.
Steel radial construction has no movement between plies, which means lesser heat build up or increased resistance to heating. Also the belts directly under the tread ensure lesser deformation which leads to more traction and puncture resistance. Disadvantages of the radial tire include a harder ride at low speeds on rough roads and in the context of off-roading, decreased “self-cleaning” ability, a more rigid sidewall and lower grip ability at low speeds. A Bias tyre is made of layers of rubber-coated, plies of fabric (commonly nylon) placed at angles of approximately 30-40 degrees, with successive plies laid at opposing angles forming a crisscross pattern to which the tread is applied. This construction provides the main advantages: a smooth ride on rough surfaces with enhanced operator comfort, while also the ability to withstand higher loads. Solid tyres are non-pneumatic, meaning that they are not filled with air. These tyres are used for industrial applications and suitable for forklifts, heavy-duty transport vehicles, platform trucks and other industrial vehicles. Recycling & waste companies and manufacturers who handle glass products are likely to use solids because of their resistance to puncture damage.
They are extremely stable, maintenance-free and also able to handle a significantly higher weight load than pneumatic tires without the fear of blowouts. Solid tyres are especially designed for slow-moving industrial machines that require heavy lifting. For sales requests and questions about our products and services, please Magna Tyres Group.
: Tyre Construction Differences: Radial / Bias / Solid
- 0.1 What is a major disadvantage of a bias ply tire?
- 0.2 Are bias ply tires good?
- 1 Which is better a bias ply or radial tire?
- 2 How can you tell if a tire is bias ply?
- 3 Do bias ply tires ride rough?
- 4 How long do bias ply tires last?
- 5 Do bias ply tires use belts?
- 6 Do radial or bias ply tires last longer?
- 7 Can I run a bias tires with radial tires?
- 8 How many ply is bias ply tires?
- 9 What are the disadvantages of bias?
What is a major disadvantage of a bias ply tire?
Flexible belts – A bias ply tire has many layers. Unlike radials, the ply in bias tires are uniform and run at a 30-45 degree angle to the tread center line. The plying process results in a uniform load carrying capacity and less sidewall flex. This gives bias tires better load carrying capacity and less sidewall flex than radials.
- These tire types are also used for race applications.
- Besides being rigid, radials have a lower price tag, but they are less stable.
- Radials feature steel belts under the tread for added structural integrity, while bias tires have nylon and polyester cords crisscrossed at a 30-45 degree angle to the tread centerline.
Bias ply tires have less flexibility, and they tend to be more susceptible to flats and cuts. Another disadvantage of a bias ply tire is its sensitivity to overheating. Because of the overlapped rubber plies, bias ply tires are more susceptible to overheating.
Bias ply tires tend to follow irregularities in the road, while radials tend to skip over them. They are also more likely to develop a flat spot, which can make the first few miles on the road uncomfortable. A bias ply tire has less sidewall flex than radials, which results in a smaller contact patch and less power transfer.
Bias tires also don’t respond well to cornering forces, and are more susceptible to flat spots. However, they do respond better to sweeping maneuvers. Because of this, radial tires are better at handling rough roads. A bias ply tire has many layers, or plies.
The plies are layered from bead to bead, and run across the center of the tire, The tread is bonded directly to the top ply. This makes them less efficient at high speeds and increases rolling resistance. They also have a rounded tread profile. So, what are the advantages of bias ply tires? Because a bias ply tire uses more rubber, it loses traction in corners.
In addition, it exhibits more rolling resistance, resulting in a softer ride. Additionally, it tends to wander on rough terrain, causing flat spots. Lastly, it wears down faster than conventional tires. But despite their advantages, bias ply tires also wear out faster and have more traction problems.
- As the advantage of a bias ply tire, it also has a non-directional tread that generates more heat than radials.
- Unlike their radial counterpart, bias ply tires are easier to maintain than radials, because you can shift the left rear tire to the right front and vice versa.
- Fortunately, this type of tire is also easier to move around, which makes it an easier choice for those who don’t have spare tires.
Another major disadvantage of a bias ply tires is the tendency of these tires to heat up when they are under stress. In addition, bias ply tires are more prone to showing signs of wear and tear sooner than radials do. A radial tire is more efficient at absorbing heat and reducing rolling resistance, and can be more durable as well.
Are bias ply tires good?
Skip to content When it comes to your standard driving tires, bias ply hasn’t been a term used in decades to describe the latest and greatest tires coming out on high-performance cars. In the racing, trailer, and even motorcycle worlds we still see bias ply but, even then, it’s quickly being displaced by radial tires. So, what is a bias ply and why has it been replaced? Milestar Streetsteel Radial Ply tires on Raymond Ernandez’s 1974 Chevy Cheyenne Super 10 What’s being referenced when you talk about bias ply and radial ply are how the cords that make up the carcass of the tire are run from bead to bead. You’ll never see it until you wear the tread beyond its rubber layer. The term “bias” and “radial” are describing how the patterns of the ply are done. Bias Ply tires on the “Big Oly” 1970 Ford Bronco from Legends of LA Photo Credit: Petersen Automotive Museum A bias ply tire has its plies in a crisscross pattern as they overlap each other. So, one ply will lay in one diagonal (between 30- and 40-degrees from the direction of travel) while the other will lay in the opposite direction and would make an “X” if you were able to see through them. Bias Ply tires on a Ford hot rod Most will be 4 plies, though. Bias ply tires also use far more rubber to create both the sidewall and tread as well as being supported by the plies. This was how tires were done from the 1930s all the way into the 1970s, with the last few cars coming with a bias ply in or around 1974. Bias Ply tires on a hot rod at the 2019 Grand National Roadster Show
A bias ply tire is far more flexible, so they can make for great off-road tires and drag radials where sidewall flex is beneficial. They also exhibit better traction at low speeds and in straight-line travel.
What is bias tire construction?
Bias (or diagonal) tires The carcass of a bias tire is made from layers of ply cord running diagonally to the center line of the tread. The layers are placed so that the cords create a criss-cross pattern. The whole structure is uniform throughout; the crown and sidewalls of the tire have similar mechanical properties.
Which is better a bias ply or radial tire?
Heat Tolerance – Tires are made of a conglomerate of different materials. In many cases, several types of rubber are vulcanized to produce the desired characteristics. If a tire is heated past this vulcanization temperature, it starts to deteriorate. “Once you overheat it, the tire does not come back to its vulcanized state.
It comes back to a different state with completely different properties,” says Besancon. The rubber may get brittle or you may witness other problems such as coking. Heat buildup can be checked by monitoring your air pressure after operation — the hot temperature pressure. “If that pressure buildup is over 25 percent, there is a large heat source going into that tire,” says Besancon.
A good rule of thumb is that your air pressure buildup during operation shouldn’t exceed 25 percent of the initial cold pressure. Radial tires dissipate heat better than bias-ply tires, which allows them to travel at higher speeds for greater distance.
What vehicles use bias ply tires?
Comparing Bias Ply to Radial Tires by Trent McGee There’s no question that radial tires dominate the tire industry these days. Radials have become standard in the passenger car world, and radials are dominant with light trucks, heavy trucks, and just about every other tire market segment that sees highway use.
- Even though the pool of bias ply tires may be slowly shrinking, that doesn’t mean that they don’t have their advantages in certain situations.
- Let’s take a closer look at the differences between bias ply and radial tires, and the situations where one or the other will have the advantage.
- What Do Those Terms Mean? Before we dive into the advantages and disadvantages of each tire, it’s important to understand exactly what bias ply and radial means.
Though both types of tires are round and hold air, but how they are constructed is very different. With a bias-ply tire, the individual cords that make up each ply or layer within the carcass of the tire run at an angle across the body of the tire from one bead to another.
Though the angle varies, for the purposes of illustration let’s say they run at a 45-degree angle relative to the face of the tire. Additional plies within the tire run at opposing angles, or in bias, hence the term bias ply. The cords that make up the plies in a bias-ply tire are often made of nylon, rayon, polyester, or some other non-metallic material.
There are typically multiple plies (layers) within the carcass of a bias ply tire, but the number of plies in the tread face is usually the same as the number of plies in the sidewall. The number of plies will have an impact on the load-carrying capacity of the tire as well as its resistance to impact breaks.
A radial tire has cords that run straight across to each bead, perpendicular to the tread face, rather than running at an angle. Further, there are additional plies that run at an angle within the tread face of the tire only, so a radial tire might only have two layers within the sidewall but five or more in the tread face.
Radial tires also usually have steel cords. A radial’s construction means it’s usually tough on the tread face but more vulnerable to impact breaks in the sidewall.
With the basic understanding of bias and radial construction out of the way, let’s take a look at situations where each type of tire has an advantage. Load-Carrying Capacity Advantage: Bias Ply
Due to their multiple layers, bias ply tires generally have the advantage when it comes to load-carrying capacity. Because there are a uniform number of plies to support the weight of a vehicle in both the tread face and the sidewall, bias ply tires are generally better when hauling heavy loads.
- This is why trailer tires, tractor tires, and heavy equipment tires are often bias ply; they can better support heavy loads.
- Radials are available with high load ratings, but the weight-carrying capacity requires adding many more plies to a radial tire, making them very stiff.
- Speed / Heat Dissipation Advantage: Radial Any tire manufacturer will tell you that the number one killer of a tire is heat.
Heat is caused by several factors, including tire pressure, weight, and speed. As a tire rotates, the sidewall and tread face move, and this movement causes heat. The faster the speeds or the higher the weights, the faster a tire will heat up. A radial tire is better about dissipating heat than a bias ply tire for several reasons.
It’s also worth noting that the higher the speed rating of the tire, the lower the weight rating. This is also why it’s a good idea to reduce speeds when towing with bias ply tires; a bias ply tire may last for years at 55 mph but fail at speeds of 80 mph simply because it can’t dissipate the additional heat created by the additional speed.
Slow-speed, heavy applications like a full-size rockcrawler might actually do better with a bias ply tire than a high-speed radial intended for a trophy truck. Puncture Resistance Advantage: Bias Ply This one might be controversial because the number of plies in a radial can vary quite a bit.
- Generally speaking, though, a radial tire has vulnerable sidewalls due to the reduced number of plies compared to an equivalent bias ply.
- Though there are several radials marketed to off-roaders with reinforced sidewalls opinion varies on whether or not most of them are truly as strong as a bias ply tire.
Indeed, few people will argue that bias ply tires are capable of handling a lot of off-road abuse, while the strength of radial tires off the pavement varies quite a bit according to the manufacturer and the individual tire model. Sidewall failures are much more common on radials in an off-road environment, Puncture resistance is one of the biggest reasons that bias ply tires are the standard in agricultural, industrial, and slow-speed off-road applications.
Torque Splitting Advantage: Bias Ply Related to puncture resistance, torque splitting (sometimes called “zippering”) should be a strong consideration for off-roaders. Though the term is not well known known, it refers to an injury further splitting or expanding under load. For example, let’s say there’s a puncture in the sidewall of a tire.
Due to the multiple layers and construction of a bias-ply tire, that break in the sidewall will most likely be confined to the spot where the actual injury took place. With the construction of a radial tire, there’s a strong possibility that the site of the puncture will expand rapidly as torque and load is applied, resulting in a much larger tear or rip than the original puncture site.
Why is this important? A puncture with a bias ply tire will most likely stay small, so it can be temporarily repaired with plugs out in the woods until a proper repair can be made. With a radial, there’s a much stronger chance that the site of the injury will result in a tear that will be well beyond what temporary plugs can handle, so you’re stuck without a spare tire.
These tears can happen in the tread face as well, rendering a radial tire unrepairable when a bias ply could be repaired and returned to service. Pavement Manners Advantage: Radial There’s no reason to sugar-coat it: radial tires outshine bias ply tires in everyday on-pavement ride and handling situations.
- Indeed, this is one of the big reasons that radial tires have become the standard in cars and light trucks since the early 1980s.
- A bias ply tire tends to follow ruts, cracks, and road irregularities, while a radial tire tends to skip over those same irregularities without transmitting them to the vehicle.
Bias ply tires also flat-spot, meaning if the vehicle sits for a period of time, usually just overnight, flat spots develop in the section of tread in each tire was on the ground. The flat spots go away as the tire rolls and warms up, but this can make for a very uncomfortable driving experience for the first 15 minutes or so, especially if the vehicle has been sitting for several days.
It should be noted that radials do flat-spot, especially when the vehicle sits for several days. Radials tend to flat spot less than a bias ply. For these reasons alone, radials are a better choice for daily drivers that see primarily street duty. Performance Handling Advantage: Radial Not all loads on a tire are straight down.
In performance applications, tires see significant side loads as a vehicle moves through corners. The attributes that give a radial good overall pavement manners are the same ones that make them superior when it comes to handling abrupt corners, sweeping turns, and other performance maneuvers.
- A bias ply tire doesn’t respond as well to cornering forces, especially as the width of the sidewall increases.
- In straight-line handling there is little difference between a radial and a bias ply, but cornering performance varies significantly.
- Fortunately trucks shod with big tires aren’t expected to whip around corners like a sports car, so this is less of a concern in most off-road applications.
But it’s worth noting that bias ply tires can make a vehicle feel lazy and less sure-footed during abrupt cornering maneuvers. Traction Advantage: Tie Because there are fewer plies, especially in the sidewall, a radial tire is more forgiving and better about conforming to terrain irregularities, especially when tire pressure is lowered from the recommended specifications printed on the sidewall.
Because of its additional sidewall layers, a bias ply tire tends to be stiff and less confirming. However, real-world off-road experience shows that simply lowering the air pressure of a bias ply tire a few more pounds than an equivalent radial will cause it to act much the same as a radial. And, because lowering tire pressure for additional off-road traction exposes the sidewall to more potentially damaging objects, a bias ply tire tends to be stronger and less likely to suffer a puncture.
Most off-roaders will gladly exchange some extra stiffness for better cut resistance, since a flat tire isn’t much good to anybody. Bias ply tire construction also makes them better suited to more aggressive treads with wider voids between tread blocks, and these tread patterns can clean themselves out more easily than more tightly packed tread patterns with lugs closer together.
- Tire Selection Advantage: Radial – Note: Interco Tire offers the widest selection of bias ply LT tires on the market.
- Because radial tires are so widespread, there is a much greater selection of radial tire sizes and styles available.
- Street tires, all-terrains, mud-terrains, and more are available in an enormous variety of sizes.
With few exceptions, consumers usually don’t have many problems finding a tire for their needs in whatever reasonable tire size they desire. Bias ply tires for light trucks have become more of an enthusiast tire, with more limited tire sizes and styles available.
The styles also tend to be on the more aggressive end of the spectrum, such as the Irok or the classic Super Swamper TSL. The selection evens out quite a bit with trailer tires (again, due to bias ply load-carrying capacity advantages), but most popular sizes are available in both bias and radial options.
Big Tire Sizes Advantage: Bias Ply While tire selection may be limited, bias ply tires still rule the roost when it comes to really big sizes. It is difficult to manufacture a radial in very large sizes, so as a result, most tires above about 42 inches in diameter are going to be bias ply.
- If really big tires are part of your build plans, more than likely you are going to end up rolling on bias-ply tires.
- Conclusions In today’s world it often seems as though radial tires are the clear-cut choice for any truck owner.
- While it’s true that a radial is generally a better choice for a vehicle that spends most of its time on the pavement, there are still some strong advantages to a bias ply tire when it comes to a vehicle that spends quite a bit of time off the pavement.
In many ways, bias ply tires are arguably a better choice for pure off-road use, especially when you’re after the big, burly aggressive look. While there is no right or wrong answer to the radial vs. bias ply question, hopefully now there’s a better understanding of where each type of tire performs better so that consumers can make more educated buying decisions.
About The Author Trenton McGee is the former technical editor of 4-Wheel & Off-Road Magazine, the former feature editor of 4×4 Power Magazine and the former host and co-producer of Superlift’s Off-Road Adventures TV show. He has written numerous articles for a number of automotive magazines and has published several popular 4×4 and general automotive reference books.
Trent is also an avid off-roader and consider among his peers to be an expert in and on the art of off-roading. : Comparing Bias Ply to Radial Tires by Trent McGee
How can you tell if a tire is bias ply?
Tire Talk | What is the difference between a Radial and a Bias-Ply tire? Press Release | March 31, 2018 Brought to you by Today we are going to delve deep inside of your motorcycle tires and specifically explain the difference between Radial and Bias-Ply tires.
A tire is not only made of rubber, it has an internal structure that acts as a skeleton, or a chassis. If it didn’t, it wouldn’t be able to contain the internal pressure and would tear apart. To provide insight, we can zoom inside and see the cross section of a radial tire,,1 st and 2 nd are reinforcement layers that provide stability to the tire.3 rd is the carcass that provides stiffness to the tire structure and holds the air located inside the tire and the rim when it is tubeless.4 th are the bead wires, two circular covered steel wires that provide strength and provide an air tight seal with the rim.
The materials used for the body cords are usually fabrics like: rayon, nylon, carbon fiber, and metals like steel. Let’s start with some history about motorcycle tires. The first tires in the market were the bias-ply construction type, Back then, vehicles were much heavier than today, and all of them used high profile tires.
For these reasons bias-ply tires were a good option because they provide reinforced structures with a high number of body plies to provide extra strength/reinforcement. During the old days, bias-ply tires required a lot of plies, which contributed a lot of weight. The layers created a lot of friction that could cause the tire to tear apart.
This limited the speeds that they could safely operate at. Through the years, newer and lighter bias-ply tires were developed until the day when radial carcass tires were created. With this new kind of tire construction, a stronger structure was achieved even on lower profile tires.
- A) Radials: Road Tires or light trail for light motorcycles-wide transversal tires with low profile.
- B) Bias-ply tires: Road Tires, trail or off-road (Motocross, Enduro, etc) for motorcycles with narrow rims and high profile.
The definition of radials and bias-ply tires is very surreal. The meaning comes from its layers and orientations. In this illustration, we can see the layers layout for a radial carcass. They start from the center and go through the exterior circumference (radius).
In this illustration, we can see the layout of the layers in the bias-ply tires, where we can see that a diagonal line would be formed if they came from across the center of the tire.
As we mentioned before, through the years, materials and new techniques of construction have evolved. The bias-ply tires of the past only had ” cross ply ” made of rayon and nylon. Today they have evolved to become a bias-ply with belts. In this tire construction, the body plies are crossed through the carcass and new layers to provide stability are added between those body plies and under the tire tread.
These “belts” layers provide the rider more stability while riding. These kinds of belts are usually made of Kevlar. Radial tires have also evolved through the years always with the premise/goal in mind of “weight reduction” and “stronger structure”. Frequently used in cars and trucks, traditional radial tire construction has a radial carcass and a serial of layers for stabilization above it, to give more strength and comfort while riding.
The last one we have to show is the radial called: belt, It is the most modern with a lighter structure. It is based with the radial layer of the carcass and a steel belt made with continued wire that surrounds the tire above the radial carcass with a circumferential shape.
- We hope that this helps you better understand the differences between Radial and Bias-Ply tires.
- Learn more at “
- For more information on Continental motorcycle tires, please visit:
Do bias ply tires ride rough?
Handle rough terrain well: A bias ply tire’s body flexes with ease, causing users to have a much smoother ride while going over a rough surface. Bias ply tires are still used regularly on heavy construction equipment for this reason.
What type of tire is safer?
Run-Flat Technology – If safety is the priority in your tire selection criteria, then tires equipped with run-flat technology ;may be for you. Run-flat tires allow drivers to travel approximately 50 miles at 50 miles per hour or less to reach a safe location after a tire sustains complete air loss due to a puncture or cut.
Modern touring tires like the Bridgestone DriveGuard use run-flat technology as an added safety benefit. Read more about tire buying, tire types, tire ratings and tire safety on the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration site. Bridgestone Americas also keeps drivers up to date with the latest tire recall information and links.
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How long do bias ply tires last?
Trailer Tires: Bias or Radial ply? – The ply of a tire is the layers of material that make up its construction. When constructing a trailer tire, there are two ways that the plies are layered. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. Bias Ply tires are cheaper, and have lifespans of around 12,000 miles or 3-5 years.
These tires are designed for load-capacity with stiffened sidewalls and extra plies. The tread wears down quicker on these, but if you drive less than 3,000 miles a year with the trailer – they provide an affordable option. Radial Ply tires come on most trailers out of the factories these days. While they also last between 3-5 years, Radials are designed with more long-distance usage in mind and have a lifespan of about 40,000 miles.
They also boast a quieter and smoother ride, though have a higher price tag. Important note: Do not mix Radial Ply and Bias Ply tires on your trailer! They are incompatible in design, and mixing them could lead to problems with uneven wear and weight distribution during hauling.
What are the three types of tire construction?
There are many different types of tire constructions. Within the classification of pneumatic tires, there are three common designs: bias tires, belted-bias tires, and radial tires.
Are bias ply tires cheaper?
Trailer Tires – Bias or Radial?
- It’s time for and one of your decisions is whether to purchase bias or radial tires.
- That decision generally boils down to whether price is most important, or whether you are more concerned about how the tires handle on the road.
Bias tires are less expensive. Trailer owners sometimes say that because trailer tires are followers, that is, they follow behind the vehicle that pulls them, better performance is not as critical as it would be for the vehicle that pulls the trailer.
- The vehicle in the front does all the fancy work, while the trailer in the back mostly just rolls forward.
- Radial tires, however, do perform better than bias tires, and that performance is quickly noticeable.
- The ride is smoother, the trailer does not bounce and sway as much, and radial tires have a longer life.
The most important characteristic of any trailer tire is its ability to carry a heavy load. In the past, bias tires were known to carry heavier loads than radial tires. That has changed. Nowadays, radial trailer tires are designated with the “ST” label in their name, short for Special Trailer, and they are built to carry heavy loads.
If you have been using bias tires for years because of their load capacity, you might consider taking a look at ST radial tires. Tire Construction (and what it means to the driver) Bias and radial tires are constructed differently, and they are manufactured with different materials. Bias ply tires are made with alternating diagonal layers of rubberized nylon or polyester netting laid down in at a 30 to 45 degree angle to the center-line of the tire.
Fiberglass belts are usually added to enhance strength. Bias Tire Characteristics:
- Bias tires are less expensive than radial tires.
- Bias tires can carry heavy loads.
- Bias tires do fine when going in a straight line, but they do not perform well on curves. That’s because the pressure of the load pushes down on the tires and changes their shape on the road.
- Bias tires are also susceptible to abrasion and heat because of the shape change.
Radial tires are made by overlapping polyester cords at a 90 degree angle to the center line of the tire, then strengthened with steel mesh belts. Radial Tire Characteristics:
- Radial tires provide a smoother, quieter ride.
- Radial tires track the pulling vehicle well, so there is better sway control on curves.
- Radial tires run cooler because their steel mesh dissipates heat, which reduces the chance of a blowout and adds to the life of the tire.
- Radial tires have a wider footprint, which spreads out tread wear and also adds to the life of the tire.
- Radial tires are more resistant to punctures.
- Radial tires provide better fuel economy because they have less rolling resistance.
- Modern ST radial tires are reinforced and designed for heavy loads.
Bias or Radial? It is clear that radial tires perform better and have a longer life than bias tires. However, bias tires cost less, and even though they have to be replaced more often, many trailer owners don’t consider that important because they don’t use their trailers very often anyway.
Do bias ply tires have steel belts?
What’s the difference between bias and radial tires? Bias tires are made by crisscrossing cords of polyester and nylon belts at a 30 to 45-degree angle to the tread’s centerline. Whereas Radials are constructed with crisscrossing steel belts underneath the tread and increase structural integrity.
Do bias ply tires use belts?
More Trailer Tire Information – Typically a trailer tire needs replacing due to ‘dry rot’ before the tire’s tread is exhausted. The Department of Transportation (DOT) recommends replacing tires (ALL Tires) at least every six (6) years. The key piece of information here is that the recommendation is based on ‘Years’ rather than ‘Mileage’.
Please confirm your tires by checking the manufacturer’s date imprinted on the sidewall of every trailer tire. While we understand that some tires are rated and built for higher mileage, trailer tires are often not mobile, as the trailer doesn’t always come along with you everywhere you drive. The general rule of thumb for mileage you can get out of your trailer tire is about 25,000 miles.
So, if you’re trailer makes those longer trips with you on a regular basis, you will probably benefit from spending the extra money on a radial trailer tire to take advantage of the longer tread life. If your trailer spends a lot of time next to the garage, you might want to save yourself some money by going with a bias ply trailer tire.
How do you rotate bias ply tires?
How to Rotate Radial Tires (Published 1973)
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Credit. The New York Times Archives See the article in its original context from April 8, 1973, Page 10 TimesMachine is an exclusive benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers. This is a digitized version of an article from The Times’s print archive, before the start of online publication in 1996.
To preserve these articles as they originally appeared, The Times does not alter, edit or update them. Occasionally the digitization process introduces transcription errors or other problems; we are continuing to work to improve these archived versions. DETROIT (UPI) — If your car is equipped with new radial tires, you should know how to rotate them to get the maximum mileage, which manufacturers say is 40,000 miles.
The larger 1973 model cars come equipped with radials as standard equipment, and the new tire now accounts for about 10 per cent of domestic tire sales. There are estimates that radials will account for 50 m. cent of all tire sales within four years. Tire buyers have already been warned not to mix radial tires with conventional tires because they give a car different types of traction.
Because the radial tires tabric or cord beneath the tread runs parallel to the tire’s radius, rather than at an angle like conventional tires, a different pattern of rotation is recommended by the Rubber Manufacturers Association. The traditional cross‐switch practice for conventional bias and belted tires continues, but the pattern has been changed.
The association recommends that in a four‐tire rotation, the front tires are crossswitched to themes with the rear tires moving straightforward to the front’. Previously„ the general practice has been to move front tires straight back to the rear, with the rear tires cross‐switching to the front.
But cross‐switching is not recommended for radial ply tires. In a four‐tire rotation, the front tires are moved straight back to the rear and the rear tires go straight forward to the front. If you want to use the spare in rotating, here’s the pattern to follow: For conventional bias and belted tires, the spare goes to the right rear.
The right rear tire goes to the right front, the right front is crossswitched to the left rear, and the left rear tire moves to the left front, which becomes the new spare. For radial ply tires, the spare also goes to the right rear and the right rear moves to the right front, which becomes the new spare.
- The left rear and left front tires switch places.
- To get the maximum tire life, the association acornmends rotating tires at 6,000.
- Mile to 8,000‐mile intervals.
- The first rotation is the most important because it sets the stage for long, even tire wear.
- Studded tires, in states where they are legal should never be rotated should always be mounted in their original wheel positions because they always roll in the same direction.
: How to Rotate Radial Tires (Published 1973)
Are modern tires bias ply?
Modern tires vs. classic ones –
Do radial or bias ply tires last longer?
Just as Kendon’s One-Rail, Two-Rail, and Three-Rail Stand-Up™ Trailers have different uses and constructions, the tires they ride on have different constructions for different uses as well. Most tires on the road today fall into one of three distinct construction types: radial, bias ply, and bias belted tires,
For this article, we’ll focus on just radial and bias ply constructions as they are the most popular. Bias ply tires have been around since nearly the beginning of tire manufacturing. The radial tire was introduced in 1946 and revolutionized the world of tires and transportation. The two types of tires are constructed differently and therefore have different uses and characteristics.
CONSTRUCTION The plies of bias ply tires run at 30° angles to the tire, like a barber’s pole. The plies of radial tires run perpendicularly across the tire and belts – often steel – running under the tread around the tire. And while radial tires are generally considered the best option for your automobile, they are not necessarily the best option for your trailer.
Bias ply tires have stiff sidewalls, so they are advantageous for carrying heavy loads. Stiffer sidewalls also help reduce trailer sway. Radial tires provide vastly superior tread wear, lasting, on average, three times longer than bias ply tires. Radial tires are also less prone to developing flat spots when parked in the same position for long periods, and they tend to run cooler on long trips.
PERFORMANCE In late 2013 we switched from bias ply tires to radial tires on all Kendon trailer models. Kendon’s torsion bar independent suspension and tubular steel chassis are perfectly balanced to provide an exceptional ride and eliminate sway problems.
Industry experts suggest you should replace your trailer tires every 3-5 years Most trailer tires will wear from oxidation and UV radiation before tread wear Proper loading and proper tongue weight will increase your towing performance Always use trailer tires that match; same type, size, and construction Do not mix bias ply and radial tires on the same trailer, even the spare Always adhere to the tire’s load rating to avoid heat buildup, which could accelerate wear or cause a blowout Always test air pressure with a quality gauge ; due to the stiffer sidewall, you can’t eyeball a trailer tire like your normal car tire Always carry a properly inflated and inspected spare (visit here to order yours)
Now get out there. Go. Ride.
Can I run a bias tires with radial tires?
Choosing replacement tires for your trailer is a purchase that can be fraught with indecision, often caused by lack of available information. The most common question we hear is, “What’s the difference between bias ply and radial tires?” And then the follow-up of, “Well, which is better?” Unfortunately, this is a much more complex question than it would appear on the surface, one that is complicated further by the fact that most utility trailer manufacturers install bias ply tires at the factory while travel trailers typically get radials.
- To decipher the differences, we’ll start by taking a look at the basic tire construction.
- At the core, the terms “bias” and “radial” are references to the angle at which the steel belts cross the tire carcass.
- Bias ply tires, sometimes referred to as cross ply, utilize body ply cords that extend diagonally from bead to bead.
These cords, made up of a combination of polyester and steel, cross the tire at a 32-degree angle to the direction of travel with successive plies laid at opposing angles forming a crisscross pattern. Radial tires are built with these cords running at a 90-degree angle to the direction of travel, across the tire body from bead to bead.
- What this means is that while the functionality of the each tire remains the same, how it reacts to rolling down the road is vastly different.
- Radial tires tend to flex more than their bias ply brethren, which provides for better traction, stability, and tread wear.
- Radials also tend to run cooler—especially under load.
And since excess heat is the top killer of tires, you can see how that provides an advantage in longevity. Conversely, bias ply tires tend to have stiffer sidewalls than their radial counterparts, which provide a distinct benefit in agriculture and other harsh environments.
Bias tires also tend to be less expensive, though the price gap has shrunk significantly in recent decades. Practically speaking, there are a couple of applications in which each tire will be in its element, so to speak. If your trailer sees mostly country roads, slow speeds, rough or unpaved roads, or infrequent use, then bias ply tires may be the way to go.
However, if your travels take you down larger highways, at higher speeds, for longer distances, and more often, then a radial would be your tire of choice. A perfect example of each would be a utility trailer on a ranch running bias tires and a large travel trailer cruising the nation’s highways on radials.
- That said, we’d be remiss if we didn’t point out that regardless of tire construction, there are a few other important factors that contribute to the towing quality of your trailer and longevity of its tires.
- First are mismatched tires, either in size, brand, age, or build type.
- It is important to never mix bias and radial tires on the same trailer.
Likewise, tires should be of the same size and load rating on all axles and inflation should be checked before each outing. Just like with trucks, brand and age should be the same, when practical. Lastly, make sure your tires have the proper load rating for what you’re hauling and never overload the trailer.
- Following these simple guidelines will help ensure a long, happy life for your tires and less time fixing blowouts on the side of the highway for you.
- So, that’s it in a nutshell.
- The difference between bias and radial trailer tires is not a huge mystery—it’s all in the construction.
- And the question of which is best comes simply down to that of usage.
Happy trailering! 1. Our example trailer is this ’15 utility model from Carson. It has a 10,000-pound rating and a pair of 6,000-pound axles, and it came from the factory equipped with 7.50-16 Super Trail HD bias ply tires rated at 3,220 pounds per tire.2.
- The bias ply Super Trail tires worked OK, but they had a narrow tread pattern that had a very simple design.
- This is common of bias ply trailer tires.
- While these should work well off-highway, on our first trip one took a nail square to the tread, requiring a plug.3.
- One of the best options on the market for direct-replacement ST radial trailer tires is the Maxxis M8008.
Since our trailer was destined to spend a lot of time traveling the highway at speed, we promptly upgraded from the bias ply tires to a set of ST235/80R16 radials. These tires from Maxxis carry a maximum load rating of 3,420 pounds per tire, exceeding that of both our axles and the bias Super Trails.4.
- Here you can see the Maxxis M8008 tire’s tread pattern is more akin to what you would find on a pickup, with deep tread grooves and ample siping for good wet weather traction and long life.5.
- In addition to the M8008s, we mounted up a set of LT245/75/16 Mickey Thompson Baja STZ all-terrain tires.
- Carrying a load range E rating, these tires can carry 3,042 pounds apiece, which, while less than either of the other trailer-specific sets, is still above our trailer’s axle rating.
This is a prime example of the load rating reduction that fuels the ST versus LT debate.6. However, the aggressive tread pattern of the Baja STZ is what we were after for those times when our trailer sees extreme off-road use, which does happen from time to time in the areas we like to recreate.
- And since we were still over our axle ratings, the STZs are good to go. ST vs.
- LT In addition to the bias versus radial debate, we often get asked about the differences between ST and LT radial tires, and which is best for trailer service.
- This is another very gray area that we can hopefully shed a tiny bit of light on.
First, the acronyms: ST stands for Special Trailer and LT for Light Truck. These are found ahead of the metric sizing and indicate which type of service the tire is designed for. ST tires are intended for trailer service only. They are not designed to meet the traction or load requirements for vehicle use.
- They have reinforced sidewalls and a maximum speed rating of 65 mph.
- LT tires follow a bit of a looser convention and can be any tire line or size that would typically be utilized on a light truck.
- They cover a large variety of load ratings, tread patterns, and ply counts.
- While this debate will rage on for centuries to come in forums hidden deep on the Internet, we can simplify it greatly.
The single most important element when choosing a trailer tire is load rating. It is necessary to meet or exceed the rated load capacity of the trailer’s axles when choosing new wheels and tires. If this is accomplished, it renders the ST versus LT debate mute.
Can Radials and bias ply tires be on the same vehicle?
Bias-ply trailer tires – Bias-ply tires are built with plies that are layered so they crisscross over each other. This creates a more rugged design, with greater puncture resistance in the sidewall.
No matter which type of trailer tire you choose – radial or bias-ply – make sure you don’t mix them on your trailer. Since their internal construction is so different, each type performs differently, and combining them can negatively affect your trailer’s ride quality and the tires’ life.
Are radial tires heavier than bias ply?
Bias Ply vs. Radial performance – Bias ply tires differ from radials on the following items.
Static negative camber requirements are less, usually about 1 to 1 1/2 degree negative is sufficient. Rim width selection is more critical, because the tread face is flexible, the rim helps support the tire. The rim width should be as large or larger than the section width of the tire. Air pressure can not be used to reduce sidewall flex (rollover). Excessive air pressure will cause the tread face to bulge, reducing the contact patch, Bias ply tires give more warning (than radials) about traction limits and have excellent feedback of what the contact patch is doing. Bias ply tires operate at larger slip angles than radials. This larger slip angle is what makes bias tires feel sloppy on initial corner turnin. What this means to the driver, you have to ‘lead’ the corner more to account for the slip angles. Because of how bias tires react to cornering loads, the tread can be thicker than radial tires.
Radials differ from bias ply on the following items.
Radials generally need more static negative camber than bias tires. Radials generally provide more breakaway grip than a bias tire. Radials give less warning before ‘breaking away’. This causes radials to be harder to drive at the limit. Air pressure can be used to reduce sidewall rollover, without having the tread bulge like a bias tire. The may allow you to use a larger sized tire. Radials are usually heavier than bias tires due to the overwrap plys. Radials operate at lower slip angles than bias ply tires. The is the main reason Radials have better transient response than bias tires.
Most racing radial tires are closer to a belted bias ply tire than a passenger car radial tire. This gives the racing radial tire traits from both bias & radial tires (good feedback & higher breakaway traction). Which tire is best for you, it depends on your needs.
How many ply is bias ply tires?
Radial Construction – When building a, reinforcing cords are laid at a 90° angle from the direction of travel. Each additional ply is laid in the same direction as the one underneath it. Then, reinforcing belts are added. Belts can be made from woven strands of steel, nylon, Kevlar, or other material.
Finally, more rubber is applied over the belts to create the tread. In a radial tire, the sidewall and the tread function as two independent parts of the tire. Radial tire construction has progressed since the early 1970’s and has many benefits over bias ply construction. Follow this link to learn more about the,
Answer ID 4654 | Published 06/24/2016 02:57 PM | Updated 09/02/2020 02:15 PM : What’s the difference between radial and bias ply tires?
What are the disadvantages of bias?
Issues of Bias Webster’s New World Dictionary 1 defines bias as “a mental leaning or inclination; partiality; prejudice; bent.” Scientists are expected to be objective, and open to learning the truth from their research. Yet, physicists are also human.
- Each of us has our own likes and dislikes, preferences and preconceptions, and “hot buttons” that make us feel angry, uneasy, or uncomfortable.
- Bias can damage research, if the researcher chooses to allow his bias to distort the measurements and observations or their interpretation.
- When faculty are biased about individual students in their courses, they may grade some students more or less favorably than others, which is not fair to any of the students.
In a research group, favored students and colleagues may get the best assignments and helpful mentoring. People often prefer associating with other people who are similar to themselves, their family members, or their friends. The net result of these biases hurts physics, because people who are different and would bring valuable new perspectives to the field have traditionally been excluded or discouraged by those already in the field.
It is not unusual for women, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans to feel unwelcome in physics and other scientific fields, because of the low expectations their professors and colleagues have for them, and because of how they are treated by the people who should be their peers and colleagues.
While it is probably impossible to eliminate bias, each person can strive to be aware of his or her preferences and alert to situations where the bias can be damaging to the science or ones colleagues. Also, one’s can become a careful observer of others and take action to counteract the unfair or inappropriate consequences of biases, especially those that work to exclude or diminish people from different backgrounds than the majority.1 Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language, David B.
What is the disadvantage of base bias?
Disadvantages of Base Bias Method – Though base bias is one of the simplest and easiest methods to bias transistors, it is the least popular way to do so. This is because the collector current, I C, is decided by purely by the Î² dc of the transistor.
- Î² dc of a transistor is one of the most unstable and unpredictable parameters of a transistor.
- Î² dc can vary largely across transistors even of the same exact model and type.
- Therefore, base bias can lead to unpredictable actions if a transistor needs to be replaced and there are variations in the Î² dc of that transistor.
Î² dc is also susceptible to changes due to temperature, as it can vary pretty largely due to ambient temperature. Base bias, then, can produce erratic circuit behavior due to transistor variations. Therefore, transistors are not commonly biased in this way.
Do bias ply tires ride rough?
Handle rough terrain well: A bias ply tire’s body flexes with ease, causing users to have a much smoother ride while going over a rough surface. Bias ply tires are still used regularly on heavy construction equipment for this reason.
What is the disadvantage of radial ply TYRE as compared?
The disadvantages of radial tires when compared to a bias ply tire include: Poor transport handling, since low lateral stiffness causes the tire sway to increase as the speed of the vehicle increases. Increased vulnerability to abuse when overloaded or under-inflated.