Answer: Hi there, ☆☞ safe construction practice are those practices which should be followed in disaster prone areas while constructing house or any other type of buildings, so that huge damage at the time of Disaster can be prevented, ☆☞ The safe construction to prevent cyclone are : 1.
- T h e house must be built with a strong concrete 2.
- I f budget for strong concrete is not affordable,
- Dig an underground for vacating if there is disaster,
- Safe construction include using materials that allow flora combination of tensile and flexible strength, as well as the lighter building materials especially in the roof,
☆☞ STRONG FOUNDATION, HIGH QUALITY MATERIALS, AND AN EXCELLENT WORKMAN SHIP withstand long time to make safer to earthquake prone areas, Hope this helps you Plzzz mark as brainalist one,
- 1 What should be the configuration of an earthquake?
- 2 Which are the most vulnerable homes during floods?
- 3 What kind of roof design should be used in cyclone prone areas and why?
- 4 What is the difference between a hurricane proof house and a regular house?
- 5 What shape roof is best for snow?
- 6 How do you make low rise buildings more hurricane resistant?
- 7 What should be the configuration of an earthquake resistant building class 10th?
- 8 Which type of structure is suitable for earthquake zone?
What should be the configuration of an earthquake?
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Answer: The configuration of an earthquake resistant building should be as follows (i) The building should have a simple rectangular plan. (ii) Long walls should be supported by Reinforced Concrete columns. (iii) Large buildings having plans with shapes like T, L, U and X should preferably be separated into rectangular blocks by providing gaps in between.
Which are the most vulnerable homes during floods?
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Answer: The most vulnerable homes due to flood are (i) Buildings which are constructed with earth-based materials or using stone and brick in mud mortar are highly vulnerable to damage in heavy rains and/or floods. (ii) The huts made from biomass materials like bamboo, leaves, thatch or light construction using metal sheets are easily destroyed in floods and washed away.
What is the basic rule of earthquake safety?
If you cannot drop to the ground, try to sit or remain seated so you are not knocked down. –
If you are in a wheelchair, lock your wheels. Remove any items that are not securely attached to the wheelchair. Protect your head and neck with a large book, a pillow, or your arms. The goal is to prevent injuries from falling down or from objects that might fall or be thrown at you. If you are able, seek shelter under a sturdy table or desk. Stay away from outer walls, windows, fireplaces, and hanging objects. If you are unable to move from a bed or chair, protect yourself from falling objects by covering up with blankets and pillows. If you are outside, go to an open area away from trees, telephone poles, and buildings, and stay there. For more resources for people with impaired mobility and other access and functional needs, visit the,
: Stay Safe During an Earthquake
What are the 4 safety tips during an earthquake?
What to do during an earthquake – The steps you should take during an earthquake depend on your location. If You Are Inside
Stay inside. Do not get in a doorway — this does not provide protection from falling or flying objects, and you might not be able to remain standing. Drop, Cover, and Hold On
Drop down to the ground so the earthquake doesn’t knock you down. Cover your head and neck with your arms to protect you from falling debris. If possible, crawl under a sturdy desk, table or other piece of furniture for additional protection. Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and other items that could fall. Hold on to any sturdy item you can until the shaking stops.
If You Are Outside
Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.
If You Are in a Vehicle
Pull to the side of the road and stay inside until the earthquake is over. Do not stop under overpasses or power lines.
What kind of roof design should be used in cyclone prone areas and why?
In tropical cyclone-prone areas double slope roof with an open ridge is the most suitable design for loose housing system animal shelter, whereas for close housing system Pyramidal roofing design is the most suitable option.
What makes a good flood proof house?
FlOOD-PROOFINg house away from water exposure. This may be done by raising the height of the house floor above expected flood levels, or by having removable flood shields for all doors and low-sill windows, then relying on walls between these shields to act as impervious dams.
What is the difference between a hurricane proof house and a regular house?
Constant improvement for the storms of tomorrow – Matt Oblinsky, Deltec’s director of engineering, spearheads an effort to constantly find better building materials to further strengthen its designs. “After each and every hurricane we reach out to each and every homeowner in the path of a storm to ask how they are,” Linton said.
“99.9 percent of the time we’re seeing ‘we lost a couple shingles’ or ‘we lost a piece of trim, but our neighbor’s home was demolished.’ Our homes have been field-tested for a number of years.” Deltec allows customers the flexibility to customize their homes. About two-thirds of homes it produces are one story, with the remainder are generally two floors.
Once in a while the company builds a three-story structure, but those are rare, and usually for commercial purposes. Three stories is the limit. Many customers opt for impact-resistant windows. Hurricane-proof homes are designed to protect inhabitants from the wind, but nothing can counteract the power of water.
That’s why the homes are located to avoid storm surge flooding. “We do homes up on pilings to elevate them to avoid storm surge,” Oblinsky said. “We highly recommend two feet above flood elevation to protect them from those situations.” The company also has a proprietary anchoring technique that ensures homes remain firmly affixed in place no matter what Mother Nature throws their way.
Leslie Chapman-Henderson, president of the Federal Alliance for Safe Homes, or FLASH, said such hurricane-resilient homes as Deltec’s are worth the price in the long run. “Often in the industry people will talk about price point as the purchase point,” Chapman-Henderson said.
We urge homeowners to consider that the house isn’t just what you pay for it the first day it’s the time horizon after the hurricane. The homes that are really the most affordable are the ones that survive the storm.” Chapman-Henderson, whose organization closely studies the recovery process after major storms, says that aspect of storms is rarely talked about — and lasts long after the television crews and reporters leave.
“We have a project we’re doing on Hurricane Michael. We still have hundreds of families who are not back in their home,” she said. “To us, that’s the cost.” Even for residents who can’t afford a hurricane-proof home, there are plenty of tactics for fortifying your home.
- Many, Chapman-Henderson said, can be done for under $50.
- The cost of these things is so minuscule,” she said.
- A couple handfuls of additional nails that keep the roof there when you need it, for instance.” Deltec isn’t the only company marketing hurricane-proof homes to consumers.
- Fox Blocks Insulated Concrete Forms, headquartered in Omaha, helps build hurricane-proof structures, too, but it takes a different approach.
“We are an insulated concrete form manufacturer,” said Mike Kennaw, vice president of Fox Blocks. “We basically manufacture, produce, sell and market the insulate concrete form, which is part of a steel-reinforced wall assembly, and the testing we have done for poured-in-place concrete walls has shown that we have a very high wind test rating.” The concrete can be one hard shell, meaning fewer failure points, and is more impact-resistant than traditional wood homes.
- When it comes to roofs and interior walls, however, that’s up to the individual builder.
- We are a component of high-wind construction,” Kennaw said.
- Building a hurricane-proof home may cost you a pretty penny (Deltec says its homes cost between “about $200-325 per square foot”), but it’s something people like Chapman-Henderson advocate could pay for itself over time.
Meanwhile, forecasters are looking forward to what is likely to be another anomalously busy hurricane season. The National Hurricane Center began issuing its daily tropical weather outlooks on Saturday.
What shape roof is best for snow?
Slushy snow and piercing ice – The best type of roofing system for snow and ice is a pitched roof. Pitched roofs are the most common type of roof, and the most visible when approaching a building. As snow and ice melts, this roofing option makes it easier for ice and sludge to make its way off the roof, minimizing the chance of water damage.
- Numerous material options are available for pitched roofs, including metal, slate, shingles, wood shake and tile.
- For areas of heavy snow and ice—like the Northeast region—using metal may be the most beneficial due to its durability and resistance to snow and ice damage.
- A variety of metal options are available, such as cold-rolled steel, painted aluminum, zinc or copper.
Local weather factors, aesthetic desires and cost will be determining factors in metal selection. One of the most important decisions to make for a pitched roof is the underlayment because it will impact durability of the roof system. For example, a #30 felt is the typical underlayment for tile and metal; however, synthetic or modified underlayments tend to have a longer service life.
How do you make low rise buildings more hurricane resistant?
2. Make It Impact Resistant – Reinforced, impact-resistant doors, laminated windows, storm-resistant windows or hurricane shutters, pull-down PVC shutter systems and high-impact synthetic window shades all contribute to a home’s impact resistance. Advanced framing systems with two-by-six wood studs (24 inches on center), combined with structural panel sheathing, adds strength to walls, as does high-density wallboard with embedded mesh.
USG’s enhanced wall panels, for example, offer up to five times the impact resistance of regular wallboard. Garage doors are a particular weak point. It’s recommended that this type of doors should be braced to withstand a maximum wind speed of 180 mph. FEMA rates impact-resistant products as those that can survive having a 12-foot two-by-four being shot at them at 100 miles per hour.
Precast concrete wall systems, says Brian Bock, vice president of Sales & Marketing at Dukane Precast Inc. in Naperville, Ill., can easily pass the FEMA impact test. Dukane builds homes using a precast concrete double-wall panel system featuring exterior and interior layers of reinforced precast concrete sandwiching a layer of R-19 insulating foam.
The firm has also constructed homes under the Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS) FORTIFIED for safer living program. Dukane has demonstrated the impact resistance of its precast walls by shooting two-by-fours up to 135 mph at wall sections. The projectiles simply bounce off the precast walls.
“We also shot two-by-fours at sections of both a typical vinyl-sided, wood-framed wall and a conventional brick wall,” says Bock. “The two-by-fours easily penetrated each of these.”
What should be the configuration of an earthquake resistant building class 10th?
Safe Construction Practices NCERT Solutions Class 10 – NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Disaster Management for chapter 5 Safe Construction Practices Question 1, What should be the configuration of an earthquake resistant building? Answer: Configuration of Earthquake resistant building:
The building should have a simple rectangular plan. Long walls should be supported by reinforced concrete columns. Large buildings having plans with shapes like T, L, U, and X should preferably be separated into rectangular blocks by providing gaps in between.
Question 2, How should the foundation be constructed in soft and firm soil? Answer: Tilting, cracking and failure of structure may result from soil liquefaction. Soil liquefaction refers to transformation of soil from a solid state to a liquid state as a consequence of increased pressure.
- Depending on the type of soil conditions, the depth of the foundation has to be decided.
- Foundation of the building should be strong enough that there is no movement of soil after the construction of building.
- If the soil is soft, the foundation has to be deeper.
- If the soil is firm, the foundation can be moderate.
Straw, woodchips, or barks applied to a depth of at least one inch, while building the foundation, are effective in holding soil in place on slopes. Question 3, Which are the most vulnerable homes due to flood? Answer: Most vulnerable homes due to flood:
Buildings, which are constructed with earth-based materials or using stone and brick in mud mortar, are highly vulnerable to damage in floods. The huts made from biomass materials like bamboo, leaves, thatch or light construction using metal sheets are easily destroyed in floods and washed away. The occupation of areas within the flood plain of rivers has increased the vulnerability, especially in areas of high population concentration. Flood plains attract poor people because of inexpensive land values.
Question 4, What are the general protection measures for buildings against flood damage? Answer: General protection measures for buildings against flood damage:
Avoid residing on river banks and slopes on river sides. Construction should be done at least 250 meters away from the sea coast or river banks. Proper drainage system should be developed in all flood prone areas Plinth level or platform of the buildings or settlements should be higher than the known high flood level.
Question 5, What are the considerations for selecting the site in area prone to landslides? Answer: Sites that are considered safe in areas prone to landslides are the areas that have not moved in the past. These are relatively flat areas away from sudden changes in slope, and areas at the top of or along ridges.
Question 6, Write about the slope stabilization methods by drainage? Answer: Methods for slope stabilization: i. Keep surface drainage water away from vulnerable areas, such as steep slopes, loose soils and non- vegetated surfaces. ii. Collect and direct water from residential areas into catch basins, and confine water flow in drainpipe.
Question 7, What are the desirable plan forms and orientations for cyclone resistant buildings?
Answer: The desirable plan forms and orientations for cyclone resistant buildings are:(a) For individual buildings, a circular or polygonal plan shape is preferred over rectangular or square plans.(b) A symmetrical building with a compact plan-form is more stable than an asymmetrical building with a zigzag plan, having empty pockets as the latter is more prone to cyclone related damage.
8, What kind of roof designs should be used in cyclone prone areas and why? Answer: The following roof designs should be used in cyclone prone areas: i. The roof projections should be kept minimum or else, are tied down adequately as large overhangs get lifted or broken due to the cyclonic winds.
What are the good building configuration considerations for earthquake resistant buildings?
An earthquake-resistant building has four virtues— stable structural configuration, lateral strength, adequate stiffness and good ductility. A building design must ensure that the building has adequate strength, high ductility and will remain as one integral unit, even when subjected to very intense ground motions.
How the configuration of buildings affects its performance during earthquake?
Importance of Architectural Features The behaviour of a building during earthquakes depends critically on its overall shape, size and geometry, in addition to how the earthquake forces are carried to the ground. Hence, at the planning stage itself, architects and structural engineers must work together to ensure that the unfavourable features are avoided and a good building configuration is chosen.
The importance of the configuration of a building was aptly summarised by Late Henry Degenkolb, a noted Earthquake Engineer of USA, as: If we have a poor configuration to start with, all the engineer can do is to provide a band-aid – improve a basically poor solution as best as he can. Conversely, if we start-off with a good configuration and reasonable framing system, even a poor engineer cannot harm its ultimate performance too much.
Architectural Features A desire to create an aesthetic and functionally efficient structure drives architects to conceive wonderful and imaginative structures. Sometimes the shape of the building catches the eye of the visitor, sometimes the structural system appeals, and in
|(b) too long )|
|(a) too tall|
|Figure 1: Buildings with one of their overall sizes much larger or much smaller than the other two, do not perform well during earthquake|
other occasions both shape and structural system work together to make the structure a marvel. However, each of these choices of shapes and structure has significant bearing on the performance of the building during strong earthquakes. The wide range of structural damages observed during past earthquakes across the world is very educative in identifying structural configurations that are desirable versus those which must be avoided.
Size of Buildings In tall buildings with large height-to-base size ratio (Figure 1a), the horizontal movement of the floors during ground shaking is large. In short but very long buildings (Figure 1b), the damaging effects during earthquake shaking are many. And, in buildings with large plan area like warehouses (Figure 1c), the horizontal seismic forces can be excessive to be carried by columns and walls.
Horizontal Layout of Buildings In general, buildings with simple geometry in plan (Figure 2a) have performed well during strong earthquakes. Buildings with re-entrant corners, like those U, V, Hand + shaped in plan (Figure 2b), have
|(a) Simple Plan :: good|
|(b) Corners and Curves : : poor||(c) Separation joints make complex plans into simple plans|
|Figure 2: Simple plan shape building do well during earthquakes|
sustained significant damage. Many times, the bad effects of these interior corners in the plan of buildings are avoided by making the buildings in two parts. For example, an L-shaped plan can be broken up into two rectangular plan shapes using a separation joint at the junction (Figure 2c).
- Often, the plan is simple, but the columns/walls are not equally distributed in plan.
- Buildings with such features tend to twist during earthquake shaking.
- A discussion in this aspect will be presented in the upcoming IITK-BMTPC Earthquake Tip 7 on How Buildings Twist During Earthquakes? Vertical Layout of Buildings The earthquake forces developed at different floor levels in a building need to be brought down along the height to the ground by the shortest path; any deviation or discontinuity in this load transfer path results in poor performance of the building.
Buildings with vertical setbacks (like the hotel buildings with a few storeys wider than the rest) cause a sudden jump in earthquake forces at the level of discontinuity (Figure3a). Buildings that have fewer columns or walls in a particular storey or with unusually tall storey (Figure3b), tend to damage or collapse which is initiated in that storey.
- Many buildings with an open ground storey intended for parking collapsed or were severely damaged in Gujarat during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake.
- Buildings on a sloping ground have unequal height columns along the slope, which causes ill effects like twisting and damage in shorter columns (Figure 3c).
- Buildings with columns that hang or float on beams at an intermediate storey and do not go all the way to the foundation, have discontinuities in the load transfer path (Figure 3d).
Some buildings have reinforced concrete walls to carry the earthquake loads to the foundation. Buildings, in which these walls do not go all the way to the ground but stop at an upper level,are liable to get severely damaged during earthquakes.
|Unusually Tall Storey|
|(b) Weak or Flexible Storey|
|(c) Slopy Ground||(d) Handing or Floating Columns|
|Reinforced Concrete Wall Discontinued in Ground Storey|
|(e) Discontinuing Structural Members|
|Figure 3: Sudden deviations in load transfer [path along the height lead to poor performance of buildings|
Adjacency of Buildings When two buildings are too close to each other, they may pound on each other during strong shaking. With
|Figure 4: Pounding can occur between adjoining buildings due to horizontal vibrations of the two buildings|
ncrease in building height, this collision can be a greater problem. When building heights do not match (Figure 4), the roof of the shorter building may pound at the mid-height of the column of the taller one; this can be very dangerous. Building Design and Codes Looking ahead, of course, one will continue to make buildings interesting rather than monotonous. However, this need not be done at the cost of poor behaviour and earthquake safety of buildings. Architectural features that are detrimental to earthquake response of buildings should be avoided. If not, they must be minimised. When irregular features are included in buildings, a considerably higher level of engineering effort is required in the structural design and yet the building may not be as good as one with simple architectural features. Decisions made at the planning stage on building configuration are more important, or are known to have made greater difference, than accurate determination of code specified design forces. Resource Material Arnold, C., and Reitherman, R., (1982), Building Configuration and Seismic Design, John Wiley, USA. Lagorio, H,J, (1990), EARTHQUAKES An Architects Guide to Non-Structural Seismic Hazard, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA. Authored by: C.V.R. Murty Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India Sponsored by: Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, New Delhi. Suggestions/comments may be sent to [email protected] To see previous IITK-BMTPC Earthquake Tips, visit www.nicee.org q Back to Contents
Which type of structure is suitable for earthquake zone?
A) Reinforced Concrete – Construction material is crucial for the earthquake resistance and durability of structure. The safest building will be the one made of all steel (though very heavy – attracting more earthquake force), as it is an extremely strong material.
Reinforced Concrete is the next most suitable material for earthquake resistant construction of buildings. It is a good, durable and economic material of construction, but the condition is that the quality of construction should be good. It was seen during the Latur earthquake, that most buildings made with concrete, remained standing without suffering much damage.
But during the Gujrat earthquake many buildings made in RCC also got damaged or collapsed because of poor quality of construction.