What Is The First Step In Highway Construction After Paperwork?

Highway Engineering Questions and Answers – General Features of Highway Construction This set of Highway Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “General Features of Highway Construction”.1. What is the first step in highway construction after paper work? a) Surveying b) Estimation c) Bill of quantities d) Evaluation View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The first step after the office work in the highway design is surveying, after surveying the design is approved.

2. The design of the highway should satisfy _ a) Structural requirement b) Drainage system c) Economical d) All of the mentioned View Answer

Answer: d Explanation: The design of highway should satisfy economy, drainage and structural requirement.3. The economical highway can be achieved by _ a) Cheap aggregate b) Good quality aggregate c) Good aggregate and less transport cost d) More transport cost and less quality aggregate View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The maximum cost of aggregate doesn’t affect the highway cost, it is the transport cost which has a greater effect.4.

The embankment is constructed by using _ a) Soil b) Fly ash c) GGBS d) Bricks View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The soil embankment is constructed by using the locally available soil, if not satisfied we can replace it by stronger soils.5. The embankment construction should always be _ a) Above MSL b) At MSL c) Above HFL d) below MSL View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The embankment should always be constructed above HFL, as it may effect the pavement when floods occur if laid above MSL.

Check this: | 6. The part of pavement left over for drainage is called _ a) Sub base b) Footpath c) Ken d) Shoulder View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The part which is left over for the water to drain off is called as shoulder, it may be paved or unpaved.7.

The raise of ground water reduces the capacity by _ a) 66.66% b) 51.33% c) 50% d) 75% View Answer Answer: c Explanation: If the ground water raises to ground level, then the bearing capacity of the soil sub grade reduces to 50%.8. Embankment are laid _ a) Above ground level b) Below ground level c) 3.0 m above ground level d) 5.0m above foundation level View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Most of the embankments are laid below the ground level by cutting and then filling.

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What is the last step in design of embankment?

Highway Engineering Questions and Answers – Embankment and Subgrade This set of Highway Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Embankment and Subgrade” 1. What is the last step in design of embankment? a) Height b) stability of slope c) Stability of foundation d) Settlement View Answer Answer: b Explanation: After the highway embankment construction, the stability of slope should be checked, settlement takes place after a few days and height is checked in design itself.

2. If the height of embankment increases _ a) Slope stability increases b) Slope stability remains constant c) Slope has to reduced d) Slopes need to be flattered View Answer

Answer: d Explanation: The slopes need to be flattered if the embankment height is increased, if the embankment height is small then slope may be kept constant.3. The fill material used in embankment is _ a) Peat b) Silt c) Clay d) Granular soils View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The granular soil with less plasticity are more preferable in filling material.4.

Check this: | 6. Stability of slopes change with _ a) Climate b) Increase in load c) Increase in soil d) Increase in width of pavement View Answer Answer: b Explanation: The stability of slope mostly depends on the type of load if it changes the stability requirement will also change.7.

An embankment is classified as high if height exceeds _ a) 3.0 m b) 4.0 m c) 5.0 m d) 6.0 m View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The embankment is classified as a high embankment if height exceeds 5.0m, if it is less than 5.0 m they may be medium height or small height embankments.8. What is the most common natural problem found in embankment? a) Settlement b) Stability of foundation c) Stability of slope d) Soil erosion View Answer Answer: d Explanation: All the problems are encountered by a highway engineer but soil erosion is a natural problem which cannot be avoided.9.

The investigation of embankment should be carried out for _ a) Twice the height of embankment b) Thrice the height of embankment c) Exact height of embankment d) Half height of embankment View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The investigation of the embankment should be carried out at twice height of embankment below the ground level.10.

The consolidation can be achieved faster by _ a) Clay b) Peat c) Sand drains d) Sand filter View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The Sand drains are a type of drainage system which is used to accelerate the consolidation.11. What is the minimum spacing between the two sand beds? a) 1.0 m b) 1.5 m c) 2.0 m d) 2.5 m View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The minimum spacing between the two sand beds may be 2.5 m and the maximum is 6.0 m.12.

The liquid limit of soil for embankment construction is _ a) Less than 70% b) Less than 90% c) Less than 60% d) Less than 45% View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The minimum liquid limit should be less than 70% for embankment construction.13. The free swelling index of soil should be less than _ a) 50 b) 60 c) 70 d) 80 View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The free swelling index of the soil should be less than 50% for the soil for good embankment.14.

1. The plasticity index for a sub grade should be less than _ a) 45 b) 35 c) 25 d) 15 View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The plasticity index for a sub grade should be less than 25 for embankment construction.15.
2. The rollers that uses both tamping and kneading is _ a) Plain roller b) Vibratory roller c) Sheep foot roller d) Pneumatic roller View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The sheep foot roller can use both the procedure of tamping and kneading that is done by using a roller that resemble the paw of a sheep.

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How do I get embankment?

Materials – Embankments are often constructed using material obtained from a cutting. Embankments need to be constructed using non-aerated and waterproofed, compacted (or entirely non-porous) material to provide adequate support to the formation and a long-term level surface with stability.

Which layer is required the highest CBR number?

Highway Engineering Questions and Answers – Materials used in Highway Construction

• This set of Highway Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Materials used in Highway Construction”.
• 1. The materials not included in highway construction are _ a) Stone b) Dust c) Soil d) Petrol

Answer: d Explanation: Petrol is not used directly in highway construction, but by-product like bitumen is used. Stone, dust and soil may be used in subgrade and base.

1. 2. For places where there is a passage of flood water then the highway has to be built on _ a) Embankment b) Subway c) Overpass d) Underpass

Answer: a Explanation: If the HFL is more than the formation level of the road which is going to be provided, then it has to be built on embankment.3. The layer which is constructed above embankment is called _ a) Sub grade b) Fill c) Base d) Sub base View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The embankment is the lowest layer and it is below the sub grade, base is above sub base, sub base is above the sub grade.4.

The highest CBR number is required for _ a) Pavement b) Sub grade c) Sub base d) Base View Answer Answer: b Explanation: CBR number decreases with an increase in height, the soil requires the highest CBR and the pavement requires the lowest CBR.5. What is the most common waste material used in construction? a) Fly ash b) Slag c) Pozzolona d) Rice husk View Answer Answer: a Explanation: Fly ash is an industrial waste obtained from the thermal plants, it has been mandatory to use the fly ash in bricks.

Check this: | 6. Bitumen is a by-product of _ a) Wood b) Petroleum c) Kerosene d) Coal View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Bitumen is obtained by burning the petroleum at high temperatures, it is mostly used in the construction of flexible pavements.7.

• Tar is a by-product of _ a) Wood b) Petroleum c) Kerosene d) Coal View Answer Answer: a Explanation: Tar is a by-product which is obtained from wood, tar and bitumen may look similar, but they are not the same.8.
• In the initial stage of construction which type of pavement is cheap? a) Flexible b) Rigid c) Composite d) WBM View Answer Answer: a Explanation: Flexible pavements are easy to construct and have cheaper cost than C.

C pavements and also they are easily accessible to the users. Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Highway Engineering. To practice all areas of Highway Engineering,, Next Steps:

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Which of the following measure is not adopted in the reconstruction of a new highway?

Here are 1000 MCQs on Highway Engineering (Chapterwise),1. What is Highway Engineering? a) Highway Engineering is a specialized field of Civil Engineering b) Highway Engineering is a specialized field of Concrete Technology c) Highway Engineering is a specialized field of Transportation Engineering d) None of the mentioned View Answer Answer: c Explanation: Within the area of Transportation Engineering, Highway Engineering is a specialized field.

1. Highway engineers also plan highways with the goal of improving traffic flow and safety for all vehicles that use them.2.
2. What is the use of highways? a) Highways were created to connect cities and villages b) Highways is the quickest option c) Highways reduce travel time by half d) All of the mentioned View Answer Answer: d Explanation: When traveling between cities, highways are frequently the quickest option.

Highways were created to connect cities and villages, and because they’re wide and have high-speed limits, they cut travel time in half.3. The road foundation for modern highways construction, was developed by which of the following scientists? a) Telford b) Macadam c) Tresguet d) Both Telford and Macadam View Answer Answer: d Explanation: Road foundation for modern highways construction was developed by Telford and Macadam simultaneously.4.

• The New highway project is divided into how many stages? a) Four b) Three c) Two d) One View Answer Answer: b Explanation: The new highway project is divided into (i) Selection of route, alignment and geometric design.
• Ii) Collection of materials (iii) Construction stages including quality control.5.

Which of the following does not include in the phases of highway planning? a) Financing b) Showing the phasing of a plan in the five-year plan c) Assessment of road length requirement d) Preparation of master plan View Answer Answer: a Explanation: Financing of the highway is done after the planning of the highway after getting approval from the government, before the assessment, preparation, and DPR are prepared.6.

Which of the following is a commercial element in highway construction? a) Material b) Environmental aspects c) Installation technique d) Traffic View Answer Answer: b Explanation: There are two elements in highway construction – technical and commercial. Technical elements include materials, their quality, traffic, installation techniques whereas commercial elements include environmental aspects, public concerns, legal aspects, political aspects, etc.7.

The maximum number of cities and towns are connected by which type of highway? a) State highway b) Village road c) National highway d) Major district road View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The national highway connects most of the cities and towns in the country.

State highway connects in the state, village road in villages and other roads connect the remote areas.8. Which of the following is the longest international highway? a) Karakoram highway b) Australia highway 1 c) Pan-American highway d) Trans-Canada highway View Answer Answer: c Explanation: Pan-American highway is nearly 25,000 kms long.

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The un-surfaced roads were meant for other district roads and village roads.10. Which of the following is not considered when designing highways? a) Settlement b) Cross section c) Level of service d) Sight distance View Answer Answer: a Explanation: To design foundation, settlement is an important parameter.

For designing highways: the number of lanes, cross section, level of service, sight distance, alignment, lane width and so on are important considerations.11. Which of the following is the process of removing and controlling excess surface and sub soil water within the roadway? a) Highway finance b) Highway drainage c) Highway Engineering d) Highway maintenance View Answer Answer: b Explanation: The removal of excess surface and sub surface soil within the roadway or right of way is considered highway drainage.12.

• They are cheap for initial construction when compared to other types of surfaced roads.13.

Design of road intersections is a part of _ a) Harbour engineering b) Highway engineering c) Railway engineering d) Traffic engineering View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Design of road intersections is a part of highway engineering in which types of intersections, the advantages and disadvantages are studied.14.

The surveys of highway alignment are completed in how many stages? a) Four b) Three c) Two d) One View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The surveys are completed in 4 stages namely map study, reconnaissance, preliminary survey and detailed survey.15. Highway should be planned for _ a) Traffic studies b) Present requirements c) Present requirements and future requirements d) Traffic developments View Answer Answer: c Explanation: A highway should be planned such that the present and future requirements of the highway are satisfied.16.

Which of the following will be most preferred for highway lighting during highway construction? a) Intersections b) City c) Village d) Town View Answer Answer: a Explanation: During the construction of the highway, more highway lighting preference is given to intersections, as it is the most critical place.17.

1. The scope of highway engineering is divided into how many parts? a) Four b) Three c) Two d) One View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The scope of highway engineering is divided into 2 parts called phases and details.
2. In these phases overall review is given and in the details it is planned in detail.18.

What is the first step in highway construction after paperwork? a) Evaluation b) Bill of quantities c) Surveying d) Estimation View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The first step after the office work in the highway design is surveying, after surveying the design is approved.19.

1. The design speed on a highway is 60kmph; calculate the super elevation if radius of curve is 150m and coefficient of friction is 0.15.
3. Which of the following requirement is given most importance in highway design? a) Maintenance b) Seasonal c) Functional d) Structural View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The structural design like highway speed, geometric design is given the most importance in design.21.

The current highway development works in India are undertaken by? a) NHDP b) State governments c) Govt. of India d) NHAI View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The highway works all across the country are undertaken by NHAI, It was formed in 1988 and it has the mandate to follow all the NHDP (national highway development program) which is implemented in phases.22.

• The highway research Board was set up in which year? a) 1963 b) 1973 c) 1947 d) 1953 View Answer Answer: b Explanation: The highway research board was set up in the year 1973 by IRC to give good guidance for road development in India.23.
• The economical highway can be achieved by _ a) More transport cost and less quality aggregate b) Cheap aggregate c) Good quality aggregate d) Good aggregate and less transport cost View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The maximum cost of aggregate doesn’t affect the highway cost, it is the transport cost which has a greater effect.24.

Which is the most preferred type of transition curve by IRC for highways? a) Parabola b) Lemniscate c) Cubic parabola d) Spiral View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The most preferred type of transition curve by IRC for highway is parabola, for its ease of construction and other field work.25.

The vertical alignment of a highway includes? a) Highway lighting b) Design of valley curves and gradients c) Sight distance and traffic intersection d) Widening of pavements View Answer Answer: b Explanation: The design of valley curves, summit curves and gradient are included in the vertical alignment of highway.26.

• Which of the following materials are not included in highway construction? a) Petrol b) Soil c) Stone d) Dust View Answer Answer: a Explanation: Petrol is not used directly in highway construction, but by-product like bitumen is used.
• Stone, dust and soil may be used in subgrade and base.29.
• Who will prepare the specifications for the highway? a) NHAI b) BIS c) IRC d) MORTH View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The specifications for the highway are prepared by MORTH, which is the Ministry of Road Transport and Highway.30.

Which of the following is the maximum density that is desirable in highway embankments? a) O.M.C b) M.D.D c) Dry density d) Saturated density View Answer Answer: b Explanation: The maximum density which is desirable in highway embankments is M.D.D, if it is greater than MDD then it’s density decreases.31.

• The skid number for highways should not be less than _ a) 25 b) 35 c) 45 d) 55 View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The skid number for highways should not be less than 55 for national highways to ensure a smooth ride, if it is less than 55 then suitable precautions have to be taken.32.
• What is the temperature used in highway pavement in degrees centigrade? a) 175 b) 115 c) 130 d) 120 View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The temperature varies between 130 and 175 degrees centigrade and it may also be above it, depending on the exposure of heat and time taken, usually it cools down very fast.33.

The surface of the highway pavement should be designed to allow _ a) No rolling resistance b) Very high rolling resistance c) Low rolling resistance d) High rolling resistance View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The surface of highway pavement should be designed to allow no rolling resistance for safety purposes.34.

Which of the following measure is not adopted in the reconstruction of a new highway? a) Use of inferior quality material b) Use of modern machinery c) Designing as per traffic d) Providing effective drainage system View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The measure not adopted is the use of inferior material, superior quality materials should be used.35.

The design thickness of the CC slab of important highway with heavy traffic is? a) 300 mm b) 275 mm c) 125 mm d) 250 mm View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The range of the pavement thickness for the heavy traffic is 280 to 320 mm, of such heavy thickness is not provided then pavement will fail.36.

What is the width of a pavement of 2 lane national highway? a) 8.80 m b) 3.00 m c) 3.75 m d) 7.0 m View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The width of a pavement of a two lane national highway is 7.0 m, for single lane it is 3.75 m and including parapet it is 8.8 m.39.

What are the stages of construction design?

Schematic (concept) design Preliminary 3D views. Schematic Design Report.

What is a highway embankment?

User Guidelines for Waste and Byproduct Materials in Pavement Construction

 EMBANKMENT OR FILL Application Description

INTRODUCTION An embankment refers to a volume of earthen material that is placed and compacted for the purpose of raising the grade of a roadway (or railway) above the level of the existing surrounding ground surface. A fill refers to a volume of earthen material that is placed and compacted for the purpose of filling in a hole or depression.

• Embankments or fills are constructed of materials that usually consist of soil, but may also include aggregate, rock, or crushed paving material.
• Normally, the coarser fill materials are placed at or near the bottom or base of the embankment in order to provide a firm foundation for the embankment and also to facilitate drainage and prevent saturation.

The top portion of an embankment usually is constructed of relatively high-quality, well-compacted subgrade material that is capable of supporting the overlying pavement layers and imposed wheel loadings without deflection or undesirable movement. The fill material used throughout the remainder of the embankment must be capable of meeting applicable specification quality requirements and be capable of being placed and compacted at or close to its maximum achievable density.

The material is spread in relatively thin layers of 150 mm (6 in) to 200 mm (8 in) and each layer is compacted by rolling over it with heavy compaction equipment. MATERIALS Soils Many different types of soils may be suitable for use in the construction of an embankment or fill, ranging from granular soils (sand and gravel), which are highly desirable, to the more finely sized soils (silt and clay), which are usually somewhat less desirable.

Certain types of soils (such as saturated clays and highly organic soils) are considered unsuitable for use as materials in embankment or fill construction. Regardless of the type(s) of soil(s) used to construct embankments or fills, the material should be well graded, capable of being well compacted, be within a proper range of moisture to optimize compaction, and be free of unsuitable or deleterious materials, such as tree roots, branches, stumps, sludge, metal, or trash.

1. Oversize Materials Some oversize materials (over 100 mm (4 in) in size), such as rocks, large stones, reclaimed paving materials, or air-cooled slags, can be used for the construction of embankment bases.
2. Although the use of oversize materials can result in a stable embankment base, the oversize materials should have strong particles that do not readily break down under the action of construction machinery, but which have a range of sizes so that void spaces are at least partially filled.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND TESTING METHODS Some of the more important properties of materials that are used for the construction of embankments or fills include:

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Table 24-9 provides a list of the standard test methods usually used to assess the suitability of conventional earthen fill materials for use in embankment or fill construction. Table 24-9. Embankment or fill material test procedures.

 Property Test Method Reference Gradation Particle Size Analysis of Soils ASTM D422 Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregate ASTM D136 Unit Weight and Specific Gravity Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate ASTM D29 Specific Gravity of Soils ASTM D854 Relative Density of Cohesionless Soils ASTM D2049 Maximum Index Density of Soils Using a Vibratory Table ASTM D4253 Minimum Index Density of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density ASTM D4254 Moisture Densiity Characteristics Moisture-Density Relations of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures Using 5.5 lb (2.49 kg) Rammer and 12 in. (305 mm) Drop ASTM D698 (Standard) Moisture-Density Relations of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures Using 10 lb (4.54 kg) Rammer and 18 in. (457 mm) Drop ASTM D1557 (Modified) Compacted Density (In-Place Density) Density of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method ASTM D1556 Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Rubber Balloon Method ASTM D2167 Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow-Depth) ASTM D2922 Density of Soil in Place by the Sleeve Method ASTM D4564 Shear Strength Unconsolidated Undrained Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soils in Triaxial Compression ASTM D2850 Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions ASTM D3080 Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test on Cohesive Soils ASTM D4767 Compressibility One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils ASTM D2435 One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading ASTM D4186 One-Dimensional Swell or Settlement Potential of Cohesive Soils ASTM D4546 Bearing Capacity > California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils ASTM D1883 Bearing Ratio of Soils in Place ASTM D4429 Permeability Permeability of Granular Soils by Constant Head ASTM D2434 Corrosion Resistance pH of Soil For Use in Corrosion Testing ASTM G51 Field Measurement of Soil Resistivity Using the Wenner Four-Electrode Method ASTM G57 Pore Water Extraction and Determination of the Soluble Salt Content of Soils by Refractometer ASTM D4542

REFERENCES FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Nichols, Herbert L. Moving the Earth, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York, New York, 1976.U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Earth Manual. Washington, DC, 1991. | | : User Guidelines for Waste and Byproduct Materials in Pavement Construction

What CBR value is good?

California bearing ratio typical values What are the typical CBR values? The harder the material, the higher the CBR value. A CBR value of 2% is usually found for clay, high-quality sub-base will have CBR values between 80% and 100%, and some sands may have values around 10%.

1. The CBR testing can be applied to soils with a maximum particle size of 20 mm.
2. For soils with bigger particles, other types of bearing capacity can be used like the Plate Bearing Test.
3. Since the coarse-grained soils and fine-grained soils have particles with size smaller than 20 mm, they can be evaluated by the CBR testing.

The following definitions were established by the Unified Soil Classification System:

Coarse-grained soils are soils where 50% of the particles are retained in a 0.075 sieve. This means that more than half of the individual grains are visible to the naked eye. Fine-grained soils are soils where 50% or more of the particles pass through a 0.075 sieve.

The coarse-grained soils can reach higher CBR values when compared with those of the fine-grained soils. As expected, with bigger particles the soil may have bigger CBR values. But before looking at the typical values of each type, let’s quickly see how coarse-grained soils can be classified.

1. So the coarse-grained soils can be divided into gravelly soils and sandy soils.
2. In the gravelly soils, more than 50% of the coarse fraction has a particle size larger than 4.75 mm.
3. The CBR values of gravelly soils range from 20% to 80%.
4. In the sandy soils, more than 50% of the coarse fraction has a particle size smaller than 4.75 mm.

And their CBR values range from 5% to 40%. And what about the fine-grained soils? Their CBR values are lower, ranging from 5% to 15%.

 General Soil Type USC Soil Type CBR Range Coarse-grained soils GW 40 – 80 GP 30 – 60 GM 20 – 60 GC 20 – 40 SW 20 – 40 SM 10 – 40 SP 10 – 40 SC 5 – 20 Fine-grained soils ML 15 or less CL LL < 50% 15 or less OL 5 or less MH 10 or less CH LL > 50% 15 or less OH 5 or less

How is the CBR value calculated? The unit load (pressure) on the plunger for 2.54 mm or 5.08 mm of penetration is divided by the unit load of the standard material and the result is multiplied by 100. The bearing capacity of the standard material is considered as a reference value for this test.

What is a good CBR ratio?

How is a CBR Test performed? – The harder the surface, the higher the CBR value. Typically, a value of 2% equates to clay, while some sands may have a CBR value of 10%. High quality sub-base will have a value of between 80-100% (maximum). The CBR test is carried out on soils with a maximum particle size of 20mm.

(Note: For material greater than 20mm please see Plate Bearing Tests). The technique involves driving a small cylindrical plunger (approx 50mm) into the ground at a uniform rate, using a four wheel drive vehicle as the reaction load to provide the force. Tests are normally carried out at surface level or at depths of between 500-1000mm in 20-30m intervals along the proposed construction centreline.

A minimum of three tests are usually carried out at each site. On a typical site, and assuming surfaces are prepared, up to 8-10 tests can be carried out in a day, by a single operator, with provisional results available on site. Please to discuss your site investigation requirements or book at test.

Which soil is used in CBR test?

DCP Test Equipment (ASTM D6951): –

Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Set (with a single or dual-mass hammer) consists of drive rods and cone-shaped tips tapered to a point at a 60° angle. A sliding drop hammer mounted on the rods forces the cones to penetrate the soil layers, and the number of hammer blows per increment of penetration indicates penetration resistance. The DCP is the best choice for remote areas or for quickly performing multiple tests in a limited time.

Resources:

ASTM D1883 Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils is the most-often used standard for this test.AASHTO T 193 Closely mirrors ASTM D1883.ASTM D4429 Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Soils in Place (Withdrawn 2018) Currently under consideration by ASTM for revision or replacement.ASTM D6951 Standard Test Method for Use of the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer in Shallow Pavement Applications. The DCP is used widely for estimations of field CBR values.U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) CRD-C654-95, Standard Test Method for Determining the California Bearing Ratio of Soils, covers lab or field CBR testing of soils. Replaced MIL-STD-621A in December 1995.Florida Department of Transportation FM 5-515 Florida Method of Test for LIMEROCK BEARING RATIO (LBR) is a test using methods and equipment similar to the CBR tests for soil materials unique to the Southeastern United States.British Standards BS 1377-1:2016 Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes was updated in July 2016 and has nine parts. Part 4, Compaction Related Tests, includes a method for assessing the CBR value of a compacted or undisturbed soil.Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Geotechnical Aspects of Pavements Reference Manual – see Chapter 5, Section 5.4, for information on the CBR Test.Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) advisory on Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation, For lab or field CBR testing in the design of flexible pavements for airports or airfields. See Section 2.5.6.

What is the first step in highway construction?

Highway Engineering Questions and Answers – General Features of Highway Construction This set of Highway Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “General Features of Highway Construction”.1. What is the first step in highway construction after paper work? a) Surveying b) Estimation c) Bill of quantities d) Evaluation View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The first step after the office work in the highway design is surveying, after surveying the design is approved.

2. The design of the highway should satisfy _ a) Structural requirement b) Drainage system c) Economical d) All of the mentioned View Answer

Answer: d Explanation: The design of highway should satisfy economy, drainage and structural requirement.3. The economical highway can be achieved by _ a) Cheap aggregate b) Good quality aggregate c) Good aggregate and less transport cost d) More transport cost and less quality aggregate View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The maximum cost of aggregate doesn’t affect the highway cost, it is the transport cost which has a greater effect.4.

The embankment is constructed by using _ a) Soil b) Fly ash c) GGBS d) Bricks View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The soil embankment is constructed by using the locally available soil, if not satisfied we can replace it by stronger soils.5. The embankment construction should always be _ a) Above MSL b) At MSL c) Above HFL d) below MSL View Answer Answer: c Explanation: The embankment should always be constructed above HFL, as it may effect the pavement when floods occur if laid above MSL.

Check this: | 6. The part of pavement left over for drainage is called _ a) Sub base b) Footpath c) Ken d) Shoulder View Answer Answer: d Explanation: The part which is left over for the water to drain off is called as shoulder, it may be paved or unpaved.7.

1. The raise of ground water reduces the capacity by _ a) 66.66% b) 51.33% c) 50% d) 75% View Answer Answer: c Explanation: If the ground water raises to ground level, then the bearing capacity of the soil sub grade reduces to 50%.8.
2. Embankment are laid _ a) Above ground level b) Below ground level c) 3.0 m above ground level d) 5.0m above foundation level View Answer Answer: b Explanation: Most of the embankments are laid below the ground level by cutting and then filling.
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Who is the father of highway engineering?

Bangalore; Road named after Father of Highway Engineering A new road was named after Father of Highway Engineering Prof.C.E.G. Justo in Bangalore. This is an honour for Prof.C.E.G. Justo, who has served the construction industry to the best of his knowledge.

He was a great engineer and was loved by his fraternity. Prof. Justo, who is a well-known authority in the field of Highway Engineering, has worked at TKM College of Engineering, Kollam, the University of Roorkee and University of Bangalore. main road was designed by him for over a hundred years with zero maintenance.

Khanna and Justo highway engineering book were written by him. Professor C.E.G. Justo also headed Transportation Engineering carrying out tests about its strength and durability. Prof.C.E.G. Justo was a ME (Highway), Ph. D holder and an Honorary and Emeritus Professor.

What are the factors to be considered when constructing a new road?

2.1.1 Design Criteria – Design criteria consist of a detailed list of considerations to be used in negotiating a set of road standards. These include resource management objectives, environmental constraints, safety, physical environmental factors (such as topography, climate, and soils), traffic requirements, and traffic service levels.

2. Physical and environmental factors: What are the topographic, climatic, soil and vegetation characteristics of the area?
3. Environmental constraints: Are there environmental constraints; are there social-political constraints? Examples of the former include erosiveness of soils, difficult geologic conditions, high rainfall intensities. Examples of the latter include land ownership boundaries, state of the local economy, and public opinion about a given project.
4. Traffic requirements: Average daily traffic (ADT) should be estimated for different user groups. For example, a road can have mixed traffic-log or cattle trucks and community traffic. An estimate of traffic requirements in relation to use as well as changes over time should be evaluated.
5. Traffic service level: This defines the type of traffic that will make use of the road network and its characteristics. Table 3 lists descriptions of four different levels of traffic service for forest roads. Each level describes the traffic characteristics which are significant in the selection of design criteria and describe the operating conditions for the road. Each level also reflects a number of factors, such as speed,travel time,traffic interruptions, freedom to maneuver, safety, driver comfort, convenience, and operating cost. Traffic density is a factor only if heavy non-logging traffic is expected. These factors, in turn, affect: (1) number of lanes, (2) turnout spacing, (3) lane widths, (4) type of driving surface, (5) sight distances, (6) design speed, (7) clearance; (8) horizontal and vertical alignment, (9) curve widening, (10) turn-arounds.
6. Vehicle characteristics: The resource management objectives, together with traffic requirements and traffic service level criteria selected above, will define the types of vehicles that are to use the proposed road. Specific vehicle characteristics need to be defined since they will determine the “design standards” to be adopted when proceeding to the road design phase. The land manager has to distinguish between the “design vehicle” and the “critical vehicle”. The design vehicle is a vehicle which ordinarily uses the road, such as dual axle flatbed trucks in the case of ranching or farming operations, or dump trucks in the case of a mining operation. The critical vehicle represents a vehicle which is necessary for the contemplated operation (for instance, a livestock truck in the case of transporting range livestock) but uses the road infrequently. Here, the design should allow for the critical vehicle to pass the road with assist vehicles, if necessary, but without major delays or road reconstruction.
7. Safety: Traffic safety is an important requirement especially where multiple user types will be utilizing the same road. Safety requirements such as stopping distance, sight distance, and allowable design speed can determine the selected road standards in combination with the other design criteria.
8. Road uses: The users of the contemplated road should be defined by categories. For example, timber harvest activities will include all users related to the planned timber harvest, such as silviculturists, foresters, engineers, surveyors, blasting crews, and construction and maintenance crews, as well as the logging crews. Administrative users may include watershed management specialists, wildlife or fisheries biologists, or ecologists, as well as foresters. Agricultural users would include stock herders and rangeland management specialists and will have a different set of objectives than timber objectives. An estimate of road use for each category is then made (e.g., numbers of vehicles per day). For each category, the resource management objective over several planning horizons should be indicated. For instance, a road is to be built first for (1) the harvest of timber from a tract of land, then (2) access for the local population for firewood cutting or grazing, and finally (3) access for administration of watershed rehabilitation activities. The planner should determine if the road user characteristics will change over the life of the road.
9. Economics: The various road alternatives would undergo rigorous economic evaluations.

As part of this process a”roads objectives documentation” plan should be carried out. This process consists of putting the road management objectives and design criteria in an organized form. An example of such a form is given in Table 4. Table 3, Traffic service levels definitions used to identify design parameters (from U.S. Forest Service, Transportation Eng. Handbook).

What are the steps of making earthwork embankment?

EARTH WORK IN EMBANKMENT- ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW The process of cutting and removing earth from borrow pits, transporting and placing it as a fill in the form of an embankment is known as an earthwork in embankment or filling. When the formation level of a road is to be kept higher than the natural ground level, the road is run in filling.

• General. Earth used for constructing the embankment should be of good quality.
• It should be free from pig-clogs, modules and other impurities as vegetable growth or weeds etc.
• Marking out.
• The centre line shall first pegged out and marked with “Dag Bell”.
• All curves shall be properly line laid out and the indicating the toe of the embankment shall then be set out.

Profiles. Before constructing the road embankment, rough profiles of the embankment shall be constructed with the help of rope so that the earth may be filled according to specification. For the construction of profiles, bamboos are at a distance of about 5 m usually erected and a rope is stretched along it to give the approximate profiles.

• Surface stripping.
• Earth work shall be carried out and finished in accordance with the drawings or as ordered by theExecutive Engineer.
• Before placing the earth fill, the surface area of ground which will be covered by earth work shall be cleared of trees and bushes, and the surface shall be then be ploughed over.

Barrowpits. Earth may be obtained from barowpits shall be at least 15 m away from the toe of the bank, but these should be located in the acquired land. All barrowpits shall be dug to one depth. No barrowpit shall be greater than 30 cm in depth. Barrowpits shall not be dug continuously.

• Ridges of not less than 3 m width should be Jeft at intervals not exceeding 30 m.
• Dead man” or “matams” shall be left at points indicated by the Engineer incharge.
• The dead man shall remain intact till measurements are completed, but final payments shall be deferred till all dead man are removed.
• Completion.

The earth shall be filled in concave layers of thickness not more than 15 cm, each layer being properly and thoroughly compacted with sheep foot roller, before the next layer 1s placed at the top and compacted. Earth work should be started from the outward to the inward of the bank.

• Measurement.
• Where earth is obtained from barrowpits, the measurements of barrowpits shall be in fairly uniform ground, made.
• The quantity shall be worked out in cum (.e., length x breath x depth “DeadMan” of “tell-tales” should be left at suitable intervals to determine the average depth of barrowpits.

The earthwork in embankment is carried out in the following steps:

Making Profiles Of Embankment

Profiles of the embankment are constructed with poles and strings. These are constructed at 30 m intervals for guiding labour. For ordinary embankments, 10 % allowance for settlement is kept while making profiles.

Stripping And Storing Top Soil

After making the profiles of the embankment, the top soil of the site is stripped to the specified depth and stored at a suitable location.

Constructing Embankment

After stripping and storing top soil, the original ground is compacted by rolling with 8 – 10 ton roller. Then filling is started in layers not exceeding 250 mm and compacted with road roller. These layers are kept slightly concave in shape. The successive layers of the earth should be placed only when the previous layer has been thoroughly compacted.