Various examples of roofs A roof ( PL : roofs or rooves ) is the top covering of a building, including all materials and constructions necessary to support it on the walls of the building or on uprights, providing protection against rain, snow, sunlight, extremes of temperature, and wind,
- A roof is part of the building envelope,
- The characteristics of a roof are dependent upon the purpose of the building that it covers, the available roofing materials and the local traditions of construction and wider concepts of architectural design and practice, and may also be governed by local or national legislation,
In most countries, a roof protects primarily against rain. A verandah may be roofed with material that protects against sunlight but admits the other elements. The roof of a garden conservatory protects plants from cold, wind, and rain, but admits light.
- 1 What are parts of roofs called?
- 2 What are the 3 main components of a roof?
- 3 What is the wall around a roof called?
- 4 What is the most common roof?
What are parts of roofs called?
2. Flashing – Flashing is a thin sheet, usually made of metal, that a roofing professional installs around any vertical surface that intersects with the roof plane, such as the surface of a chimney. Of all roof components, flashing seems to be the least clear to the homeowner.
To understand the need for flashing, think of a chimney. Chimneys don’t have shingles or underlayment, and they punch right through the roof decking into your home below. Chimneys have protection to keep water from rushing in through the top (a chimney cap); but what about the sides? What’s to stop water from running down the exterior of the chimney, wiggling right past the edge of the shingles, underlayment or decking and into your home? Flashing is the answer.
There are many roof flashing applications. You will see flashing installed around other residential roof features, including:
Chimney: Flashing installed around a chimney is bent approximately 90 degrees so that one plane rests against the face of the chimney while the other extends out horizontally above the underlayment, but below the shingles.
Skylights: Some skylights manufacturers include built-in flashing with their product, especially for deck-mounted skylights or those that are installed right on the roof deck. If the skylight does not come with built-in flashing, the roofing professional will need to add flashing around it.
Plumbing vents: The plumbing vent provides ventilation for your home’s plumbing. It has to have special flashing where it meets the roof.
Roof vents : A roof can have several other kinds of vents projecting through the roof face, all of which will need flashing. There are attic vents, gable end vents, ridge vents and soffit vents (which we will discuss below). Vents help keep the attic space properly ventilated, Soffit vents, combined with ridge vents, will allow for air to flow freely through the attic space.
It’s often necessary to install flashing around a roof’s architectural features, the design elements that create the shape of the roof. Architectural features that need flashing include:
Valleys: These are the indented spots where two roof planes meet. In the open valley style, valleys are flashed with a long, flat piece of metal with a “v”- or “w”-shaped center. You can cover a valley with shingles, in woven or closed-cut styles, but these are usually less effective than open valleys with metal flashing.
Dormers: Where dormers connect with the main roof face, they create a valley, which needs flashing for protection. Also, roofers must add flashing to the side and front surfaces of the dormer,
What is top of roof called?
What are the common parts of a roof? –
Roof Ridge: The roof ridge, or ridge of a roof is the horizontal line running the length of the roof where the two roof planes meet. This intersection creates the highest point on a roof, sometimes referred to as the peak. Hip and ridge shingles are specifically designed for this part of a roof. Ridge vent: A ridge vent is an exhaust vent that runs horizontally along the peak of the roof allowing warm, humid air to escape from the attic. Use our ventilation calculator to calculate your attic ventilation requirements and determine how much exhaust ventilation you would need to properly ventilate your roof and attic. Flashing: Flashing is a metal material installed at joint openings, around chimneys, and any dormer windows or skylights to help prevent water intrusion. You may recognize flashing as metal stair steps alongside a chimney or side walls on a roof. Hip: The hip on a roof is the intersection of two roof planes that meet to form a sloping ridge running from the peak to the eave. Hip and ridge shingles are specifically designed for this part of a roof. Roof Deck: The roof deck is the structural foundation base for the roof system and is usually made of wood or plywood. Roofing Underlayment: Roofing underlayment is a layer of material, usually synthetic or felt, that adds extra protection on top of the roof deck and under the shingles. Synthetic underlayment helps repel moisture and provides protection against water infiltration. Synthetic underlayment is becoming a popular material choice over felt due to proven water-resistance performance and long-lasting durability. Roof Valley: The roof valley is the V-shaped intersection between two sloping roofs joining at an angle to provide water runoff. Laminated Architectural Shingles: Laminated architectural asphalt shingles contain more than one layer of tabs to add dimension, performance and durability to a roof. Architectural shingles are sometimes referred to as three-dimensional shingles or laminated shingles. The opposite of architectural shingles are three-tab shingles, which are produced as a single layer of tabs and appear flat or without the dimension of a laminated shingle. Roof Gable: A roof gable is the triangular section of the outer wall at the peak of the roof between a sloping roof and eave. A roof gable is sometimes referred to as a rake. Metal drip edge: Metal drip edge is a narrow strip of noncorrosive metal used at the rake and eave to help manage dripping water by facilitating water runoff to protect the underlying section of a wall. Dormer : A dormer is a raised section of the roof. Dormers commonly contain a window that projects vertically through the slope in the roof. Ice and water barrier: An ice and water barrier is a self-adhered waterproofing material installed along eaves, valleys, side walls, and other sensitive areas to protect against ice damage and wind-driven rain. Eave: An eave is the lower border of the roof that overhangs the wall usually located in the first three feet of a roof. Undereave vent: Undereave vents are intake vents located under the eaves of the roof that help draw cool dry air into the attic. Again, you can use our ventilation calculator to calculate your attic ventilation requirements and determine how much intake ventilation you would need to properly ventilate your roof and attic.
Now that you’re familiar with the basic anatomy of a roof, you’ll start to notice dormers and gables everywhere you turn. More important, you’ll be equipped to have an informed conversation with your roofing contractor when the time comes for you to get a new roof,
How do you describe a roof?
Roof, covering of the top of a building, serving to protect against rain, snow, sunlight, wind, and extremes of temperature. Roofs have been constructed in a wide variety of forms—flat, pitched, vaulted, domed, or in combinations—as dictated by technical, economic, or aesthetic considerations. roof.
What holds the roof of a house?
How House Construction Works This house uses trusses for the roof framing. Trusses are pre-fabricated, triangulated wooden structures used to support the roof. The alternative is to build up the roof’s frame with 2x8s and 2x10s. Trusses are quite common these days because they have five big advantages from the builder’s standpoint:
Trusses are incredibly strong. Because they are built strictly from shorter lengths of 2×4, they are generally a lot less expensive than the alternative. You can have just about any shape custom-built, and this allows interesting features like cathedral ceilings at low cost. You can span a large distance with a truss and the truss transmits all of the weight to the exterior walls. Therefore, none of the interior walls are “load-bearing,” so they can go anywhere and are easily moved later. Trusses go up quickly!
From the homeowner’s standpoint, the one big disadvantage is that you don’t have any attic space. C’est la vie, Trusses come in several standard configurations: “M” truss “Scissors” truss “Gable” truss Gable trusses are used at the ends of the roof (the outermost trusses on either end). The vertical pieces are 16 inches on center so that siding can be nailed on. Our sample house uses a custom truss in the main part of the house that looks like this: The left-hand side will provide a cathedral ceiling over the living room. Scissors trusses are used for the front room, and M trusses are used over the garage. Gable trusses are used at the ends of the three rooflines. The trusses are fist stacked on top of the walls, either by hand or with a, These trusses went up in about four hours. They are on 24-inch centers. The trusses are tied to the walls with small metal plates. Once the trusses are up, the roof is covered in plywood or OSB, which gives the roof tremendous rigidity. There are two small custom roofs in this house: the roof over the (see next section) and the roof over the breezeway. Roof framing without trusses is actually fairly complicated. The angles found in anything but the simplest roof become intricate. : How House Construction Works
What are the 3 main components of a roof?
The Main Components of a Roof Before you can have a discussion about what parts make up a roof, you will need to know a few terms. These terms identify the various architectural aspects of a typical pitched residential roof. Becoming familiar with these terms will enable you to understand a discussion of how roofs are constructed.
- The first term is the roof plane.
- If you recall from geometry class, a plan is a flat surface.
- In roofing terms, the roof plane is the pitched face of the roof.
- To describe the places where roof planes meet we use the terms ridge, hip, and valley.
- The ridge of the roof is the highest point on the roof where two pitched planes meet.
A hip is a place where to planes meet and project outward. A hip is similar to a peak, but is not at the top of your roof and is usually not horizontal. A valley, just like it’s geographic namesake, is a place where to planes meet and project inward. A dormer is a common feature on many two-story houses.
- It is a projection from the main plane of the roof that usually houses a window.
- The dormer is usually constructed to add space or natural light to the room inside.
- The gable is not exactly part of the roof, but still an important term to recognize.
- It is the triangular part of the exterior wall that spans the area between the pitched roof planes.
Structural Layers of the Roof Just like the rest of the house, the roof starts out as a frame. The frame is usually constructed of lumber. It incorporates joists, trusses, and rafters. Together, these three types of beams make up a framework that gives the roof its shape.
- The frame needs to be strong enough to support the weight of the roof.
- With a standard asphalt shingle roof, this is not much of a concern.
- But if you plan to use heavier materials like tile or slate, you may need to add extra supports at this stage.
- Once the frame is in place, it is covered in decking.
Decking is the skin that covers the frame and creates the base that the rest of the roof will be built upon. The most common material for decking was once plywood. However, in recent decades oriented strand board (OSB) has taken over as the most common material for load-bearing planks in residential construction.
OSB is similar to particle board, but instead of tiny bits of wood, it is made up of thin strips of wood. The strips are held together with resin and a small amount of wax to form a very strong plank. Underlayment The first barrier layer of the roof is the underlayment. Underlayment is installed directly on top of the decking.
It serves a few functions. First, it forms a barrier between the decking and the shingles that absorbs any resin that might be released by the decking. Second, it serves as an additional water barrier in case any water makes it past the shingles. A lesser-known function of underlayment is its ability to prevent picture framing.
Picture framing is the result of the expansion and contraction of the panels that make up the decking. Without the underlayment, the slight movement of the decking could create bumps that would disturb the flat surface of the roof and could prevent proper water resistance. Many modern underlayment materials also have an additional fire retardant effect, reducing the speed at which a house fire could spread.
Traditional underlayment is made of felt that is saturated with tar. This kind of underlayment is still widely used today. However, recent innovations have introduced synthetic underlayment with special properties. These may include added water resistance and reduced heat absorption.
In some cold climates, roofers may install a special underlayment that acts as a water and ice barrier. It can help protect from ice dams that form when the bottom layer of accumulated snow melts and refreezes at the edge of the roof. Some of these underlayments may have special properties such as being self-adhering and closing around nails for a watertight seal.
In cold climates and areas prone to driving rain and high winds from hurricanes, the water and ice barrier might cover the whole roof. In more mild climates, ice and water barriers may still be used in vulnerable areas of the roof, like valleys, roof edges, and around penetrations in the roof.
Flashing We have covered flashing in detail in some earlier posts, but it is still important to mention here. After the underlayment is installed, flashing is installed in areas of the roof that collect a lot of water. Valleys, where water from multiple roof planes is directed into a gushing stream, are always covered with flashing.
The flashing is generally a thin layer of sheet metal that protects a vulnerable joint and directs water away from the area. Flashing is also used anywhere the decking is cut open for some type of penetration. For example, a chimney requires flashing all around it.
The flashing prevents water from seeping through the seam where the chimney walls meet the roof. Other roof penetrations such as vents and skylights also require flashing and may come with flashing as part of the finished product. Another common place to put flashing is around dormers where the vertical walls of the dormer meet the pitched roof.
Similar to a valley, this area can collect a lot of water and requires extra protection. Shingles The final outermost layer of the roof is the shingles. It is the part of the roof that is most visible. Many of our blog posts have discussed the wide variety of roofing materials in use for residential roofing.
However, the most common type of residential roofing has not changed in over a half-century. Asphalt roofing remains king of residential roofing. However, the passage of time has seen many adjustments and improvements to asphalt shingle roofing. Some innovations were minor changes that made asphalt shingle more durable.
Others were major innovations, such as the introduction of architectural shingles. The most common type of asphalt shingle is called three-tab shingle. The shingles are made of strips about three feet long. Each strip has two slits perpendicular to its length to create the appearance of three shingles.
- Three tab shingle is almost completely flat and has a regular repeating pattern.
- It is available in many colors and with a wide variety of special features.
- Typically, three-tab shingles are installed with nails but have special adhesive on the back that is activated by heat from the sun.
- The adhesive creates a tight bond between the layers of shingle and increases wind and water resistance.
For areas that experience high winds, premium asphalt shingles are available that have added adhesive to sustain extreme wind conditions. Architectural asphalt shingle is a relative newcomer. Unlike three-tab shingle, it is layered to create three-dimensional shingles that mimic the shape and appearance of more natural materials.
The shingles are irregularly shaped, further contributing to its natural appearance. Many new luxury homes use architectural shingle. Some homeowners who install new roofs are also opting for architectural shingle. In addition to its appearance, architectural shingle may also increase the value of a home when it comes time to sell.
New Roof Installation When it comes to installing a new roof, Rainshield Roofing has your back. We can peel back your roof all the way to the decking. We then ensure that the decking is in good condition and install a whole new roof, from underlayment to shingles.
What is another word for a roof?
An external covering at the top of a building or structure. roofing. rooftop. awning. ceiling.
What is the difference between roof and ceiling?
What is the difference between Roof and Ceiling?
Roof: The external surface covers the top of a room or a building. Example: The worker installed bricks on the roof of our house. Ceiling: The vertical overhead surface in a room or a building. Example: The ceiling of the baby’s room is blue.
Did you find this article useful? Sorry about that! How can we improve it? (Optional) : What is the difference between Roof and Ceiling?
What is the basic structure of a roof?
Different Parts of a Roof Structure There are many different parts of a roof, as well as different types of roofs, including gable, flat, and mansard. For the most part, though, a typical roof structure will consist of the following parts. First is the frame of the roof structure.
The truss is the “skeleton” of a roof, made of a series of parallel beams. The rafters are the supporting beams that run from the apex to the bottom of a roof, holding up the truss. Eaves are the edges of a roof, typically overhanging the vertical exterior walls of a building. They consist of fascia, soffits, and drip edges.
Then there is the finishing layer on top of the roof. The sheathing consists of boarding—either plywood or particle board—that is laid on top of the truss. It adds structural integrity to the frame and provides a base for the underlayment and shingles.
Underlayment is a waterproof seal that is often made of felt and lays over the sheathing. Flashing, meanwhile, is a metal strip that forms a watertight seal between the roof shingles and other materials, like a chimney or vent. Last but not least are the shingles, which can be made of asphalt, clay, wood, metal, or something else entirely.
This top, finishing layer provides waterproofing and a neat appearance. Whether you want to DIY your own roof or are a roofing contractor in the business of building roofs for residential and commercial structures, is your source for the materials you need to get the job done.
Our locally and family owned business has been in the construction field for over 12 years, helping homeowners, builders, and contractors find the materials they need at low prices. You can find siding, tools, fasteners, and more from well-known and respected brands like TAMKO and Atlas Roofing. We are located in North Atlanta and we proudly serve all of the greater Atlanta area.
Contact us today to begin building a superior roof that will look great and last for decades, all thanks to affordable, high-quality materials. : Different Parts of a Roof Structure
What is the space between the ceiling and the roof called?
Attic This article is about the area above the main floors of a house. For other uses, see, Space or room below a pitched roof of house or other building. Attic bedroom in,,, by, 1839. () Attic in,, An attic (sometimes referred to as a ) is a space found directly below the pitched of a house or other building; an attic may also be called a sky parlor or a,
- Because attics fill the space between the ceiling of the top floor of a building and the slanted roof, they are known for being awkwardly shaped spaces with exposed and difficult-to-reach corners.
- While some attics are into bedrooms, home offices, or attic apartments complete with windows and staircases, most remain difficult to access (and are usually entered using a loft and ladder).
Attics help control temperatures in a house by providing a large mass of slowly moving air, and are often used for storage. The hot air rising from the lower floors of a building is often retained in attics, further compounding their reputation as inhospitable environments.
What is the wall around a roof called?
A parapet is a barrier that is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure, The word comes ultimately from the Italian parapetto ( parare ‘to cover/defend’ and petto ‘chest/breast’). Where extending above a roof, a parapet may simply be the portion of an exterior wall that continues above the edge line of the roof surface, or may be a continuation of a vertical feature beneath the roof such as a fire wall or party wall,
What is the most common roof?
What is the most common type of residential roof? – There are a few types of roofs that you see more than others. But the most common type of roof you see on homes today is an asphalt roof. An asphalt roof is a roof system made primarily out of asphalt shingles and other asphalt roofing components.
How many parts are in a roof?
More roofing terminology you need to know – Now you know the 9 main parts of a roof. However, there are still some terms that you need to know to help you understand roof lingo when talking to a roofing contractor or doing more research.
What is the frame of a roof called?
What is a Roof Rafter? – You may be wondering, “What is a rafter?” If so, you’ve come to the right place. We specialize in rafters and pretty much all things roofing! A rafter is defined as one of a series of sloped structural pieces (typically wooden beams) that extend from the hip or ridge to eave, wall plate, or downslope perimeter.
Common rafter Plumb cut Ridge board Collar tie Birdsmouth cut Tail cut Ceiling joist Double top plates Wall stud
Rafter boards that create the slope of the roof are typically wider than ones used to create trusses. While 2x4s are most common in trusses, 2x8s, 2x10s, and 2x12s are most common in rafters. In a finished space, insulation is placed between the rafter boards and drywall.
What are decorative pieces on a roof called?
What Are Roof Finials? – When walking down the streets of New Orleans, you may have notice some of the decorative elements on the rooftops of historic homes. They are called finials or sometimes spires. Basically, they are decorative caps to the point or end of a roof. Finials are not only found on top of homes, but all kinds of building including churches and castles.
- They are typically carved in stone and they are there to emphasize the apex of a dome, spire or tower.
- They can also be made of other weather-resistant material, including wood, metal, terra cotta and even glass.
- Finials can be any distinctive ornament at the top, end, or corner of a building or structure.
They often come in familiar shapes and objects found in nature, such as pinecones, pineapples, acorns, fleurs-de-lis, fronds, arrowheads, spheres and lances. Some say that architectural finials are steeped in stories and legends. For instance, at some point people believed that installing lightning rod finials on a rooftop would discourage airborne witches from making unexpected landings on one’s home.
What are 4 basic parts of a conventional roof?
Here is a detailed guide to the most important roof parts: underlayment, insulation, ice and water barrier, and ventilation. Getting high quality roof components should be a top priority if you want to have leak-free, long lasting protection. Sometimes contractors may take advantage of a homeowner’s lack of knowledge and install low quality roofing systems together with expensive shingles. See Costs Near You! Start Here – Enter your zip Don’t let this happen to you! Find out which materials we recommend to use, and how to install them correctly. These offer the best value and long term performance in harsh weather conditions.