Which Cement Should Be Used In Cold Weather Concreting?

Which Cement Should Be Used In Cold Weather Concreting
2. Concrete Pouring –

  • Concrete shall not be poured around large embedment except if its temperature is above freezing temperature.
  • For durability, the fresh concrete needs to be maintained based on Table 1. Consider using high-early strength concrete.
  • Do not use “antifreeze” compounds to lower the freezing point of concrete.
  • The use of calcium chloride or admixtures containing soluble chlorides is not recommended under certain conditions:
    • In concrete containing aluminum or prestressing strand because of corrosion.
    • Where discoloration of troweled surfaces cannot be tolerated.
    • Where galvanized steel will remain in permanent contact with the concrete.
    • In concrete subjected to alkali-aggregate reaction or exposed to soils or water containing sulfates.

Table 1 Minimum Concrete Temperature Immediately After Pouring and during the protection period

Least dimension of section, cm (in) Minimum temperature of concrete as placed and maintained during the protection period, C (F)
Less than 30.5 (12) 12.7 (55)
30.5 (12) to less than 91 (36) 10 (50)
91 (36) to less than 193 (76) 7.2 (45)
Greater than 193 (76) 4.4 (40)

img class=’aligncenter wp-image-189362 size-full’ src=’https://www.ammacement.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/jysegaekifeshina.jpg’ alt=’Which Cement Should Be Used In Cold Weather Concreting’ /> Fig.1: Concrete Pouring in Cold Weather

What type of cement should be used in cold weather?

Sand can be heated over fire in a pipe, and water can be heated in metal drums. – Masonry Units – Only dry masonry units should be used during cold weather masonry construction. Wet units may become frozen before construction and impair the performance of the mortar and consequently the wall assembly.

Further, dry units should not be excessively cold because they will cool the mortar rapidly and could cause freezing. Cold masonry units that are wet and frozen must be thawed, but carefully, to prevent overheating. Preheated masonry units exhibit all the usual performance characteristics of units used during normal construction, except the heated unit may absorb more water from the mortar.

Absorptive masonry units do have an advantage in cold weather over units with very low absorption. The absorptive unit can absorb excess water from the mortar and lessen the possible disruptive expansion in the mortar on first freezing. However, even with absorptive units, the temperature of masonry needs to be initially maintained at a level that assures adequate curing of the fresh mortar.

  • Units with very low absorption capability (glass block, for example) may require extended heating of the masonry to avoid disruptive freezing of the mortar.
  • The slow stiffening of mortar resulting from the low absorption of the unit will limit productivity during construction and could contribute to color variations in mortar joints as a result of tooling wet mortar joints.

Materials – At cold temperatures, Type I cement can be replaced with Type III cements which hydrates at a faster rate. You may also consider changing to a higher strength mortar than you would normally use. For example: If ASTM C270 Type N mortar is specified for normal temperatures, the typically lower water retention and higher strength gain of a Type S mortar may be more appropriate for cold weather, particularly if low absorption masonry units are used.

Which cement is used in cold weather concreting Mcq?

Option B is correct because, Calcium chloride is a rapid hardening agent. The acceleration of setting, hardening and evolution of this large quantity of heat in the early period of hydration makes the cement suitable for concreting in cold weather. The increased porosity of high alumina cement further develops more resistance to the frosting.

Can you cement in cold weather?

4. Using cold materials – Not only is it important to ensure your mix, the ground, and the air are warm enough, the materials (forms, embedments, and tools) you use for cold weather concrete pouring should also be above freezing and close to the delivered concrete temperature if possible.

At Concrete Supply Co., we have experience with all types of ready-mixes, even mixes that will stand up to freezing conditions. If you need to pour concrete this winter, download our Get The Best Mix For Your Project Concrete Checklist, and be sure to specify that you’ll be looking to pour your mix during cold temperatures.

And remember, concrete can be poured during cold weather and develop sufficient strength and durability to satisfy requirements when the proper precautions are taken. A mix that is properly proportioned, produced, placed, and protected will survive the cold weather.

What type of portland cement is best for cold weather?

A Closer Look: Cement Types I Through V Editor’s Note: This is the second article in a year-long series explaining common raw materials used in precast. By Kayla Hanson, P.E. E vidence of cementitious material use dates back to the beginning of recorded history.

  1. Egyptians used a blend of cementitious materials as a mortar to secure each 2.5-ton quarried stone block of the Great Pyramid more than 4,500 years ago.
  2. Romans employed a pozzolanic cementitious blend to construct aqueducts and other engineering marvels including the Pantheon, whose roof is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world.

Europeans in the Middle Ages used hydraulic cement to construct canals and fortresses, some of which still stand today. Today, we primarily use portland cement in our concrete. Ingredients in modern portland cements are carefully selected, manufactured, tested, and regulated for quality and consistency.

Portland cement specifications ASTM C150, “Standard Specification for Portland Cement,” outlines 10 cement types, five of which are generally regarded as the primary types of cement used in precast plants: Type I – Normal/General Purpose Type II – Moderate Sulfate Resistance Type III – High Early Strength Type IV – Low Heat of Hydration Type V – High Sulfate Resistance Type I Type I cement is considered a general, all-purpose cement and is used when the special properties of the other cement types are not required. Type II

Type II cement is specified in scenarios where the concrete product is required to exhibit increased resistance to sulfates. Concrete made with Type II cement can be useful for underground structures in areas where soil and groundwater contain moderate levels of sulfates, as well as in roadways, transportation products, and more.

  • Type III Type III cement offers expedited early-age strength development.
  • Because colder ambient temperatures can cause cement to hydrate slower, Type III cement is often used in cold weather concreting applications to expedite strength development in the early stages of cement hydration.
  • Type III cement is also beneficial when precasters cast the same form twice in one day.

Type IV Type IV cement generates less heat during hydration and curing than ordinary Type I portland cement. When conducting mass pours or casting large-volume concrete products, Type IV cement is often used to lessen the amount of heat generated and reduce the risk of flash setting or thermal shock.

Type IV cement’s ability to generate less heat during hydration is also beneficial in hot weather concreting applications where fresh concrete may cure at an expedited rate due to high ambient temperatures. Type V Type V cement is used in concrete products where extreme sulfate resistance is necessary.

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Coastal structures, piers, underwater tunnels, submerged structures, foundations, roadways and transportation products are all common applications for Type V cement.

How do you keep concrete from cracking in cold weather?

How to Prevent Concrete from Cracking in Cold Weather? – Sealing is one of the best ways to protect concrete surfaces from cracking during cold weather. However, you must do this before winter starts, so you can prevent extra moisture or water from seeping into the concrete pores.

Apply a high-quality acrylic sealer is an excellent way to protect concrete from cracking in the cold winter months. Repair concrete cracks require you to use a polyurethane sealant, allowing the concrete to move and shift without causing damages to the repair. Use a hammer and chisel to widen the cracks to about ¼ inches.

Use a brush to clean the debris from cracks and then fill the cracks with a quality sealant using a standard caulk gun. On the other hand, protecting concrete surfaces requires you to use a water-based acrylic sealer to make the surface waterproof and prevent spalling.

Start by using a pressure washer to clean the surface and remove all the dirt, salts, grease, and other bond inhibitors. When you apply the sealer on the surface, make sure you use a roller, brush, or garden sprayer. It is crucial to apply the sealer evenly on the concrete surface. You must apply a second coat two hours after the first application.

Moreover, you can use re-surfacer to transform old and worn sidewalks, patios, or driveways into new and durable concrete surfaces. Remember, this requires careful planning and preparation. You can start by cleaning the concrete surface to remove salts, greases, and dirt with a pressure washer.

Which cement is used in hot weather concreting?

Hot Weather Concreting Posted at 12:58h in by Durability of concrete structures are being widely discussed and deliberated across the globe amongst civil engineering fraternity in the last few decades. The costs towards repair and rehabilitation of concrete structures have been found to be in such high magnitude that the needs to construct durable structures have become imperative. Concrete/cementitious products have a similarity to Human beings in the sense that how a new born baby is being taken care so much by means of timely vaccinations and other protection measures during the first few years after birth, the same applies to taking care of the structures built of concrete / cement mortar during the initial hours/days after they are cast in the structure. In my experience in cement/ready mix concrete industry in South India last 19 years I have been seeing Plastic Shrinkage cracks in concrete being reported from lots of projects especially during the last decade or so. Hence the need to understand HOT WEATHER CONCRETING especially with respect to tropical and dry regions of our country. Hot weather may be defined as any period of high temperature in which special precautions need to be taken to ensure proper handling, placing, finishing and curing of concrete. Hot weather problems are mostly encountered in the summer but the associated climatic factors of high winds, relative humidity and solar radiation can occur at any time, especially in arid or tropical climates. Hot weather conditions can produce a rapid rate of evaporation of moisture from the surface of the concrete and accelerate setting time etc. Generally, high humidity tends to reduce the effects of hot weather in concreting. But then, what is hot weather concreting? The definition may vary from country to country. As per BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS IS:7861(Part I), ” Any operation of concreting done at atmospheric temperatures above 40 degree Celsius or any operation of concreting ( other than steam curing) where the temperature of concrete at time of its placement is expected to be beyond 40 degree Celsius is termed as HOT WEATHER CONCRETING “. We need to understand, foremost, the effect of hot weather on concrete, in the absence of special precautions, than concreting done at normal temperatures. The principal general effects of hot weather concreting are as follows: Accelerated setting: Cement Hydration results in setting and hardening of concrete. High temperature increases the hydration of cement resulting in faster setting which means the time available for workability (concrete in plastic state) of concrete is reduced. Hydration of cement also releases heat. Hence, faster the cement hydration faster the heat generation and this increases concrete temperature, further speeding up the cement hydration or setting. While initial strength may not suffer, the long term strength (> 28 days strength) is affected. This is the reason why hot weather concreting needs special care especially on finishing and curing of concrete. Reduction in strength: High temperatures necessitates addition of water at project site to enhance the workability of concrete and thereby reduction in concrete strength. It may also results in formation of cold joints in the structure cast.

  • Increased tendency to cracks: High temperatures, High wind velocity and low relative humidity can affect fresh concrete in two important ways: first, the high rate of evaporation may induce early plastic shrinkage cracks or cracks may be developed in the hardened concrete either by increased drying shrinkage resulting from greater mixing water used or by cooling of the concrete from its elevated initial temperature and secondly, the evaporation rate can remove surface water necessary for hydration and unless necessary curing practices done it may affect the cement hydration process in the initial stages resulting in lower concrete strengths.
  • Thermal cracking also may result from rapid drops in the temperature of the concrete, from hot weather during concreting and the night cooler temperature.
  • How to concrete in HOT WEATHER?
  • The Key to successful hot weather concreting is:
  • Recognition and understanding the factors that affect the concrete.
  • Planning and necessary precautions to minimize their effects.

We will now see some useful measures that need to be taken during hot weather concreting without compromising important parameters such as workability, strength, crack-free surface etc for better performance in the long run i.e. high durable concrete structures.

  • The first immediate solution for concreting in arid and hot weather /low humid regions is to pour concrete during early morning or late evening.
  • This may mitigate the bad effects to a large extent.
  • In case, if the concreting pour has to be done during the day, other precautionary measures as below could be undertaken for better results.

The foremost amongst the possible measures are to lower the temperature of the concrete ingredients before they are used for concrete mixing. Primarily, in case of cement, High early strength cements to be avoided unless initial high strength of concrete is required at site.

  • In that case, it is advisable to use cementitious materials like flyash/slag to reduce the heat of hydration.
  • But it is highly recommended to use BLENDED CEMENTS like Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) / Portland Slag Cement (PSC) in such cases not only from hot weather concrete point of view but also from overall DURABILITY OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES.

Aggregates may be protected from direct rays of the sun during concrete production by providing shades over the stockpiles. Sprinkling the stockpiles of coarse aggregates with water and keeping them moist is another option to be considered. Only precaution to be taken care is not to flood them so as to affect the moisture content considered during concrete mix design.

  • The mixing water has the greatest effect on temperature of concrete, since it has a specific heat of about 4 to 4.5 times that of cement or aggregate.
  • Hence chilled water or ice is preferred during concreting at high temperatures.
  • If at all ice is added to the mixing plant directly, it is added in the crushed state only and complete melting is to be ensured before mixing of concrete ingredients is complete.

In Hot weather condition the mix sets quicker and looses workability of slump faster due to rapid hydration and evaporation of water from the mix. This makes placing, compaction and finishing of concrete quite difficult leading to deterioration in the quality of concrete.

Addition of water to maintain workability / slump leads to drop in concrete strength. Use of chemical admixtures like water reducers / retarders helps in delaying the setting of concrete. These are used in lots of projects these days in India and worldwide (Arid and tropical climates). However, use of these chemical admixtures need to be carefully done as per manufacturers specifications and expert engineers advice.

We need to plan adequate manpower and machineries to complete the concrete pour at the shortest time possible during hot weather. The effect of mixer machine surface as well as transporting trucks exposed to the hot sun should be minimized by painting white or lighter colour and covered with wet burlaps to minimize the radiation effects.

  1. Also, it is advisable to minimize the time between water added during concrete mix and concrete pour to the minimum possible to negate the workability loss etc.
  2. The next important precautions to be taken are in PLACEMENT, FINISHING AND CURING of concrete during hot weather.
  3. Forms, Reinforcement and Sub-grade shall be sprinkled with cool water JUST prior to placement of concrete.
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Speed of placement and finishing helps to minimize problems in hot water concreting. Since hot weather leads to rapid drying of concrete, protection and curing has to be started immediately after surface is hardened enough. This can be in the form of covering the concrete surface with wet burlap, curing compounds or sprinkling of water initially.

  1. RMC’s in South India have found brooming of concrete and sprinkling of water immediately to be suitable practical solution in case plastic shrinkage cracks have been observed within couple of hours after concrete pour.
  2. Finally, once concrete cubes are casted for testing of the concrete for compressive strengths, adequate protection to be made for cube specimens from being exposed to direct sunlight or else evaporation of water in the cube will lead to lower compressive strength reported when tested for 7 days and 28 days.
  3. To summarize, adequate measures at every step involved in concreting from material storage, concrete mixing, transportation, placing, finishing, curing and concrete cube casting as mentioned above to be undertaken if done during HOT WEATHER for better and durable concrete.
  4. Penna Cement is one of the ‘s practicing the concrete mixing and cement manufacturing processes to produce the best cement grades for construction distributing and providing across cement dealers in New Delhi, Pune, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala with a great cement manufacturing footprint in South, North, East and West regions of India.

: Hot Weather Concreting

Why rapid hardening cement is used in cold weather?

Uses of Rapid Hardening Cement –

It is used where formwork has to be removed as early as possible in order to reuse it. It is used where high early strength is required. It is generally used for constructing road pavements, where it is important to open the road to traffic quickly. It is used in industries which manufacture concrete products like slabs, posts, electric poles, block fence, etc. because moulds can be released quickly. It is used for cold weather concreting because rapid evolution of heat during hydration protects the concrete against freezing.

What is hot and cold weather concreting?

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) defines cold weather concreting as, ‘ a period when the average daily ambient temperature is below (or expected to fall below) 40°F (5°C) for more than 3 successive days.

Does cement harden in cold weather?

Home > General Concrete Info > Cold Weather Concrete Tips Concrete can successfully placed, finished, and cured in cold weather or during the winter, but it requires an understanding of the impact of cold weather on the process of creating long-lasting concrete. Fresh and newly-hardened concrete both lose moisture and heat rapidly in cold-weather conditions. You must protect cold weather concrete against early freezing to ensure the development of the proper strength and how that may impact other construction projects that are waiting for the concrete to set and cure. Cold weather concreting brings special planning. To achieve a long life concrete product during placed during cold weather the production of aggregates, proper design of mixes, proper mixing and transporting, proper placing and finishing practices and special care in protection must be observed. Concrete can be placed, finished, and cured to its proper strength in cold weather conditions if sufficient planning and care are taken. Following are some tips that should help ensure your cold weather concrete project is completed successfully:

How long does cement need to cure in cold weather?

Maintaining Ideal Temperature – To protect concrete in cold weather, the concrete should be kept warm during the curing process—over 5˚C for the first 48 hours. Concrete strength development is critical during the first 48 hours. But if it is below 5˚C, concrete will take longer to develop its required strength.

  1. Ideally, you will maintain concrete temperatures above 10˚C (50˚F) for the first three to seven days.
  2. And for at least four more days after, maintain the concrete temperature above 4˚C (40˚F).
  3. Be careful not to let the concrete temperature drop more than 4˚C in 24 hours.
  4. Frost blankets and insulated formwork can help keep concrete warm enough and protect it from the cold.

So be sure to cover the concrete slab with a plastic sheet, and then cover the plastic sheet with insulating blankets. Concrete pouring in winter is possible. You just need to take the necessary precautions to ensure the concrete isn’t at risk of freezing, cracking, and not curing to its desired strength.

How long does cement take to cure in cold weather?

HOW TO USE CONCRETE CURING BLANKETS – For flatwork, the traditional, and still the best way, to protect concrete from the cold is to cover it with blankets after it’s been finished. Since the ground is a bit warmer and the concrete generates its own heat, blankets will keep it warm even if the temperature goes below 20°F. Buy concrete curing blankets on Amazon, A few things to think about are:

Typically, you only need to keep the blankets on for a couple of days, if the concrete is warmer than 50°F. If you want to make sure of that, check the concrete temperature using an infrared temperature gun, or use maturity methods. Maturity is a way to determine if the concrete has gained enough strength to be on its own and it relies on the combination of time and temperature. Learn more about the maturity method (PDF), To determine how much insulating value you need to keep the concrete at 50°F, check out the tables in Chapter 7 of ACI 306. The insulation needed is based on concrete thickness, cement content, and the lowest air temperature anticipated for the protection period. Place triple layers of insulating blankets at corners and edges that could freeze. Wrap any protruding rebars. Make sure the blankets won’t blow off during the night. If blankets alone aren’t enough to keep the slab warm (or the walls for formed concrete) then you can use hydronic heating pipes or electric heating blankets laid on top of the slab and insulated. If the concrete is kept at around 50°F, protection can typically be removed after two days. If the concrete remains at 50°F, depending on what kind of cement is used and how much accelerator, you should wait a couple of weeks-better to wait 4 weeks-before actually putting it into service. You can always test to determine the strength if it’s essential. Removing the blankets suddenly in cold weather can cause a temperature differential to build up between the outside of the concrete and its middle. This can cause cracking from the thermal differential, but typically only in thicker members.

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Can you use PVC cement in cold weather?

This is PVC All Weather Cement and can be used in temperatures as cold as -15 F and diameters of up to 6 inch pipe. The regular PVC Cement is rated to temperatures as low as 40 F and diameters of 4 inch pipe.

Does PVC cement cure cold weather?

Oatey® PVC All Weather Medium Bodied Fast Set Clear Cement is recommended for potable water, drain, waste and vent applications. It is formulated to perform in all weather conditions from -15°F to 110°F and applies easily with included in-lid dauber.

What to add in cement to prevent it from cracking?

How to prevent cracks in concrete? – Concrete is a perennial favorite of DIYers as well as contractors. But only when it’s processed and poured correctly that it holds the look and strength, it’s supposed to. One mistake, and it’ll be risked to unsightly and significant cracking in just a few years.

So fear not, we have simple, doable solutions for you. Just follow these pro tips, and you’ll end up with excellent results. Base prep The concrete slab will only be as good as the base it’s being poured on. If the base isn’t sturdy and compacted, it’s likely to be soft, moving, and lacking support. This will lead to cracking.

The tip here is to start by preparing the foundation so the concrete can set adequately and not create a void after settling. Not too much water Water is essential to the concrete mix, but adding too much of it worsens the concrete’s consistency. There’s always an ideal water-to-cement ratio that helps produce uniformity.

  1. Too much water results in shrinkage cracks as the concrete cures.
  2. As an example, where concrete pumps are involved, and the operators are inexperienced, they may add extra water through the line, especially if it’s been held up for long.
  3. Plus, if there are significant delays and the concrete starts curing, cracks are bound to emerge.

Reducing wind exposure One way that leads to quick drying of the concrete base is exposure to fast and violent winds, especially when it’s curing. So you must either block these winds with the help of barriers or use spray-on anti-evaporation products to ensure the base doesn’t come off quickly.

This will also prevent the surface from cracking. Proper curing While concrete takes more than 20 days to cure, the first few days (at least 7 to 10 days) after pouring are the most critical. The biding agent of concrete i.e., cement, needs to retain moisture to gain its strength. So if the moisture evaporates gradually, you’re less likely to witness any cracks or early deterioration.

Spray it with water every few hours in a day, and the project will be much more durable. Once the mix gets old, concrete has cured enough and won’t be affected by extreme temperature or pressure. Reinforcement Concrete is quite firm on its own. But you can enhance its intensity even more.

  1. How? By adding steel reinforcements before pouring the ready mix concrete,
  2. It isn’t complicated, rather a vital step to advance the slab’s strength while reducing any cracks.
  3. Adding control joints These are necessary for the slab to not be affected by the movement of soil beneath or shrinkage.
  4. So intentionally creating weak spots, about a quarter depth of the slab will rarely form any future cracks in these areas.

Remember, if a crack develops on your concrete surface, not everything’s lost! You can quickly and confidently get the cracks repaired.

What do you add to concrete so it doesn’t freeze?

Cold Weather Concreting – Winter Concrete Mix Find Products & Manufacturers Find out what happens to concrete if it freezes and how to get the perfect cold weather concrete mix There are two main problems with pouring concrete in cold winter weather:

Concrete can freeze before it gains strength which breaks up the matrix Concrete sets more slowly when it is cold—very slow below 50°F; below 40°F the hydration reaction basically stops and the concrete doesn’t gain strength

But these are concrete temperatures not air temperatures. So when it’s cold, we need to protect the concrete until it can handle the cold on its own. The general rule is that once the concrete has gained strength to about 500 psi then it’s OK. The magical thing that happens is that at almost the same time that the concrete achieves 500 psi compressive strength, hydration of the cement has consumed enough of the water in the original mix so that even if it does freeze, there’s not enough water left in the pores to damage the concrete.

To help it reach that 500 psi strength, then, there are two things we can do in cold weather: Change the mix to get it to set more quickly or protect the concrete from the cold—or more likely, both. Changes to Concrete Mix During Cold Weather Many of the problems with cold weather can be overcome by the ready mix producer. Here are a few things to keep in mind:

Hot water—Your producer will usually have, and use, hot water in the concrete when the weather turns cold. Most producers will try to have the concrete be at least 65°F when it leaves the plant, which is generally good enough depending on air temperature and thickness of the concrete element. Specify the slump at less than 4 inches and use air entrained concrete to reduce bleeding. Accelerators—Since colder weather leads to colder concrete, the set time can be delayed. Accelerators added to the concrete can keep it on schedule. Addition of 2% (by weight of cement) of calcium chloride is the traditional way to accelerate the hydration reaction—it is very effective and reasonably cheap. But—a big but—that much chloride can lead to corrosion of any steel embedded in the concrete (like rebar) and it can lead to a mottled surface appearance with colored concrete (see ). Nonchloride accelerators are widely available and are very effective. They won’t discolor the concrete but they are a bit expensive. Don’t make the mistake of thinking that accelerators are anti-freeze agents—they are not, they simply increase the rate of the hydration reaction. Fly ash—You should typically stay away from using fly ash or slag cement in cold weather, since those materials set up more slowly and generate less internal heat; slag can cause the same effect. To make the reaction a bit hotter, the ready mix producer can add some extra cement (typically an extra 100 pounds per cubic yard) or can use Type III (high-early strength) cement, which hydrates more rapidly. Be careful with water reducers in cold weather, since they can slow the set time. Besides, you seldom need water reduction with cooler concrete since the cooler temperatures prevent slump loss.

For admixtures added at the job site, don’t use them if they have frozen. The chemicals may have separated. Featured Products : Cold Weather Concreting – Winter Concrete Mix

Can quikrete be used in cold weather?

The ideal placement temperature for QUIKRETE® concrete products is 70 ºF, but it may be placed at temperatures between 50 to 90 ºF. Below 50 ºF (but above 32 ºF), cold weather precautions must be taken to promote proper curing.

Can you pour cement in 40 degree weather?

What Temperature is Best for Pouring Concrete? – As we learned above temperature does affect concrete curing but what temperature is too cold to pour concrete? What about too hot? The ideal temperature range for pouring concrete is 40 to 60 degrees over a 24-hour period.

Does PVC cement cure cold weather?

Oatey® PVC All Weather Medium Bodied Fast Set Clear Cement is recommended for potable water, drain, waste and vent applications. It is formulated to perform in all weather conditions from -15°F to 110°F and applies easily with included in-lid dauber.