Hardness test of Bricks A soundness brick test is conducted by striking two bricks together. The striking of brick should emit a ringing sound. It can be tested by the fall of brick. A good quality brick should not break, when made to fall flat on hard ground, from a height of about 1 m.
- 1 Which instrument is used to determine bricks?
- 2 What is brick and blanket test?
- 3 Why slump test is done?
- 4 Which instrument is used for soundness test?
How many types of brick testing are there?
Introduction for Tests on Brick – Bricks are commonly used in the construction of various types of Structures, Bricks are one of the basic material which is commonly used for the construction of the walls, Bricks should be checked and tested on-site before using them for construction purposes,
- It is very necessary that the bricks should pass all the required criteria given by the Indian Standards,
- As a civil engineer, you should know the various tests on bricks which are used to check the quality of bricks,
- In this article, we will go through the various tests on bricks.
- Bricks are artificially constructed with the help of clay,
It is very important that bricks should go through various tests to know it’s suitability in the construction work, There are basically two types of tests are conducted on the bricks which are the laboratory tests and field Tests, The Laboratory Tests are those which are carried out in the lab with the help of various instruments and types of machinery.
A detailed report is made on the tests which are carried out in the laboratory. The Tests which are carried out in the lab are the crushing strength test on bricks, water absorption test, porosity test on bricks, efflorescence test on bricks, and the dimensional stability test. Field Tests also play an important role which is very helpful to check the bricks quality present on the site.
The one the best part of the field test on the bricks that it gives faster results. Also, Read: 20 Types of Plumbing Pipes for Different Use
How is hardness of brick tested?
How is the hardness of brick tested? Explanation: Brick is scratched using finger nail. If there are no visible scratches made on the brick surface, it is said to be sufficiently hard.
Which instrument is used to determine bricks?
Free CT 1: Building Materials (Building Stones) 10 Questions 10 Marks 7 Mins Explanation:
|Mason’s square||It is an instrument, which is useful for checking the right angles, With the help of this tool, we can verify the accuracy of the two corners to get the standard reference of 90°.|
|Mason’s line||It is also called Mason’s twine, which is used to create straight lines and a level surface, It is needed when laying out posts, patios, footings, and more.|
|Mason’s level||It is used, when establishing vertical or Plumb lines and horizontal or level lines. This tool is preferred by most masons since it can use to measure vertical and horizontal measurements.|
|Straight edge||These tools act as extensors to the mason’s level. They are used, when levels are shorter than the area that needs to be measured.|
Other tools that are used in brick masonry construction: Brick Hammer: Used for cutting bricks, also for pushing the bricks in courses. Trowel: Used for lifting and spreading mortar; also for cutting bricks. Spirit Level: Used, with a straight edge, for getting horizontal surface; also used for leveling.
- Plumb rule: Used for checking verticality of brick walls.
- Line and Pins: Used for maintaining alignment of courses.
- Scutch: Used for cutting soft bricks and dressing out surfaces.
- Bolster: Used for accurate cutting of bricks.
- Jointer: Used for pointing the joints.
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What is soundness test cement?
In the soundness test a specimen of hardened cement paste is boiled for a fixed time so that any tendency to expand is speeded up and can be detected. Soundness means the ability to resist volume expansion.
What is brick and blanket test?
A Brick and A Blanket So you say what do a brick and a blanket have in common? Absolutely nothing! But if you read the mind-altering book by Malcolm Gladwell, you would know that there is some commonality after all. Gladwell after all alerts his readers that divergence tests are best for measuring one’s imagination and allowing to take your mind in as many different directions as possible.
Bottom line: Divergence tests are a great measurement of creativity. Now if I give you the test, you can either do it fair and square or you can cheat and read what others have blogged before. Gladwell speaks a bit about this because us humans have a curious nature. But you will be the loser if you look before you answer! Here is the test and it’s very simple: Write down as many uses as possible that you can think of for a brick and then a blanket.
Try not to spend more than two minutes on each and be honest in your approach. This is not an exercise in right or wrong or anything tricky; just write down what comes naturally. After posting your answers, then read the others and see how you compare and which ones others agreed upon.
What is compressive strength test of brick?
🕑 Reading time: 1 minute Compressive strength test on bricks are carried out to determine the load carrying capacity of bricks under compression with the help of compression testing machine. Bricks are generally used for construction of load bearing masonry walls, columns and footings.
What are the 3 tests used to test hardness?
Indentation testing – There are a number of different methods of testing the hardness of a material through indentation. The three most commonly used are the Brinell test, the Vicker’s Diamond test, and the Rockwell test. All three methods involve indentation of the material.
- Vickers Brinell Rockwell
- (diamond) (ball) (cone)
- Hold your mouse over the image to see the indentations that result from the three different tests.
- When hardness indentation testing is done on an actual component it is often necessary to blend (grind) out the indentation to remove the stress concentration it produces
: Hardness testing | School of Materials Science and Engineering – UNSW Sydney
Which test is best for hardness?
1. Rockwell Hardness Testers – Rockwell hardness testers are the most commonly used of all the types of hardness testers. The Rockwell method offers a quick and accurate measure of hardness on almost all metals and some plastics (see Rockwell scales below). INNOVATEST FENIX 200 DCL Rockwell Bench Hardness Tester The wide range of scales used within the Rockwell method (30 in total!) makes it suitable for many applications. However, despite its versatility, it does lack practicality when measuring smaller objects, for which other types of hardness testers are needed.
Is code of brick test?
(3) Efflorescence Test ( ISS 1077-1970 ) (i) Take five bricks at randomly. (ii) Place each brick on end in a separate shallow flat bottom dish containing distilled water. Note that depth of immersion of bricks should not be less than 2.5 cm in each case.
How do you test for soundness?
10.2.2.2 Soundness – Soundness is the percentage loss of material from an aggregate blend during the sodium or magnesium sulfate soundness test. This test, which is specified in ASTM C88 and AASHTO T104, estimates the resistance of aggregate to in-service weathering.
It can be performed on both coarse and fine aggregate. The test is performed by exposing an aggregate sample to repeated immersions in saturated solutions of sodium or magnesium sulfate followed by oven drying. One immersion and drying is considered one soundness cycle. During the drying phase, slats precipitate in the permeable void space of the aggregate.
Upon reimmersion, slat rehydrates and exerts internal expansive forces that simulate the expansive forces of freezing water. The rest result is total percentage loss over various sieve intervals for a required number of cycles. Maximum loss values typically range from 10% to 20% for five cycles.
Why slump test is done?
United States – In the United States, engineers use the C94, standard specification for ready-mixed concrete, and specifications, address clump tolerances in detail. For diverse forms of concrete construction, different slumps are required. For example: for walls, slumps typically range from 4-in to 8-in.
The American standards explicitly state that the slump cone should have a height of 12-in (300 mm), a bottom diameter of 8-in (200 mm) and an upper diameter of 4-in (100 mm). The soft SI conversions provided in the standard allow using the same dimension slump cones as those described in other standards.
The ASTM standards also regulate the rigidity of the cone. It states in the procedure that when the cone is removed, it should be lifted up vertically, without any rotational movement at all. The concrete slump test is known as “Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete” and carries the code (ASTM C 143) or (AASHTO T 119).
Which instrument is used for soundness test?
Free RSMSSB JE General Knowledge Free Mock Test 10 Questions 10 Marks 8 Mins Explanation: Expansion of cement is measured/computed by soundness test. Soundness means the ability to resist volume expansion and it is indication durability. The unsoundness in cement is due to the presence of an excess of free lime than that could be combined with acidic oxide at the kiln.
The Le-Chatelier test detects unsoundness due to free Lime only. This method of testing does not indicate the presence and after effect of the excess of magnesia. As per Indian Standard specification, if the content of magnesia is greater than 3% in cement then Autoclave Test is performed which is sensitive to both Lime and Magnesia.
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What is the importance of field test of bricks?
2. Visual Inspection – In this test bricks are closely inspected for its shape. The bricks of good quality should be uniform in shape and should have truly rectangular shape with sharp edges.
What are the brick grades?
Types of Brick – There are several types of bricks to use, depending on the project.
Building Brick: Cored structural bricks, the ones with holes, are for construction. The holes are there to save material and reduce weight. Face Brick: These are the solid bricks that face the outside of your building. They’re available in various colors, sizes and shapes. Firebrick: This type of brick is heat-resistant and made for fireplace or heat-sensitive construction. Brick Pavers : To be used for sidewalks, patios and edging. Antique or Tumbled Brick: Instantly achieve the impression of antiquity with vintage-style brick texture. Brick Veneer : Non-load-bearing interlocking brick siding (about 1/2 inch thick); requires no mortar. These are available for interior or exterior use.
There are three grades of brick to choose from:
Severe Weathering (SW): Able to experience freeze and thaw cycles; perfect for cold climates Moderate Weathering (MW): Tolerance to frost and freezing; used for outdoor walls No Weathering (NW): For indoor use only
There are multiple factors to consider when determining the cost of a brick project. Although these will vary according to the details of your project, here are some of the main ones:
Whether you’re using real building brick versus brick veneers, also known as brick panels. Whether you’re laying the brick yourself or hiring a professional. The size of your home, as this will determine how much brick you’ll need to buy.
Determining how much brick costs per square foot can be challenging because there are many types of brick or brick-like products to choose from. Solid brick, for example, can run you almost double the cost of brick veneer. If affordability is your main objective, opt for brick veneer siding which offers the same look as real brick at a more economical price.
Is 3495 Methods of testing of bricks?
Immerse completely dried specimen in clean water at a temperature of 27 f 2°C for 24 hours. Remove the specimen and wipe out any traces of water with a damp cloth and weigh the specimen. Complete the weighing 3 minutes after the speci- men has been removed from water ( Mz ).
How do you test a solid block?
By Er. Kaushal Kishore, Materials Engineer, Roorkee INTRODUCTION Concrete can be converted into precast masonry units such as Hollow and Solid normal and light weight concrete blocks of suitable size to be used for load and non-load bearing units for wallings.
Use of such concrete blocks are more appropriate in region where soil bricks are costly, poor in strength and are not available. Depending upon the structural requirements of masonry unit, concrete mixes can be designed using ingredients available locally or if not found suitable then with in the most economical distance.
The concrete mix used for normal hollow and solid blocks shall not be richer than one part by volume of cement to 6 parts by volume of combined room dry aggregates before mixing. Hollow concrete blocks for normal work used in masonry when reinforced is used shall not be leaner than 1 part cement to 8 parts room dry sand by volume.
- The mixes are designed with the available materials to give overall economy and the required properties of the products.
- The hollow load bearing concrete blocks of the standard size 400 x 200 x 200 mm will weight between 17 and 26 kg (1063 to 1625 kg/m3) when made with normal weight aggregates.
- Normal weight blocks are made with cement, sand, gravel, crushed stone and air-cooled slag.
The grading for sand used in Hollow concrete block shall be as given below:
|I.S. Sieve Size||Percentage Passing|
The aggregates for solid blocks shall be sand as per IS : 383-1970 and well graded aggregate of suitable maximum size as per the dimensions of the block. The mixes are properly designed as per standard practice. Concrete admixtures may be used in both Hollow and Solid concrete blocks.
- SPECIMENS 20 full size units shall be measured for length, width and height.
- Cored units shall also be measured for minimum thickness of face, shells and webs.
- From these 3 blocks are to be tested for block density, 8 blocks for compressive strength, 3 blocks for water absorption and 3 blocks for drying shrinkage and moisture movement.
Advertisements DETERMINATION OF BLOCK DENSITY Three blocks shall be dried to constant mass in a suitable oven heated to approximately 1000C. After cooling the blocks to room temperature, the dimensions of each block shall be measured in centimeters to the nearest millimeter and the overall volume computed in cubic centimeters.
- The blocks shall then be weighted in kilograms to the nearest 10 gm.
- The density of each block calculated as follows: Density in kg/m 3 = Mass of block in kg / Mass of block in cm 2 * 10 6 DETERMINATION OF WATER ABSORPTION Three full size blocks shall be completely immersed in clean water at room temperature for 24 hours.
The blocks shall then be removed from the water and allowed to drain for one minute by placing them on a 10 mm or coarser wire mesh, visible surface water being removed with a damp cloth, the saturated and surface dry blocks immediately weighed. After weighing all blocks shall be dried in a ventilated oven at 100 to 1150C for not less than 24 hours and until two successive weighing at intervals of 2 hours show an increment of loss not greater than 0.2 percent of the last previously determined mass of the specimen.
The water absorption calculates as given below: Absorption, percent =(A-B)/B * 100 Where, A = wet mass of unit in kg. B = dry mass of unit in kg. TESTING BLOCKS FOR COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH COMPRESSIN TESTING MACHINE (CTM) The compression testing machine should be as per IS : 516-1959 and I.S : 14858-2000.
The load capacity, platens sizes, vertical space between platens and horizontal space between machine columns shall be as per the requirements of the specimens to be tested. However, IS : 2185 (pert-I) – 1979 specified that when the bearing area of the steel blocks is not sufficient to cover the bearings area of the blocks, steel bearing plates shall be placed between the bearing blocks and the capped specimen after the centroid of the masonry bearing surface has been aligned with the centre of thrust of the bearing blocks.
It is desirable that the bearing faces of blocks and plates used for compression testing of concrete masonry have hardness of not less than 60 (HRC). When steel plates are employed between the steel bearing blocks and the masonry specimen, the plates shall have thickness equal to at least one-third of the distance from the edge of the bearing block to the most distant corner of the specimen.
In no case shall the plate thickness be less than 12 mm. Advertisements ASTM : C 140-03 specified that when the bearing area of the upper platen or lower platen is not sufficient to cover the area of the specimen, a single steel bearing plate with a thickness equal to at least the distance from the edge of the platen to the most distant corner of the specimen shall be placed between the platen and the capped specimen.
- The length and width of the steel plate shall be at least 6.3 mm grater than the length and width of the unit.
- The surface of the platen or plate hardness shall be not less than HRC 60 (BHN 620).
- Thickness of bearing plates has a significant effect on the tested compressive strength of masonry units when the bearing area of the platen is not sufficient to cover the area of the specimen.
Tested compressive strength will typically increase with increased plate thickness and with reduce distance to the further corner of the specimen. Accordingly the CTM platens shall have the required dimensions with respect to the specimens to be tested on it.
- TEST SPECIMENS Eight full size units shall be tested with in 72 hours after delivery to the laboratory, during which time they shall be stored continuously in normal room air.
- For the purpose of acceptance, age of testing the specimens shall be 28 days.
- The age shall be reckoned from the time of the addition of water to the dry ingredients.
CAPPING TEST SPECIMENS The bearing surfaces of units shall be capped by gypsem. The gypsem and water paste shall be spread evenly on a non-absorbent surface that has been lightly coated with oil. The surface of the unit to be capped shall be brought into contact with the capping paste.
- The average thickness of the cap shall be not more than 3 mm.
- The caps shall be aged for at least 2 hours before the specimens are tested.
- PROCEDURE Specimens shall be tested with the centroid of their bearing surfaces aligned vertically with the centre of thrust of the spherically seated steel bearing blocks of the testing machine.
The load up to one-half of the expected maximum load may be applied at any convenient rate, after which the control of the machine shall be adjusted as required to give a uniform rate of travel of the moving head such that the remaining load is applied in not less than one nor more than two minutes.
The compressive strength of a concrete masonry unit shall be taken as the maximum load in Newtones divided by the gross cross sectional area of the unit in square millimeters. Report to the nearest 0.1 N/mm2 separately for each unit and the average for the 8 full units. Note:- The Gross area is : The total area occupied by a block on its bedding face, including areas of the cavities and end recesses.
Advertisements REFERENCES 1.IS : 2185 (part-I)1979 1987 1998 – Specifications for concrete masonry. Units part-I Hollow and Solid Concrete Blocks (Second Revision).2. IS : 2185 (part-II)- 1985 Super seeding IS : 3590-1966 Specifications for concrete masonry units part-II Hollow and Solid light weight concrete blocks (First Revision) 3.
IS : 2572-1963 Reaffirmed 1997 Code of practice for construction of hollow concrete block masonry.4. IS : 383-1970 Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete (Second Revision) 5. ASTM : C 140-03 Standard test methods for sampling and testing concrete masonry units and related units.
We are thankful to Sir Kaushal Kishore for publishing his unpublished research paper here on the website. This would be of great use to all the civil engineers who work are looking for information regarding Testing of Concrete Blocks,