The construction of the Qutub Minar was started by Qitub-ud-Din Aibak, but he only constructed the basement. The construction of the tower was later taken over by his successor Iltutmish who constructed three more stories. The last two storeys were completed Firoz Shah Tuglak.
- 1 Did Alauddin Khilji Repair Qutub Minar?
- 2 Who destroyed Qutub Minar?
- 3 Who died in Qutub Minar?
- 4 Who is the founder of Qutub?
- 5 Who built the iron pillar?
- 6 Why Qutub Minar is rusted?
- 7 Who started and who completed the construction of Qutub Minar for Class 7?
- 8 Who completed the construction of Qutub Minar at Delhi MCQS?
Who had completed the construction of Qutub Minar?
|Started in 1199 by Qutb ud-Din Aibak / completed in ~ 1220 by his son-in-law Iltutmish
Did Alauddin Khilji Repair Qutub Minar?
The first floor of the Qutub Minar was constructed by Qutubuddin Aibak. The rest of its floors were constructed by Iltutmish. It was repaired by Alauddin Khalji, Firuz Shah Tughluq, Muhammad Tughluq, and Ibrahim Lodi whenever it was damaged by earthquakes or lightning.
When was Qutub Minar destroyed?
WHAT IS THE CASE? – In November 2021, a civil court had rejected petitions filed on Behalf of the Jain Tirthankara Rishabh Dev and Lord Vishnu, to restore the “27 Hindu and Buddhist temples” that had been demolished in 1192 AD to make the Quwwatul Islam mosque in the Qutb Minar complex in South Delhi.
- The appeals against the civil judge verdict were heard before the bench of Additional District Judge Nikhil Chopra on Tuesday.
- The petitioner is also seeking permission to worship at the complex.
- The Qutb Minar controversy erupted after and not by Qutub al-Din Aibak, to study the direction of the sun.
It was also claimed that idols of Hindu deities had been found in the complex and the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque was built with materials obtained after demolishing 27 Hindu-Jain temples.
Who destroyed Qutub Minar?
Qutb Minar – Qutb Minar and Alai Darwaza (Alai Gate), the entrance to the Quwwat-Ul-Islam Mosque The Qutb Minar is inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan, it is an important example of early Afghan architecture, which later evolved into Indo-Islamic Architecture,
- The Qutb Minar is 72.5 metres (239 ft) high, making it the tallest minaret in the world built of bricks.
- It has five distinct storeys, each marked by a projecting balcony carried on muqarnas corbel and tapers from a diameter 14.3 metres at the base to 2.7 metres at the top, which is 379 steps away.
- It is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with surrounding buildings and monuments.
Built as a Victory Tower, to celebrate the victory of Muhammad Ghori over the Rajput king, Prithviraj Chauhan, in 1192 AD, by his then viceroy, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, later the first Sultan of Mamluk dynasty, Its construction also marked the beginning of Muslim rule in India,
It was built using red sandstone and marble. Inscriptions record that 27 Hindu and Jain temples were torn down and used for its creation. Even today the Qutb remains one of the most important “Towers of Victory” in the Islamic world. Aibak however, could only build the first storey, for this reason the lower storey is replete with eulogies to Muhammad Ghori,
The next three floors were added by his son-in-law and successor, Iltutmish, The minar was first struck by lightning in 1368 AD, which knocked off its top storey, after that it was replaced by the existing two floors by Firoz Shah Tughlaq, a later Sultan of Delhi from 1351 to 1388, and faced with white marble and sandstone enhancing the distinctive variegated look of the minar, as seen in lower three storeys.
- Thus the structure displays a marked variation in architectural styles from Aibak to that of Tughlaq dynasty,
- The inside has intricate carvings of the verses from the Quran.
- The minar made with numerous superimposed flanged and cylindrical shafts in the interior, and fluted columns on the exterior, which have a 40 cm thick veneer of red and buff coloured sandstone; all surrounded by bands of intricate carving in Kufic style of Islamic calligraphy, giving the minar the appearance of bundled reeds.
It stands just outside the Quwwatul mosque, and an Arabic inscription suggests that it might have been built to serve as a place for the muezzin, to call the faithfuls for namaz, Also marking a progression in era, is the appearance of inscriptions in a bold and cursive Thuluth script of calligraphy on the Qutb Minar, distinguished by strokes that thicken on the top, as compared to Kufic in earlier part of the construction.
- Inscriptions also indicate further repairs by Sultan Sikander Lodi in 1503, when it was struck by lightning once again.
- In 1802, the cupola on the top was thrown down and the whole pillar was damaged by an earthquake.
- It was repaired by Major R.
- Smith of the Royal Engineers who restored the Qutub Minar in 1823 replacing the cupola with a Bengali-style chhatri which was later removed by Governor General, Lord Hardinge in 1848, as it looked out of place, and now stands in the outer lawns of the complex, popularly known as Smith’s Folly,
After an accident involving school children, entry to the Qutub Minar is closed to public since 1981, while Qutub archaeological area remains open for public. In 2004, Seismic monitors were installed on the minar, which revealed in 2005 Delhi earthquake, no damage or substantial record of shakes.
Who died in Qutub Minar?
Even as a one-man committee visited Qutub Minar on December 5, an element of mystery was added to the tragedy with the Delhi Municipal Corporation claiming that there was no power breakdown in the area during the time of the tragedy. (File) What happened at the Qutub on December 4 beggars description.
The tragic deaths, of children in particular, have been mourned by the nation. Forty-five people, most of them children, had been killed in a stampede of panic stricken people when a power failure turned the historic monument into a tower of fear. Even as a one-man committee visited Qutub Minar on December 5, an element of mystery was added to the tragedy with the Delhi Municipal Corporation claiming that there was no power breakdown in the area during the time of the tragedy.
A municipal corporation press release did admit that a truck collided with an electric pole leading to a power breakdown in the Katwaria Sarai area. But it said this happened two hours before the tragedy. Some of the visitors did say that the lights had been deliberately switched off by hoodlums.
Why was Qutub Minar closed for 40 years?
NEW DELHI: Years ago, Friday used to be the busiest day of the week at Delhi’s Qutub Minar because entry was free and schools and colleges brought their students to picnic in the morning. On December 4, 1981, a Friday, the Qutub grounds were abuzz with tourists and there was a crowd at the minar door trying to get inside. While public access to the minar’s top had been stopped in the 1950s, to prevent suicides, tourists were still allowed to go up to the first balcony, which is roughly as high as a 10-storey building. By 11am busloads of tourists were inside the spiral staircase that leads up to the balcony.
Around 11.30am – reports from that day say – the power supply tripped and the lights inside went out. The minar has large vents at regular intervals for air and light, but as scared visitors sought safety close to the staircase wall, they cut out the daylight. Then, as the crowd tried to exit desperately, a stampede occurred.
Within minutes, dozens of people lay dead and injured in the darkness. Anil Kumar, a student of Delhi’s Aurobindo College at the time, was inside the minar with seven of his friends when the stampede occurred. He told TOI they were descending the dark stairs in a single file when they suddenly “found themselves sliding down uncontrollably”.
He survived with chest injuries. Trapped behind jammed doors The minar gate had heavy steel doors that opened inwards. As the number of people inside swelled, the chowkidar had pulled the doors shut. But when hundreds of people tried to barge outside at once, the doors jammed against the frame. Rescuers couldn’t enter through the gate because of the mass of people behind it.
Luckily, a scaffolding had been built behind the minar to carry out repairs, and local hawkers and tourist guides used it to enter the minar through the vents. They extricated many survivors and bodies over an hour. By the time police and the fire brigade arrived, the dead had been laid out in the Qutub lawns and the injured rushed to AIIMS and Safdarjung hospitals in the tourist buses that had brought them in the morning.
At 3.30pm, then home minister Giani Zail Singh informed Lok Sabha that 45 persons had been killed and 21 injured. A team of 12 doctors formed to do the autopsies finished its work around 1.30am on December 5. They said most of the deaths were due to suffocation and trampling, not bleeding. Few bodies had external injuries.
What caused the stampede? Survivors that day gave different accounts of what had happened. Some said a group of unruly boys had misbehaved with women tourists in the dark, and the stampede started when those women tried to rush downstairs. Others said someone had slipped in the dark and set off a chain reaction while trying to regain balance.
Next day, Delhi Police denied receiving any complaint of molestation, but news reports from the time say two tourists from New Zealand, Jackie and Marie, had alleged they were molested. One of them was seen leaving the Qutub compound wearing a borrowed lungi and shirt. Later, district and sessions judge Jagdish Chandra’s inquiry report in the case also made a mention of their harassment.
Overcrowding was an old problem in the minar, especially on holidays. There had been another stampede on August 15, 1978 when a man had fainted from suffocation in the packed staircase. Twelve people were injured that day, six of them seriously. After the December 1981 tragedy, education minister Sheila Kaul told Lok Sabha a system of crowd-control had been in place since the 1950s, when tickets were introduced at the Qutub.
- There are 155 steps up to the first balcony, so 300 visitors were allowed in at a time.
- They walked up single-file, looked around from the balcony, which had space for 40-50 persons, and then descended singlefile.
- When 50 visitors exited the tower, 50 more were sent inside.
- Ensuring that the tourists ascended and descended the steps – which are about 5 feet wide at the base and narrow to 4 feet at the balcony – in an orderly double spiral was crucial for safety, but on Fridays and other holidays this was impossible.
By some accounts, more than 500 people were inside the minar on December 4, 1981. ‘Qutub is falling’ Just as the police denied reports of molestation, the Delhi municipal corporation at first said there had been no power outage at the minar between 10.50am and 12.30pm on December 4.
- A truck had dashed against an electricity pole, tripping power at 9.15am, but supply had been restored by 10.50am, it said.
- But the Chandra Commission report found power failure to be one of the major causes of the tragedy, and held Delhi Electricity Supply Undertaking (DESU) responsible for it.
- The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) was held equally culpable for the “very bad and dangerous condition” of the steps, which had “dangerous depressions and contours” because they had never been repaired, it said.
The inquiry commission concluded that the stampede had occurred when a girl – not one of the New Zealand tourists – slipped near the minar’s 8th ventilator and some boys raised a false alarm: “Qutub is falling.go down, go down.”
Who is the founder of Qutub?
The founder was Qulī Quṭb Shah, a Turkish governor of the Bahmanī eastern region, which largely coincided with the preceding Hindu state of Warangal. Quṭb Shah declared his independence in 1518 and moved his capital to Golconda.
What is inside Qutub Minar?
Frequently Asked Questions About Qutub Minar: – Q: When was Qutub Minar built? A: The construction of Qutub Minar was started by Qutub-ud-Din Aibak in 1193; however, it was given the final shape by Firoz Shah Tughlaq in the year 1368. Q: Who built Qutub Minar? A: The Minar was built by Qutbu’d-Din Aibak in 1199 AD.
- Q: What’s the height of Qutub Minar? A: Qutub Minar has a soaring height of over 73 metres or 240 feet.
- Q: Where is Qutub Minar located? A: Qutub Minar is located in the Mehrauli area of New Delhi.
- Q: What is inside Qutub Minar? A: The Qutub tower has 397 steps across 5 distinct storeys (each featuring a balcony supported by intricate brackets).
Besides, the Qutub complex has a mosque – Quwwat Ul Islam (Light of Islam), a rust-proof Iron Pillar, and Ala’i Darwaza, a domed gateway to the mosque. Q: Is Qutub Minar open at night? A: In an initiative to increase night tourism, the opening timing of Qutub Minar has been extended to 10 PM on all days.
Who built the iron pillar?
|The Iron pillar of Delhi
|Wikimedia | © OpenStreetMap
|28°31′28.76″N 77°11′6.25″E / 28.5246556°N 77.1850694°E Coordinates : 28°31′28.76″N 77°11′6.25″E / 28.5246556°N 77.1850694°E
|Qutb complex at Mehrauli in Delhi, India
|7.21 m (23 ft 8 in)
The iron pillar of Delhi is a structure 7.21 metres (23 feet 8 inches) high with a 41-centimetre (16 in) diameter that was constructed by Chandragupta II (reigned c.375–415 AD), and now stands in the Qutb complex at Mehrauli in Delhi, India. It is famous for the rust-resistant composition of the metals used in its construction.
Did Qutub Minar have 7 floors?
The Qutub Minar has five storeys. The first floor was constructed by Qutubuddin Aibak. And rest of the floors have been constructed by Iltutmish.
Why Qutub Minar is rusted?
Rust-Free Iron from Ancient India – Australasian Corrosion Association In the courtyard of a ruined mosque at the Qutub Minar complex not far from Delhi’s Indira Gandhi International Airport in northern India, stands a pillar of iron that has remained rust-free since it was fabricated in ~400 A.D.
- The 6-ton pillar was originally forged and erected in central India during the Gupta period, but moved to its present site about seven centuries ago.
- Although the climate in Delhi is not particularly corrosive—at ~20 µm/y for mild steel (ISO category C2)—this cannot explain the rust-free condition of the pillar.
As a result of its remarkable state, the pillar has fascinated historians and archaeologists, as well as those of us with scientific and technical interests, for many years. The iron pillar at Qutub Minar in Delhi has remained rust-free for over 1,600 years. The solid iron pillar is ~7-m high and ~400-mm in diameter at the base. The lower part is rough and pitted where it was once below ground, but the rest of the cylindrical column is smooth and tapers to a decorative bell at the top.
An inscription commemorates the victory of King Chandra over his enemies in the fourth century A.D. There is also damage that is believed to be caused by a cannon shot. The massive pillar was not built in one piece, but rather by hammering together several pieces of hot wrought iron in a process known as forge welding.
The composition is not homogeneous; the carbon content varies widely, as is the case for other ancient wrought iron. The average composition of the Delhi Pillar, compared to a typical modern steel of similar carbon content, is shown in Table 1. Apart from the phosphorus level that is over 10 times that of a modern steel, the level of impurities in the pillar is generally low, which is typical of ancient wrought iron. A high phosphorus iron ore was clearly used, and this element contaminated the product.
- As a result, a very thin dark grey protective layer of crystalline iron hydrogen phosphate has formed on the surface of the pillar, which is the reason for its resistance to corrosion.
- Surely then we just need to increase the phosphorus content of modern steel to prevent it from rusting? Unfortunately, this amount of phosphorus has a detrimental effect on the steel’s mechanical properties.
While the Delhi pillar iron has quite a high yield strength typical of modern structural steel, the phosphorus has greatly reduced its ductility as measured by elongation. The impact toughness would be similarly reduced. A steel with such a high phosphorus content would be far too brittle and suffer from a problem that is known as “cold shortness” (“short” is an old term meaning brittle, as in short bread).
It was recognized many years ago that limits on phosphorus in steel were needed. In fact, the first standard issued by ASTM in 1901, ASTM A1 for railway rails, included a limit on the phosphorus content. A high phosphorus content doesn’t matter for a pillar that just stands there, but it is totally unacceptable for anything subjected to stresses, such as a bridge, building, rail, or any mechanical device.
The mechanical properties of ancient TABLE 2. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ANCIENT WROUGHT IRON VS. MODERN STEEL Yield Strength Tensile Strength Elongation Delhi Pillar 324 MPa 330 MPa 5% Typical 350 MPa (50 ksi) steel 345 MPa 450 MPa 25% wrought iron, compared to a typical modern steel of similar carbon content, are shown in Table 2. Although the ancient Indian blacksmiths (accidentally) achieved rust-free iron 1,600 years ago, it was, unfortunately, at the expense of useful mechanical properties. In the November 2018 issue of MP, we will see how clever manipulation of the chemical composition can produce truly rust-free steel with acceptable mechanical properties, which has been used to produce one of the modern wonders of architecture.
Why Qutub Minar has no shadow?
A former officer of the Archaeological Survey of India has claimed that Qutb Minar was built by Raja Vikramaditya in the fifth century to observe the changing position of the sun. – Qutub Minar was built by Raja Vikramaditya to observe the sun, an ex-ASI officer has claimed. : As the row over monuments intensifies, Archaeological Survey of India’s (ASI) ex-Regional Director Dharamveer Sharma has now claimed that the Qutb Minar was constructed by Raja Vikramaditya and not by Qutb al-Din Aibak, to study the direction of the sun.
Read: “It isn’t Qutb Minar but a sun tower (observatory tower). It was constructed in the 5th century by Raja Vikramaditya, not by Qutb al-Din Aibak. I have a lot of evidence regarding this,” he said. He has surveyed Qutb Minar several times on behalf of ASI. “There is a 25-inch tilt in the tower of the Qutb Minar.
It is because it was made to observe the sun and hence, on June 21, between the shifting of the solstice, the shadow will not fall on that area for at least half an hour. This is science and archaeological fact,” he said. Read: Hence, the one that is called Qutb Minar is an independent structure and is not related to the Masjid near it.
Is Qutub Minar a Hindu temple?
Qutub Minar not a place of worship: ASI May 24, 2022 06:47 pm | Updated 11:12 pm IST – New Delhi The Qutub Minar in New Delhi. File | Photo Credit: Shiv Kumar Pushpakar
A Delhi court on Tuesday reserved its order on a plea challenging the dismissal of a civil suit that sought to complex in New Delhi — claiming they were to build the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. The original suit was last year dismissed by a civil judge in Delhi, citing that it was barred under provisions of the Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act, 1991, following which the petitioners have filed the present appeal. Arguing before Additional District Judge Nikhil Chopra of the Saket court, petitioner Hari Shankar Jain submitted that the dismissal of their suit based on the 1991 Act was wrong because the Qutub Minar complex has been exempted from the Act as it comes under the purview of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (AMASR) Act of 1958.
Mr. Jain said that Section 4(3)(a) of the 1991 Act specifically exempts monuments protected under the AMASR Act of 1958. Further, he relied on Section 16(1) of the AMASR Act, 1958 to claim the right to “restore” the temples and worship on the premises.
- Section 16(1) says, “A protected monument maintained by the Central Government under this Act which is a place of worship or shrine shall not be used for any purpose inconsistent with its character.” However, the Archeological Survey of India opposed Mr.
- Jain’s plea, submitting that the Qutub Minar complex is not a place of worship and neither was it one when it was first notified as a protected monument in 1914.
Advocate S Gupta, for the ASI, explained that the character of a monument is decided on the date at which it comes under protection. Following this, objections from the public are invited for two months. And this is how several places where religious practices were being conducted came to be protected under the AMASR Act, the ASI explained, adding that the petitioner cannot at this juncture seek to change the character of the monument.
- While hearing these arguments, the Additional District Judge observed that Section 16 of the AMASR Act seems to be based on the same principle as that of Section 3 of the Places of Worship Act — which bars the conversion of a religious place.
- The court also noted that the central question seems to be surrounding the character of the monument.
Mr. Jain cited the Ayodhya-Ram Janmabhoomi judgment to argue that the character of the area remained to be that of a temple. He relied on the submissions made in their original suit to claim that the structure was built by allegedly demolishing 27 Hindu and Jain temples.
He said signs of these structures were still visible and argued, “The deity is never lost. If the deity survives, then the right to worship also survives.” But in its submissions, the ASI disputed a key contention of the petitioners. While it said that remains of 27 temples were procured for the mosque by spending 2,00,000 Deliwals (coins) on each, Mr.
Gupta submitted that there is no information on whether these materials were available locally or brought from outside. He added that nowhere in the available records does it mention that these remains were retrieved by demolishing temples. As for the Iron Pillar inside the premises, the ASI submitted again that it cannot be established whether this pillar is at its original place.
There is no record to say that this is a Vishnu Stambh or Meru Dhwaj,” he said. Notably, during the hearing, the court said the petitioners were seeking to turn the monument into a place of worship based on claims that a temple complex allegedly existed there 800 years ago. It asked the petitioners as to on what legal basis they were claiming this right to worship, while adding on a lighter note, “Deity has survived without worship for 800 years, why not let it survive like that?” The court has now asked all parties to file final submissions within a week, listing the matter for orders on June 9.
: Qutub Minar not a place of worship: ASI
Why is Qutub Minar broken?
Qutub Minar repairing and maintenance – Records in History state that in the year 1505, Qutab Minar was damaged by an earthquake and lighting. It was repaired by one of the rulers of the Lodhi Dynasty, Nizam Khan who is famously known as Sikandar Lodhi. Now, this majestic tower comes under the heritage site of UNESCO and it takes care of its maintenance.
Why does Ashoka Pillar not rust?
An Iron pillar which is 23 feet 8 inches high, weighs more than 6 tonnes and is thousand years old is RUST free till date. This pillar is also famous by the name of ‘Ashoka Pillar’. Scientists says that it is high amount of phosphorus along with the purity of Iron which has contributed to keep this Pillar RUST free.
Who started and who completed the construction of Qutub Minar for Class 7?
The building process of Qutub Minar took a long time (about 75 years). Its construction was started by Qutub-ud-din Aibak in 1193 and finished by Iltutmish.
Who completed the construction of Qutub Minar at Delhi MCQS?
Q. Who completed the construction of Qutb Minar at Delhi? Answer: Qutb-ud-din Aibak Notes: Qutb-ud-din Aibak started the construction of Qutb Minar. But he died without completing it, and the next ruler, Iltutmish, completed the work.2