Barriers for Minorities and Women in the Construction Sector – Image and Representativity The construction industry, especially site-workers, are perceived as having a persistent “laddish” culture in a white, male-dominated environment. This image can directly adversely affect recruitment.
- Because they do not see similar faces and references there, they do not see themselves in this industry, leading to unconscious disencourage.
- Prejudice and Rejection Perception There is, unfortunately, a strong perception that ethnic minorities and women will face rejection in the recruitment and on field in construction firms.
The research published in Construction Manager Magazine found out that 73% of students believed BAMEs would suffer prejudice in the workplace. Moreover, several studies have reported that ethnic minority graduates are less successful in gaining employment in the construction industry than their white counterparts.
- They need to make significantly more applications before attending interviews, despite being just as qualified as their fellow graduates.
- Favoritism in the Recruitment Some studies show that it is common in the construction industry, to favour those looking for a job with family members or friends already linked to the company.
This practice makes it a lot harder for people without this kind of connection, Glass Ceiling It is harder for BAMEs and women to progress to higher positions, and not only because of biased decision-making when it comes to promotions. These workers are given less responsibility, less opportunity to show their potential.
BAMEs feel they have to work harder than their white counterparts to be recognised as valuable employees. Additionally, it may happen that the BAME and female employees would experience being ignored, not being invited to events or being closely monitored, which create a hostile and unwelcoming working environment.
Construction-site “Banters” A survey published by Construction Industry Training Board has found that racist comments are still quite often heard on the UK construction sites. It revealed that racist language had been heard by 53% of workers within the last year, with 14% hearing it in the previous week.
- 1 Is construction a male dominated industry?
- 2 What jobs are mostly female?
- 3 What is the male advantage?
- 4 Are there more male or female construction workers?
- 5 Which gender is the most unemployed?
What percentage of gender is a construction worker?
6.2% of construction workers are women and 93.8% of construction workers are men. Construction Workers By Gender.
What is a male dominated workplace?
Male-Dominated Occupations Are Those Comprised of 25% or Fewer Women Occupations with the smallest share of women workers, (2019) U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.; Campuzano, M.V. (2019). Force and inertia: A systematic review of women’s leadership in male-dominated organizational cultures in the United States,” Human Resource Development Review, 18 (4).”> 1 – Male-dominated industries and occupations are particularly vulnerable to reinforcing harmful stereotypes and creating unfavorable environments that make it even more difficult for women to excel.2 In the United States, only 6.5% of women worked full-time in male-dominated occupations in 2020. The gender wage gap by occupation, race, and ethnicity 2020, Institute for Women’s Policy Research.”> 3
However, the youngest Millennials in the US are less segregated by sex in occupations compared to previous generations. State of the union: Occupational segregation, Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality.”> 4
Some job growth for women is driven by employment in male-dominated fields.
- Between 2016 and 2018, women’s employment increased by 5.0% in industries consisting of two-thirds men. As labor market tightens, women are moving into male-dominated jobs, The New York Times,”> 5
- In Australia, women’s employment in civil engineering and software programming has grown steadily over the past decade, outpacing men. Women move into male-dominated jobs as COVID upends employment, The Sydney Morning Herald,”> 6
But challenges remain:
- Despite growth in information and communications technology, since 2010 women’s share of jobs in the sector in the European Union dropped to only 18% in 2019. Gender equality index 2020: Digitalisation and the future of work, (2020). European Institute for Gender Equality.”> 7
- Emerging jobs in the Future of Work already show gender gaps globally, especially in growing fields like data and AI (32% women) or cloud computing (14% women) that require disruptive technical skills. Global gender gap report 2021 (2021). World Economic Forum. “> 8
Is construction a male dominated industry?
A Shortage of Workers in the Skilled Trades – The definition of “skilled trades” is fluid, but jobs typically fall into five categories: agriculture, construction, manufacturing/industrial, service (chefs, hairdressers, nursing assistants and others) and transportation.
“There was only one time in my career that somebody didn’t give me the job because I was a woman.” Even before the pandemic and the subsequent labor issues it produced, there’s been a focus on the longstanding shortage of workers in the construction and manufacturing/industrial sectors. According to a 2021 report by the U.S.
Chamber of Commerce, “A majority (62%) of contractors report high difficulty finding skilled workers, up from 55% who said the same last quarter (and up 20 points year-over-year).” For decades, men’s representation in the construction industry has dwarfed that of women because blue-collar work typically isn’t considered something women can do,
- Without equitable access to the industry, many women never enter the market, even if they are interested in doing so.
- In 2021, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, women accounted for 8.6 % of construction managers.
- Of those, 16.3% were Hispanic or Latino, 5% were Black and 1.7% were Asian.
- Just 3.8% of women were first-line supervisors and 4.5% were laborers.
To address the labor shortage, companies across the U.S. have ramped up workforce development programs (some new, others preexisting) to increase the number of workers – including women – in construction and other fields. And nonprofits, such as Dykes With Drills (DWD) in California, are “focused on teaching, unlike the construction industry, which is focused on doing the job quickly, doing it well, minimizing costs and making a profit,” said founder Julie Peri.
Why are there less females in construction?
Breaking the concrete barriers: why are there still so few women in the construction industry?
- Women must perform at least 3 per cent of trade roles such as bricklayers and carpenters, 7 per cent of non-trade positions such as concreters and forklift operators, and 35 per cent of management and specialist labour roles on construction sites,
- But there are fears the construction industry will fail to meet the quotas — which will be enforced from 2024 — given the difficulties attracting and retaining women to the notoriously macho sector.
- The Building Equality Policy is important and transformational, says the incoming chair of Tradeswomen Australia, Kit McMahon.
- “But if you just add up the numbers of all the projects that have got women going through them at the moment, there is no way it’s going to meet the target,” she says.
- A sexist culture, unsafe work practices, long hours and lack of encouragement at secondary schools for girls to become tradies needs to be addressed before anything changes, she says.
“You can have all the programs in the world about attracting women to trades — and I call it another pink boots campaign — but that’s actually not the challenge. The challenge is getting women to stay.” According to census data released this week, in August last year just 13.9 per cent of Victorian construction industry workers were women, up from 12 per cent in 2016.
But the industry-wide figures mask a huge disparity in the types of construction jobs undertaken by women. While women were far more likely to be employed in construction industry desk jobs, trades and technical roles remain heavily male-dominated. Just 4329 Victorian women in the industry were classified as “technicians and trades workers”, accounting for 3 per cent of the total (up from 2.2 per cent in 2016).
There were only 509 female machinery operators and drivers, 1.3 per cent of the total. Yet women accounted for 78.4 per cent of “clerical and administrative” roles in construction and 38.3 per cent of sales roles. Bernie Nolan, the team leader at Hutchinsons Builders, which builds government schools, says two of five apprentices at Hutchinsons are female — including Stephanie Castaldo, whom Nolan says has one of the best attitudes of any apprentice he has come across in 35 years — and the company also has female project managers, design managers and contract administrators.
- Joe Barr, the chief executive at John Holland, which is building stations and tunnels for the Metro Tunnel Project, says that 23 per cent of its team are women, above the national average.
- “Our industry faces an enormous challenge to embed a culture where people feel safe, included and can develop rewarding careers,” Barr says.
- “The success of the Building Equality Policy is dependent on our industry and other stakeholders working collaboratively, enhancing education pathways for young people, and disrupting the usual approach to recruitment.”
John Holland CEO Joe Barr. Credit: Louise Kennerley A recent report by Apprenticeships Victoria suggests that progress finding 300 suitable trainees and apprentices in the construction industry, 60 per cent of whom must be women, had been slow. The government report, which was released in August but then was mysteriously removed from the internet, said out of 68 candidates who had applied for a traineeship, only one was hired, while out of 107 who applied for an apprenticeship, none were hired.
- More than 100 had now been hired, a state government spokesperson told The Age,
- Gary Workman is the executive director of the Apprenticeship Employment Network (AEN), the industry body contracted by the state government to find the 300 construction industry apprentices and trainees by May next year.
- “We’ve got to break down a lot of those stereotype barriers that some employers have around employing women,” he says.
- The government’s own is blunt when explaining why female participation rates in the construction industry have not changed since the 1980s.
- “Rigid work practices, a traditionally masculine or sexist culture, exclusion, gendered violence, inadequate work facilities and equipment and informal recruitment processes have all contributed to the low numbers of women working in construction,” it said.
Long work hours, little support to return to work after having children and even basic things, such as a lack of women’s toilets on constructions sites and ill-fitting PPE, are also a turn-off. Anna Wright, 22, who comes from a farming family, is a first-year electrical apprentice working with Stowe Australia at the Domain site for the metro rail tunnel. Anna Wright is a first-year apprentice working on the metro rail tunnel project. “My old man is a sparky and he suggested it to me,” she says. “I hadn’t even thought of it as an option, but it combined all the things that I really loved about the work I was doing at the farm, and my interests, and I started an apprenticeship in January of this year and I would not look back.
- I absolutely love it.” Wright says the men she works with are “really supportive”.
- But she says being a female construction worker can be challenging for some women.
- I’ve experienced it a lot less coming from a country town and a farming background and working in shearing sheds,” she says.
- You seem a bit tougher, so they don’t give you as much crap.
Some of the women have struggled a lot more than me, but we’re very lucky to have quite a lot of support.”
- The women in construction strategy says trades must be promoted as a viable career option to girls in schools.
- “We’ve got to say to young women: ‘If you choose to do a trade and you want to train as a carpenter or as a brick layer, you will have a meaningful career and probably own your own house and car by your early 20s while your counterparts may have HECS debts’,” says Rebecca Casson, the chairperson of the Building Industry Consultative Council, which oversaw development of the strategy.
- The strategy says industry must also attract more women and retain them by changing the culture and introducing more flexible work arrangements and child care.
- Last month, the Victorian government launched a new campaign — She built it — to encourage women into the construction industry and reinforce the quotas which came into effect on January 1.
- Casson says there was initially pushback about whether the quotas were too high or not high enough.
- “I understand that some organisations are finding it a bit difficult, but there is a two-year transition period,” she says.
- “We can’t have half of the population still being excluded from an industry that is so important to our state and our nation.”
The Morning Edition newsletter is our guide to the day’s most important and interesting stories, analysis and insights., : Breaking the concrete barriers: why are there still so few women in the construction industry?
Is construction a manly job?
Construction labor shortage and the ‘manly jobs’ Over the past few decades, we have made progress in gender equality and women’s rights in certain areas, but in many others, progress is rather illusive. Today, women are viewed as equal breadwinners, and they hold key positions in many industries.
Does this mean we have achieved gender equality? Let’s turn to the construction industry. Despite the progress we have seen in the societal acceptance of women as equal breadwinners, capable leaders and successful entrepreneurs, such progress is less prevalent than in many other industries. The construction industry has a long history of sexism and discrimination against tradeswomen.
In some cases, such treatment ended in tragedy, like the fate of carpenter apprentice Outi Hicks. In the 21st century, it is shocking that women in the construction industry still face an uphill battle when it comes to advancement. But when you consider the root causes and statistics, it’s not such a shock.
- Almost a third of women working in construction fear sexism will hold them back from the industry’s top jobs, a recent study by Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors found last year.
- The construction trades have long been among the industries with the lowest percentage of gender diversity in the workforce.
Women represent only 9 percent of the overall construction workforce and 3 percent of the building trades. Why does it matter? The construction industry is experiencing a dire skilled labor shortage, and women make up half of the population and workforce.
It’s intuitive to conclude that a large part of the solution to the skilled labor shortage is in the hands of untapped talent; we need more tradeswomen! It’s that simple. If the construction industry doesn’t act promptly to address this, it wouldn’t just be hindering progress in closing the gender gap but also the skilled labor gap.
It is true that we must address gender bias and sexism in the construction industry. But is it sufficient to just advocate for gender diversity to be “addressed”? To create a diverse and inclusive culture and eliminate longstanding gender bias, we must advocate for diversity to be embedded into business strategy.
- It goes beyond providing adequate restroom facilities for tradeswomen and personal protective gear in smaller sizes.
- Some building trades are beginning to make significant progress using both approaches.
- Tradeswomen and their allies, with the support of their leadership, are making headway in eliminating gender bias and turning “hostile work environments” into fostering work conditions for tradeswomen.
We can’t close the skills gap unless we close the gender gap in the construction industry. More organizations and companies in the industry, including contractors, building trades and end users, must incorporate diversity into business strategy and company culture.
- There’s certainly a correlation between harassment tradeswomen face on the job and the concept of “manly jobs.” I have experienced it firsthand.
- The problem starts with the way society views certain professions.
- It begins with parents encouraging girls to play with dolls and boys to play with cars or teaching girls to grow up to be wives and moms while allowing boys to explore more options other than just becoming a dad or husband.
It starts with career stereotyping, expecting women to be teachers, nurses and secretaries. Gender stereotypes also frequently play into how students are exposed to career options in middle school and high school. Such career stereotyping has led building trades and construction industry careers to be considered “manly jobs” and has created barriers for women entering the field.
- The idea of leadership in the industry is connected to “toughness” that is associated with physical strength and spatial problem solving.
- Tradeswomen are constantly challenged and tested to ensure that they can “handle the manly job.” The idea of “manly jobs” is the root cause of sexism and discrimination tradeswomen have faced for decades.
It is the barrier to increasing diversity in the industry. It is the reason why women represent 3 percent of the building trades. The future of the construction industry depends on increasing diversity. It depends on campaigns to raise awareness and incorporate diversity into business strategy.
Do construction workers have high testosterone?
Concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) among construction workers with 12-h workdays and extended workweeks – PubMed Objectives: Working on large scale construction sites have been shown to have severe health consequences in terms of increased risk of hospitalization and disability retirement compared to construction work in general. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether large scale construction work involving 12-h workdays and extended workweeks leads to insufficient recovery measured as increased catabolic and decreased anabolic metabolism. Methods: The study group comprised 40 male construction workers of which 21 had 12-h workdays and extended workweeks (56 h/workweek). The comparison group consisted of 19 male construction workers, who worked regular hours (37 h/week, weekends off). Measurements of concentrations of cortisol in saliva and free testosterone and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) in blood were made in a repeated measures design during 2 workweeks for both groups supplemented with 1 week off for construction workers with extended workweeks. Results: The diurnal profile of concentrations of salivary cortisol for construction workers with extended workweeks differed from the diurnal profile of salivary cortisol for those with regular work schedules (P < 0.001). The construction workers with extended workweeks tended to have 15% higher concentrations of free testosterone in serum compared to construction workers with regular work schedules (P = 0.09). There were no differences between the two groups with respect to concentrations of HbA(1c). There was no increasing trend in concentrations of cortisol or decreasing trend in concentrations of testosterone during the extended workweek. The diurnal profile for concentrations of cortisol differed between workdays and days off for construction workers with extended workweeks (P = 0.003). Conclusion: In conclusion, we observed no indications of insufficient recovery in terms of increased catabolic or decreased anabolic metabolism in construction workers with 12-h workdays and extended workweeks compared to construction workers with regular work schedules. : Concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) among construction workers with 12-h workdays and extended workweeks - PubMed
What is the most common job for a woman?
|Occupation||Number of women|
|Elementary and middle school teachers||1,657,028|
|Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive||1,577,156|
|Managers, all other||1,341,712|
|Customer service representatives||1,285,061|
|First-Line supervisors of retail sales workers||1,150,159|
|Accountants and auditors||845,590|
|Receptionists and information clerks||709,032|
|Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks||709,004|
|Office clerks, general||691,191|
|Maids and housekeeping cleaners||680,228|
|Personal care aides||620,734|
|First-Line supervisors of office and administrative support workers||616,922|
|Human resources workers||542,871|
|Preschool and kindergarten teachers||525,800|
|Secondary school teachers||521,717|
|Education and childcare administrators||516,036|
|Social workers, all other||484,979|
|Waiters and waitresses||482,214|
Note: Full-time, year-round civilian employed 16 years and older. Occupations with at least 100 sample observations. Data: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2019 Graphic: U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau
What jobs are mostly female?
“I wish I were a boy, so I could be a firefighter,” four-year-old Londoner Esme told her mother, Esme, who had only ever seen male firefighters in the books she had read, had assumed this career option was not open to her. So female firefighters took to social media to show themselves at work,
- As a result, a delighted Esme is now safe in the knowledge her dream can come true.
- Like all good children’s storybooks, this one has a happy ending.
- But it’s an inescapable fact – as ILOSTAT data detailing employment by sex and occupation across 121 countries show – that many occupations around the world are still split by gender.
Women dominate care occupations By far the most female-dominated occupations are personal care workers, such as health care assistants and home-based personal workers. A ccording to the latest ILOSTAT figures, caring personnel are 88% female compared to 12% male.
- In fact, health care dominates the occupations that are mostly filled by women.
- Around three-quarters of health associate professionals – assistants in areas such as pathology, imaging and pharmacy – are women, and 69% of health professionals, such as general medical doctors and nurses, are women.
- Cleaning roles, teaching, clerical support and food preparation are also dominated by female workers – to the tune of at least 60%.
Meanwhile, traditionally more risky occupations such as the military, plant machine operators and building work are occupations overwhelmingly held by men. Across the 121 countries, men make up 97% of employment in building and related trades and as drivers and mobile plant operators; 90% or more of armed forces occupations; and 83% of those employed as labourers in mining, construction, manufacturing and transport.
- Gender balance According to the data, there are only a handful of occupations in which the gender split comes close to being equal.
- Most of these are desk-bound jobs, with legal, social and cultural professionals, along with business and administration associate professionals and sales workers, all hovering around the 50% split between men and women.
Hospitality and craft work also show an even split, with women making up 51% of occupations in food processing, wood working, garment and other craft and related trades, and 54% of hospitality, retail and other services managers. The glass ceiling Reinforcing the idea that the glass ceiling is still very much in place, men continue to dominate senior management positions such as CEO, senior officials and legislators.
Almost three-quarters of these occupations, 72% to be more precise, are filled by men. And in a world in which industry is crying out for more employees with science, technology, engineering and maths skills in order to power the digital economy, the data show that efforts to get more women into these fields could help a great deal.
Currently, at least 72% of occupations in information technology, science and engineering are occupied by men. The gender gap in tech is of course well-known, and these ILOSTAT data show in almost every country, regardless of income level or development stage, women are under-represented in the information and communication sector, which includes IT.
What is the male advantage?
The Male Advantage Society likes men and women to believe that they are living on the same timeline. In reality, a man and a woman born in the same year will encounter completely different lives.Women will experience a meteoric rise to social hierarchy fame in their teens/early 20’s with little effort, whilst men of the same age will likely have to gear up for a decade of hardship.At the end of this decade, the man finally builds traction, only to be interrupted by marriage, fatherhood and becoming a homeowner.
All of which he runs towards with wide eyes and a bushy tail.Years later he comes to realise that he’s been living on the female timeline and chasing after feminine life goals due to society and the media’s narrative. He realises men peak later than women, but it’s too late to take advantage of.The end resultHe misses out on the male peak; he’s married during the years he’s most attractive to women and every penny he’s ever saved has been spent on building a family rather than chasing his own dreams.In The Male Advantage, author and 1STMAN Founder Kris Sturmey, breaks-down how to position yourself to live on a male timeline, how to navigate the roadblocks to a successful male life and how to improve in various areas of life in order to align with the male advantage years.
: The Male Advantage
What is it called when a society is male-dominated?
Patriarchy refers to a male-dominated society. In a patriarchal society, men hold primary power in all aspects of the society such as politics, family, etc.
What percentage of the construction industry is male?
Excerpts from an article originally published in The Guardian newspaper sent to us by Tessa Purdy of Midas Construction. If you see/hear of articles that you’d like to share, please send to us via the Contact Us page. When Philippa Tuttiett started helping her dad on building sites at the age of 10, it could have been an obvious beginning to a career in construction.
- But it wasn’t until years later, after encouragement from her university lecturer, that she realised it could be a genuine career move for a woman.
- Building was in the family,” she says.
- My father and grandfather were both builders, so it was in the blood.
- But like most girls, I never ever thought about it as a career option.
Gender diversity in the construction industry is shockingly poor. Women make up just 11% of the entire workforce, but even this figure includes many who work behind a desk, often in design, management or secretarial roles. On building sites themselves, it is estimated that 99% of workers are men.
The UK has the lowest proportion of female engineers in Europe and only 14% of entrants to engineering and technology first degree courses are women. Holly Porter, who runs a networking group for female construction workers, Chicks With Bricks, explains: “The industry has been pretty stagnant in terms of ratios of women to men for quite a long time.
There are certain areas where things are a lot better, like the design industry. But if you look at manual careers the proportion of women is absolutely minimal.” Click here for the full article. Tell us what you think about the issues raised.
What majors are dominated by men?
Women tend to major in the Humanities and Languages, but also in Sociology and Psychology and in Biology-related STEM fields. Men tend to major in Business, Social Sciences, non-Biology-related STEM, and Philosophy.
Are there more male or female construction workers?
Employment in U.S. construction 2002-2021, by gender However, in 2021 just over a tenth of construction workers were women.
Which gender is the most unemployed?
A closer look at specific countries – In the US, 4.4% of both women and men were unemployed in March 2020. But in just one month, unemployment jumped to 16.1% for women and 13.6% for men. The gender difference disappeared gradually and both rates fell to 6.7% in December 2020.
But during the year, women’s labour force participation dropped by 3.4% compared with 2.8% for men. Chile provides another good example of how COVID-19 has affected men’s and women’s unemployment and labour participation differently. In the South American nation, men’s unemployment increased faster than women’s in spring and summer 2020 – a 90% drop for men compared to less than 60% for women.
Yet in August 2020, women’s decline in labour force participation was worse, falling 16.6% year-on-year compared with 10% for men. Statistics from Italy show that women’s employment was hit harder at the start and throughout the pandemic. According to the national statistics institute (), 326,000 women had lost their jobs in 2020, compared with 141,000 men.
Which industry has the most females?
The business world suffers from massive, persistent gender gaps in leadership, but there is positive news about progress towards closing those gaps. Exclusive new Equilar analysis of the Russell 3000 found accelerating growth of women in leadership roles.
Growth of women in executive roles accelerated to an average 6.9% pace between 2016 and 2021, up from a 3.8% growth rate in the prior five years. That growth led women to hold nearly 14% of named executive officer roles in 2021 (that refers to the top five most highly-paid executives). Having half of the population hold one-seventh of executive positions sounds low, but it is indeed progress, up from women holding 8% of those roles back in 2010.
Progress is not equal across industries — and some sectors show lagging growth. Energy has the lowest representation of women among named executive officers, at 9%. The sector with the second-worst representation is financial services, with 12% of those top jobs held by women, along with the second-lowest growth rate of all the sectors.
This may be surprising considering the presence of high-profile leaders such as Citi CEO Jane Fraser,) The biggest growth sectors for female representation over the past decade have been basic materials and industrials, where women’s share of named executive positions has doubled or better (materials from 6% to 14% and industrials from 6% to 12%).
The sectors that have the highest representation of women at the top are utilities — 21% of leadership is female — and health care, which has 16% female leadership. Notably, women are seeing greater gains in certain roles — and the biggest progress is being made at the very top.
- The percentage of female CEOs more than doubled from about 2% in 2010 to over 5.5% in 2021.
- In contrast, the positions of CFOs, treasurers and finance VPs saw much smaller growth in their female ranks, by 47%, 41%, and 56% respectively.
- This could be a potential red flag for the pipeline of female CEOs, as those finance roles traditionally lead to the highest management positions.
Of the 37 female CEOs who were appointed to run Russell 3000 companies in 2021 and 2022 (so far), just under half held C-suite roles (CEO, CFO or COO) at their company or outside companies immediately prior to taking the helm. The others were presidents, EVPs or other positions.
What industry has the smallest gender pay gap?
Occupations with the smallest gender earnings gap
|Occupation||Women’s earnings as a percentage of men’s earnings|
|Transportation security screeners||99.4|
|Preschool and kindergarten teachers||98.0|
What is the most male dominated major?
It may be an unspoken thing, but everyone’s aware: there are simply some degree subjects which have far more guys in and some with far more girls in. The stereotypes are largely correct, according to new stats from HESA – over 81 per cent of psychology students are made up of girls, where as 79 per cent of engineering students are guys. However, the number of female engineering students has increased by nearly a fifth in the previous two academic years, says Elizabeth Donnelly, CEO of the Women’s Engineering Society. “We are making steady progress in our aim for a world where women are as likely as men to study engineering,” Donnelly told The Tab,